Browsing by Subject "URBAN AREAS"

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  • Kuussaari, Mikko; Toivonen, Marjaana; Heliola, Janne; Poyry, Juha; Mellado, Jorge; Ekroos, Johan; Hyyrylainen, Vesa; Vähä-Piikkiö, Inkeri; Tiainen, Juha (2021)
    Good knowledge on how increasing urbanization affects biodiversity is essential in order to preserve biodiversity in urban green spaces. We examined how urban development affects species richness and total abundance of butterflies as well as the occurrence and abundance of individual species within the Helsinki metropolitan area in Northern Europe. Repeated butterfly counts in 167 separate 1-km-long transects within Helsinki covered the entire urbanization gradient, quantified by human population density and the proportion of built-up area (within a 50-m buffer surrounding each butterfly transect). We found consistently negative effects of both human population density and built-up area on all studied butterfly variables, though butterflies responded markedly more negatively to increasing human population density than to built-up area. Responses in butterfly species richness and total abundance showed higher variability in relation to proportion of built-up area than to human density, especially in areas of high human density. Increasing human density negatively affected both the abundance and the occurrence of 47% of the 19 most abundant species, whereas, for the proportion of built-up area, the corresponding percentages were 32% and 32%, respectively. Species with high habitat specificity and low mobility showed higher sensitivity to urbanization (especially high human population density) than habitat generalists and mobile species that dominated the urban butterfly communities. Our results suggest that human population density provides a better indicator of urbanization effects on butterflies compared to the proportion of built-up area. The generality of this finding should be verified in other contexts and taxonomic groups.
  • Lazaridis, Mihalis; Eleftheriadis, Kostas; Zdimal, Vladia; Schwarz, Jaroslav; Wagner, Zdenek; Ondracek, Jakub; Drossinos, Yannis; Glytsos, Thodoros; Vratolis, Sterios; Torseth, Kjetil; Moravec, Pavel; Hussein, Tareq; Smolik, Jiri (2017)
    Indoor/outdoor aerosol size distribution was measured in four European cities (Oslo-Norway, Prague-Czech Republic, Milan-Italy and Athens-Greece) during 2002 in order to examine the differences in the characteristics of the indoor/outdoor modal structure and to evaluate the effect of indoor sources to the aerosol size distributions. All the measurement sites were naturally ventilated and were occupied during the campaigns by permanent residents or for certain time periods by the technical staff responsible for the instrumentation. Outdoor particle number (PN) concentrations presented the higher values in Milan and Athens (median values 1.4 x 10(4) # cm(-3) and 2.9 x 10(4) # cm(-3) respectively) as a result of elevated outdoor emissions and led to correspondingly higher indoor values compared to Oslo and Prague. In absence of indoor activities, the indoor concentrations followed the fluctuations of the outdoor concentrations in all the measurement sites. Indoor activities (cooking, smoking, etc.) resulted in elevated indoor PN concentrations (maximum values ranging between 1.7 x 10(5) # cm(-3) and 3.2 x 10(5) # cm(-3)) and to I/O ratios higher than one. The I/O ratios were size dependant and for periods without indoor activities, they presented the lowest values for particles <50 nm (0.51 +/- 0.15) and the ratios increased with fine particle size (0.79 +/- 0.12 for particles between 100-200 nm). The analysis of the modal structure showed that the indoor aerosol size distribution characteristics differ from the outdoors under the effect of indoor sources. The percentage of unimodal size distributions increased during indoor emissions, compared to periods without indoor sources, along with the number concentration of Aitken mode particles, indicating emissions in specific size ranges according to the type of the indoor source.
  • Laban, Tracey Leah; Van Zyl, Pieter Gideon; Beukes, Johan Paul; Mikkonen, Santtu; Santana, Leonard; Josipovic, Miroslav; Vakkari, Ville; Thompson, Anne M.; Kulmala, Markku; Laakso, Lauri (2020)
    Statistical relationships between surface ozone (O-3) concentration, precursor species and meteorological conditions in continental South Africa were examined from data obtained from measurement stations in north-eastern South Africa. Three multivariate statistical methods were applied in the investigation, i.e. multiple linear regression (MLR), principal component analysis (PCA) and -regression (PCR), and generalised additive model (GAM) analysis. The daily maximum 8-h moving average O-3 concentrations were considered in these statistical models (dependent variable). MLR models indicated that meteorology and precursor species concentrations are able to explain similar to 50% of the variability in daily maximum O-3 levels. MLR analysis revealed that atmospheric carbon monoxide (CO), temperature and relative humidity were the strongest factors affecting the daily O-3 variability. In summer, daily O-3 variances were mostly associated with relative humidity, while winter O-3 levels were mostly linked to temperature and CO. PCA indicated that CO, temperature and relative humidity were not strongly collinear. GAM also identified CO, temperature and relative humidity as the strongest factors affecting the daily variation of O-3. Partial residual plots found that temperature, radiation and nitrogen oxides most likely have a non-linear relationship with O-3,while the relationship with relative humidity and CO is probably linear. An inter-comparison between O-3 levels modelled with the three statistical models compared to measured O-3 concentrations showed that the GAM model offered a slight improvement over the MLR model. These findings emphasise the critical role of regional-scale O-3 precursors coupled with meteorological conditions in daily variances of O-3 levels in continental South Africa.