Browsing by Subject "USABILITY"

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  • Riikonen, Sini; Seitamaa-Hakkarainen, Pirita (2018)
    This article presents a multi-method case study of five mobile device and desktop computer applications intended specifically for craft-design. The main aim of the study was to investigate the effects of application usage on the craft-design process and to analyse the usability of the applications from three perspectives: user experience, traditional usability and functionality. Eight master’s level craft teacher students evaluated the applications and used those to conduct a design task on a Virtual Design Studio course at the University of Helsinki. To enable an authentic working environment and style for the participants and to gather research data remotely, a multi-method approach was designed that included data from questionnaires, written tasks and recordings of screen events. Analysis of the effects of application usage on the craft-design process revealed three factors that promote changes: the usability of an application, new possibilities and limitations compared to traditional design methods and the technical expertise of the designer – usability being the most significant factor behind the changes observed.
  • Heponiemi, Tarja; Hypponen, Hannele; Vehko, Tuulikki; Kujala, Sari; Aalto, Anna-Mari; Vanska, Jukka; Elovainio, Marko (2017)
    Background: Poorly functioning, time-consuming, and inadequate information systems are among the most important work-related psychosocial factors causing stress in physicians. The present study examined the trend in the perceived stress that was related to information systems (SRIS) among Finnish physicians during a nine-year follow-up. In addition, we examined the associations of gender, age, employment sector, specialization status, leadership position, on-call burden, and time pressure with SRIS change and levels. Methods: A longitudinal design with three survey data collection waves (2006, 2010 and 2015) based on a random sample of Finnish physicians in 2006 was used. The study sample included 1095 physicians (62.3% women, mean age 54.4 years) who provided data on SRIS in every wave. GLM repeated measures analyses were used to examine the associations between independent variables and the SRIS trend during the years 2006, 2010, and 2015. Results: SRIS increased during the study period. The estimated marginal mean of SRIS in 2006 was 2.80 (95% CI = 2.68-2.92) and the mean increase was 0.46 (95% CI = 0.30-0.61) points from 2006 to 2010 and 0.25 (95% CI = 0.11-0.39) points from 2010 to 2015. Moreover, our results show that the increase was most pronounced in primary care, whereas in hospitals SRIS did not increase between 2010 and 2015. SRIS increased more among those in a leadership position. On-call duties and high time-pressures were associated with higher SRIS levels during all waves. Conclusions: Changing, difficult, and poorly functioning information systems (IS) are a prominent source of stress among Finnish physicians and this perceived stress continues to increase. Organizations should implement arrangements to ease stress stemming from IS especially for those with a high workload and on-call or leadership duties. To decrease IS-related stress, it would be important to study in more detail the main IS factors that contribute to SRIS. Earlier studies indicate that the usability and stability of information systems as well as end-user involvement in system development and work-procedure planning may be significant factors.
  • Hypponen, Hannele; Lumme, Sonja; Reponen, Jarmo; Vanska, Jukka; Kaipio, Johanna; Heponiemi, Tarja; Laaveri, Tinja (2019)
    Introduction: Timely, complete and accurate patient data is needed in care decisions along the continuum of care. To access patient data from other organizations, there are three types of regional health information exchange systems (RHIS) in use In Finland. Some regions use multiple RHISs while others do not have a RHIS available. The recently introduced National Patient Data Repository (Kanta) is increasingly used for health information exchange (HIE). Objectives: The purpose of this study was to assess usage of paper, RHISs and Kanta by context in 2017; evolution of paper use over the years; and predictors of paper use in 2017 among Finnish physicians for HIE system development. Methods: Data from national electronic health record (EHR) usage and user experience surveys were taken from 2010 (prior to ePrescription system implementation), 2014 (prior to implementation of Kanta) and 2017 (Kanta was in full use in the public sector and in large private organizations). The web-based surveys were targeted to all physicians engaged in clinical work in Finland. Results: Kanta was the most frequently used means of HIE in 2017. Paper use had reduced significantly from 2010 to 2014. The trend continued in 2017. Still, up to half of the physicians reported using paper daily or weekly in 2017. There were great variations in paper use by healthcare sector, available RHIS type and EHR system used. In multivariable analysis (with all other variables constant), predictors of more frequent use of paper than electronic means for HIE were: private sector or hospital, access to Master Patient Index RHIS (type 1), multiple RHIS (type 4) or no RHIS (type 5), two particular EHR systems, older age, less experience, operative, psychiatric or diagnostic specialties, and male gender. Conclusions: Usability of HIE systems including EHRs as access points to HIE need to be improved to facilitate usage of electronic HIE. Usage ensures more timely and complete patient data for safe, coordinated care. Specialty-specific needs and requirements call for more user participation in HIE design. Especially older professionals need training to better exploit HIS for HIE.
  • Bohman, Anna; Glaas, Erik; Klein, Johannes; Landauer, Mia; Neset, Tina-Simone; Linnér, Björn-Ola; Juhola, Sirkku (2018)
    This essay discusses the concept of usefulness of research for climate change adaptation. Based on prior research and stakeholder interactions with policymakers and practitioners in the Nordic countries, we contend that critical issues related to the usefulness of adaptation research seem less associated with content (i.e. research outputs), but rather centre around the efforts made to design and communicate research, that is, to put research at the service of society and make the case for adaptation on the political agenda. This, we argue, to some extent mirrors the situation and political context in the Nordic countries, where adaptation in many locations still is an issue in its infancy, not firmly established on the political agendas, and where working procedures are not yet institutionally settled. In this context, science is considered and sometimes used as a discursive tool to make the case for adaptation. Based on the calls for research that inspires, raises hope and helps to raise the issue of adaptation on the political agendas, we elaborate the role of honest issue advocates for researchers in the field of adaptation science.
  • Yaman, Sezin; Fagerholm, Fabian; Munezero, Myriam Douce; Männistö, Tomi Matti; Mikkonen, Tommi Johannes (2020)
    Background: Experiments are often used as a means to continuously validate user needs and to aid in making software development decisions. Involving users in the development of software products benefits both the users and companies. How software companies efficiently involve users in both general development and in experiments remains unclear; however, it is especially important to determine the perceptions and attitudes held by practitioners in different roles in these companies. Objective: We seek to: 1) explore how software companies involve users in software development and experimentation; 2) understand how developer, manager and UX designer roles perceive and involve users in experimentation; and 3) uncover systematic patterns in practitioners’ views on user involvement in experimentation. The study aims to reveal behaviors and perceptions that could support or undermine experiment-driven development, point out what skills could enhance experiment-driven development, and raise awareness of such issues for companies that wish to adopt experiment-driven development. Methods: We conducted a survey within four Nordic software companies, inviting practitioners in three major roles: developers, managers, and UX designers. We asked the respondents to indicate how they involve users in their job function, as well as their perspectives regarding software experiments and ethics. Results and Conclusion: We identified six patterns describing experimentation and user involvement. For instance, managers were associated with a cautious user notification policy, that is, to always let users know of an experiment they are subject to, and they also believe that users have to be convinced before taking part in experiments. We discovered that, due to lack of clear processes for involving users and the lack of a common understanding of ethics in experimentation, practitioners tend to rationalize their perceptions based on their own experiences. Our patterns were based on empirical evidence and they can be evaluated in different populations and contexts.
  • Heponiemi, Tarja; Hyppönen, Hannele; Kujala, Sari; Aalto, Anna-Mari; Vehko, Tuulikki; Vänskä, Jukka; Elovainio, Marko (2018)
    Background: Among the important stress factors for physicians nowadays are poorly functioning, time consuming and inadequate information systems. The present study examined the predictors of physicians' stress related to information systems (SRIS) among Finnish physicians. The examined predictors were cognitive workload, staffing problems, time pressure, problems in teamwork and job satisfaction, adjusted for baseline levels of SRIS, age, gender and employment sector. Methods: The study has a follow-up design with two survey data collection waves, one in 2006 and one in 2015, based on a random sample of Finnish physicians was used. The present study used a sample that included 1109 physicians (61.9% women; mean age in 2015 was 54.5; range 34-72) who provided data on the SRIS in both waves. The effects of a) predictor variable levels in 2006 on SRIS in 2015 and b) the change in the predictor variables from 2006 to 2015 on SRIS in 2015 were analysed with linear regression analyses. Results: Regression analyses showed that the higher level of cognitive workload in 2006 significantly predicted higher level of SRIS in 2015 (beta = 0.08). The reciprocity of this association was tested with cross-lagged structural equation model analyses which showed that the direction of the association was from cognitive workload to SRIS, not from SRIS to cognitive workload. Moreover, increases in time pressure (beta = 0.16) and problems in teamwork (beta = 0.10) were associated with higher levels of SRIS in 2015, whereas job satisfaction increase was associated with lower SRIS (beta = -0.06). Conclusions: According to our results, physicians' cognitive workload may have long-lasting negative ramifications in regard to how stressful physicians experience their health information systems to be. Thus, organisations should pay attention to physicians workload if they wish physicians to master all the systems they need to use. It is also important to provide physicians with enough time and collegial support in their system-related problems, and in learning new systems and system updates.
  • Uther, Maria; Smolander, Anna-Riikka; Junttila, Katja; Kurimo, Mikko; Karhila, Reima; Enarvi, Seppo; Ylinen, Sari (2018)
    We investigated user experiences from 117 Finnish children aged between 8 and 12 years in a trial of an English language learning programme that used automatic speech recognition (ASR). We used measures that encompassed both affective reactions and questions tapping into the children' sense of pedagogical utility. We also tested their perception of sound quality and compared reactions of game and nongame-based versions of the application. Results showed that children expressed higher affective ratings for the game compared to nongame version of the application. Children also expressed a preference to play with a friend compared to playing alone or playing within a group. They found that assessment of their speech is useful although they did not necessarily enjoy hearing their own voices. The results are discussed in terms of the implications for user interface (UI) design in speech learning applications for children.