Browsing by Subject "USP Peoples"

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  • Kuna, Kamilla (Helsingin yliopisto, 2021)
    This research studies the environmental aesthetics of boredom in the light of post-soviet neighborhoods. While belonging to the grey zone in aesthetics, boredom is an integral part of mundane life that challenges us to notice the uniqueness of our everydayness. Even though mass housing provided an economically feasible solution for sheltering millions of people, it lacks the qualities that meet contemporary living and energy standards. Soviet mass housing architecture and microdistrict designs were led by the economic conditions in the first place. Mass housing was not meant to speak, whereas the residents should not be silenced because of it. We tend to preserve what we find aesthetically pleasing (Nassauer, 1997), yet, what is aesthetically pleasing and what about other values? In this project, preservation is essential for building a contemporary-oriented mindset that could lead to more sustainable and inclusive neighborhoods. The project aims to tackle the issue of Soviet districts through the eyes of its residents, contrasting the more often used top-down approach. Here I challenge the residents' perception of their neighborhood and create a moment for reflection. By offering this space, I amplify the voices of the real experts, the ones knowing their microdistrict inside out. Environmental aesthetics is a relatively new concept within the contemporary urban planning scholarship, giving a fresh take on subjective experiences of urban settings that unveil profoundly rooted and often disguised problems. The interdisciplinarity in the research is met by merging disciplines such as sociology, urban aesthetics, urban history, and philosophy. The term boredom belonging to positive or negative aesthetic values is questioned the same as the legacy of Soviet mass housing later in the research. The ideology behind Soviet blocks is discussed, creating a common ground for diverse readers. Inclusivity is brought with resident participation through the visual research method - photovoice. To avoid biased data, the resident experiences are supported with the city planner's point of view and secondary quantitative data. The findings include Laumas microdistrict resident photovoice analysis, putting the Laumas microdistrict residents as the primary information providers. Taking pictures of their everyday surroundings, residents are given space to show how they see their microdistrict, outlining the values they are proud of or giving perspective of what needs to be changed. Instead of one-sided creation, the curation is inclusive and more reflective of the urban environment's already existing residents' values of their neighborhood. Resident aesthetic preferences open broader discussion on the maintenance issues of microdistricts facing nowadays. Topics are various, but the primary outcomes discussed built environment aesthetics, renovation, communication, identity, resident initiative, automobile domination, and natural environment aesthetics. In the final part of the study, some possible directions for changing microdistrict are pointed out, and further research questions are presented. The project is incomplete until it reaches a broader audience and provides knowledge to politicians, city planners, and other residents.
  • Page, Mathew (Helsingin yliopisto, 2021)
    Tiivistelmä – Referat – Abstract With rising income inequalities and increasing immigration in many European cities, residential segregation remains a key focus for city planners and policy makers. As changes in the socio-spatial configuration of cities result from the residential mobility of its residents, the basis on which this mobility occurs is an important factor in segregation dynamics. There are many macro conditions which can constrain residential choice and facilitate segregation, such as the structure and supply of housing, competition in real estate markets and legal and institutional forms of housing discrimination. However, segregation has also been shown to occur from the bottom-up, through the self-organisation of individual households who make decisions about where to live. Using simple theoretical models, Thomas Schelling demonstrated how individual residential choices can lead to unanticipated and unexpected segregation in a city, even when this is not explicitly desired by any households. Schelling’s models are based upon theories of social homophily, or social distance dynamics, whereby individuals are thought to cluster in social and physical space on the basis of shared social traits. Understanding this process poses challenges for traditional research methods as segregation dynamics exhibit many complex behaviours including interdependency, emergence and nonlinearity. In recent years, simulation has been turned to as one possible method of analysis. Despite this increased interest in simulation as a tool for segregation research, there have been few attempts to operationalise a geospatial model, using empirical data for a real urban area. This thesis contributes to research on the simulation of social phenomena by developing a geospatial agent-based model (ABM) of residential segregation from empirical population data for the Helsinki Metropolitan Area (HMA). The urban structure, population composition, density and socio-spatial distribution of the HMA is represented within the modelling environment. Whilst the operational parameters of the model remain highly simplified in order to make processes more transparent, it permits exploration of possible system behaviour by placing it in a manipulative form. Specifically, this study uses simulation to test whether individual preferences, based on social homophily, are capable of producing segregation in a theoretical system which is absent of discrimination and other factors which may constrain residential choice. Three different scenarios were conducted, corresponding to different preference structures and demands for co-group neighbours. Each scenario was simulated for three different potential sorting variables derived from the literature; socio-economic status (income), cultural capital (education level) and language groups (mother tongue). Segregation increases in all of the simulations, however there are considerable behavioural differences between the different scenarios and grouping variables. The results broadly support the idea that individual residential choices by households are capable of producing and maintaining segregation under the right theoretical conditions. As a relatively novel approach to segregation research, the components, processes, and parameters of the developed model are described in detail for transparency. Limitations of such an approach are addressed at length, and attention is given to methods of measuring and reporting on the evolution and results of the simulations. The potential and limitations of using simulation in segregation research is highlighted through this work.
  • Tamminen, Juuda (Helsingin yliopisto, 2021)
    This master’s thesis is an ethnographic study about everyday urban encounters and social interaction. It explores how residents in the suburban housing estate of Kontula in East Helsinki negotiate social and cultural difference in their everyday lives. The study focuses on the semi-public spaces of the local shopping centre and examines residents’ capacity to live with difference. The study contributes to a multi-vocal and historically informed understanding of the processes that shape the social landscapes of a socially mixed and multi-ethnic neighbourhood. The study is based on fieldwork carried out in two phases between August 2019 and February 2020. The study applies anthropological methods of participant observation and qualitative interviews. The eleven research participants are adults between the ages of 30 and 71 who live in the neighbourhood and have extensive personal experience of the shopping centre. Although the interviews were a crucial aspect of the meaning-making process, the study relies primarily on participant observation in constructing an interpretation and analysis of social interaction at an intimate scale. In order to contextualise everyday encounters at the shopping centre, this thesis assesses how Kontula, as a stigmatised territory in the urban margins, encapsulates a complex interplay between moral claims of a “good” and “bad” neighbourhood. While some residents confirm negative stereotypes about the shopping centre and bring attention to local social problems and issues of unsafety, others downplay these problems and instead emphasise how tolerant and sociable the shopping centre is. Observations of stigmatised territories reveal how the participation of marginalised individuals and ethnic minorities at the shopping centre challenges the processes and discourses that constitute them as objects of fear and nuisance. The concepts of conviviality and cosmopolitan canopies are used to analyse local social interactions. The analysis suggests that the capacity to live with difference is enabled by ordinary meeting places, such as pubs and cafés, where residents come into regular social contact and engage with diverse individuals and groups. While the maintenance of ethnic boundaries remains salient in the way residents negotiate the social landscapes, these ordinary spaces of encounter situationally reconfigure categories of “us” and “them” and thus expand local meanings of who belongs. The analysis concludes that the contested meanings of belonging and the everyday negotiation of difference are attributes of an open multi-ethnic society coming to terms with difference and change. The analysis suggests that an equal right to participate and interact in shared urban spaces, rather than community consensus, is the hallmark of a society’s capacity to live with difference.
  • Jones, Rachel (Helsingin yliopisto, 2020)
    Violence against women causes serious health and psychological impacts and is pervasive in society. This is partly due to gender and social norms. These have been addressed through educational campaigns, aiming to overcome pluralistic ignorance - when people wrongly believe that they feel differently from their peers, even though they are behaving in the same way. Pluralistic ignorance can prevent people intervening or reporting gender-based violence. This project proposes that public space can also play a role in overcoming pluralistic ignorance, through the medium of street political messages, such as stickers and graffiti. To show that this is possible, fieldwork exploring the existing feminist street messaging in Kallio and interviews based on this data were conducted. The interviews asked what role street media can play in spreading feminist messages, what the advantages and disadvantages of street media are and whether the existing street messaging in the Kallio district can help with overcoming pluralistic ignorance around gender-based violence issues. Four key aspects of theory are used in the thesis. Firstly, an exploration of gender-based violence literature found that domestic violence is a difficult topic to get people to engage with and that using outreach tools can spark important conversations. Secondly, a sociological study of pluralistic ignorance found that educational campaigns are the main route taken to address gender-based violence issues and that there is a gap in studies of pluralistic ignorance when considering the role of everyday public life in addressing these issues. Thirdly, public space is explored, determining that it can play a key role in feminist activism because it provides an open forum and an anonymity which prevents the activist from being verbally abused or silenced. Finally, street media were explored. This found that the eye-catching and unexpected nature of the media can catch people’s attention. In the fieldwork, seventy feminist street messages were found in Kallio, with a variety of agendas. The majority were in sticker form and located on posts on the streets of Kallio. Interviews conducted with activists and a community group determined the importance of stickers in spreading feminist messages. Street messaging had advantages of being easy to spread, having high outreach, anonymity and as conversation starters. Identified disadvantages included illegality, the potential to provoke people or trigger trauma, limited space for text and that messages can often be too niche for a general audience. The study concludes that street messaging can help overcome pluralistic ignorance by acting as a conversation starter and as a confidence boost to people. However, the results indicate that street media alone will not be enough to address pluralistic ignorance and that wider conversation is needed to have a real impact.
  • Toivettula, Karolina (Helsingin yliopisto, 2021)
    Around the world, cities are using branding as a discursive and strategic practice to adjust to intensified, ongoing competition of tourists, investments, events and skilled labour. Simultaneously, in the era of the societal turning point, sustainability issues have become a global topic, and cities have begun to brand themselves as ‘pioneer’ in sustainability. Gradually, place branding’s potential as a strategic instrument of urban development and change has been understood, and therefore, it is increasingly applied in urban governance. This thesis focuses on this change in place branding and explores the relationship between place branding and sustainable development in the context of Helsinki’s branding. More specifically, I study how place branding can be harnessed as a transformative and strategic tool to further sustainable urban development. The theoretical foundation is built on place branding literature that takes into consideration the diverse and transformative role of place branding. I reinforce the place branding theory with the concept of imaginary, which are visions of the future utilised to steer decision-making and further policies. The imaginaries can act as technologies of governance, through which cities delegate responsibility for the citizens to guide them towards a specific aim, for instance, ‘Sustainable Helsinki’. My research data consists of strategies and a website produced by the City of Helsinki. The material addresses sustainable development and the City’s branding cuts through all content. I analyse the content through frame analysis to find how Helsinki frames itself in terms of sustainable development and if any imaginaries attempt to steer the citizens to take responsibility for their sustainability actions. My research findings confirm the increasingly common perception in place brand research according to which place branding can be used as a comprehensive strategic tool in urban development. In Helsinki, place branding has moved over from mere city marketing towards a governance strategy whose objective is to both manage perceptions about places and shape the place according to the city strategies or policies. Also, what stood out was the emphasis on economic sustainability, which was visible even in sections that addressed the other two dimensions – environmental or social. This finding highlights how Helsinki’s branding is heavily influenced by the common narratives of economic success and international competition. Central findings in my research were that Helsinki uses competitive and cooperative ways of portraying itself in sustainable development and succeeding in global competition. In both of these frames, Helsinki uses imaginaries of ‘Sustainable Helsinki’, but in different ways. In the competitive tone of voice, the delegation of responsibility is more implying and indirect since the focus is on the objective, not the process. In cooperative framing, the imaginaries are more straightforwardly asserting responsibility to people and businesses. My research shows that there are several ways to guide people through place branding, but in Helsinki’s case, the city is appealing to the freedom and independence of its locals.
  • Ronimus, Dan (Helsingin yliopisto, 2021)
    Liikennehankkeiden suunnittelussa on 1960-luvulta lähtien hyödynnetty kustannus-hyötyanalyysiin perustuvaa vaikutusten arviointia, jonka käytännöt ovat merkittävästi ohjanneet sitä, millaisia väyliä ja millainen liikennejärjestelmä Suomeen on rakennettu. Tutkimuksen tavoitteena on tutkia, miten kustannus-hyötyanalyysi omaksuttiin liikennesuunnittelun lähtökohdaksi sekä miten vaikutusten arvioinnin käytännöt ovat vuosikymmenten aikana muuttuneet. Suomalainen yhteiskunta on 2020-luvulla hyvin erilainen kuin 60 vuotta sitten, mutta tuolloin omaksuttu kannattavuuslaskenta on edelleen väylähankkeiden suunnittelun keskeisin työkalu. Tutkimuksessa selvitetäänkin, miksi kustannus-hyötyanalyysin asema on pysynyt näin vakaana yhteiskunnan kehittyessä. Metodiikaltaan kyseessä on historiallinen tutkimus, jonka aineisto koostuu liikenneviranomaisten tuottamista alkuperäislähteistä, kustannus-hyötyanalyysia käsittelevästä aikalaiskirjallisuudesta ja liikenteen kysymyksiin pureutuvista lehtijulkaisuista. Kirjallisuus muodostuu niin suomalaisen liikennesuunnittelun kuin yhteiskunnankin kehitysvaiheita selvittäneistä teoksista sekä tarkemmin vaikutusten arviointiin pureutuvista tutkimuksista. Historiallista otetta tarkennetaan teoreettisen viitekehyksen avulla. Historiallinen institutionalismi ja siihen kytkeytyvä polkuriippuvuusteoria auttavat ymmärtämään yhteiskunnallisten ilmiöiden pysyvyyden ja muutosten välistä suhdetta. Nykymuotoinen liikennesuunnittelu syntyi sotien jälkeisinä vuosikymmeninä, jolloin Suomen yhteiskuntarakennetta uudistettiin voimakkaasti. Uudenlaisen yhteiskunnan lähtökohdaksi otettiin kaiken toiminnan tehokkuus. Vanhoihin suunnittelukäytäntöihin tyytymättömät tieviranomaiset omaksuivat vaikutusten arvioinnin lähtökohdaksi tehokkuusajattelua puhtaimmillaan edustavan kustannus-hyötyanalyysin, johon sisällytetyt arvotukset ovat siitä lähtien määrittäneet sujuvuuden liikenteen keskeisimmäksi tavoitteeksi. Sittemmin merkittävimmin liikenteeseen kytkeytyviä yhteiskunnallisia teemoja ovat olleet liikenneturvallisuus ja ympäristö. Turvallisuustavoitteet onnistuttiin yhdistämään sujuvuutta painottaneeseen suunnitteluun jo 1970-luvulla, mutta ympäristökysymykset ovat vaikuttaneet suunnittelukäytäntöihin hyvin hitaasti vasta 1990-luvulta alkaen. Liikenneviranomaiset kehittivät sotien jälkeen uudenlaisen suunnittelujärjestelmän, joka saavutti nopeasti vakaan aseman sujuvuuteen tähtäävän liikenteen rakentajana. Vastaava ministeriö on läpi vuosikymmenten priorisoinut liikenteen taloudellisuuteen ja tehokkuuteen liittyvät tavoitteet muiden vaikutusten edelle. Vaikutusten arvioinnista ministeriö on rakentanut vahvan instituution, jota merkittävätkään yhteiskunnalliset ilmiöt eivät ole kyenneet juuri muuttamaan. Etenkin julkisen keskustelun keskiöön 2000-luvulle tultaessa nousseet ympäristötavoitteet on ministeriössä ja sen alaisuudessa toimivissa virastoissa jätetty liikenneväylien ja -järjestelmän käytännön suunnittelussa toistaiseksi sivuosaan.
  • Antila, Arttu (Helsingin yliopisto, 2021)
    Kaupungeissa on tunnistettu uudenlaista kansalaistoimintaa harjoittavia toimijoita, jotka eivät järjestäydy perinteisten yhdistysten tai järjestöjen kautta, vaan vapaamuotoisemmin neljännellä sektorilla. Tämä ilmiö ei ole käynnissä vain Suomessa, vaan samaan muutokseen on havahduttu myös kansainvälisesti. Kansainvälisessä kontekstissa ilmiö liitetään usein oikeus kaupunkiin – keskusteluun Henri Lefebvren innoittamana ja Suomessa ilmiöön liitetään yleensä keskustelut osallisuudesta. Kaupunkitapahtumat ovat yksi tämän ilmiön ilmentymismuodoista, ja tässä tutkielmassa keskitytäänkin niiden tutkimiseen. Tapaustutkimuksen kohteeksi on valittu viisi Helsingissä järjestettävää tapahtumaa: Ravintolapäivä, Siivouspäivä, Kallio Block Party, Arabian Katufestarit ja Mätäjokifestarit. Ravintolapäivä ja Siivouspäivä järjestetään myös muissa kaupungeissa, jopa ulkomailla asti, mutta tässä työssä keskitytään Helsingin tapaukseen. Tutkimuskohteeksi valittiin nämä viisi tapahtumaa, koska osa niistä edustaa kaupunkiaktivismin uutta aaltoa, kun taas osa on perinteisempiä tapahtumia. Tutkielmassa analysoidaan näitä ja vertaillaan niitä keskenään, sekä keskustellaan sen pohjalta neljännen sektorin käsitteestä. Tutkielma perustuu tapahtumien järjestäjien haastatteluihin ja on siis luonteeltaan laadullinen. Anthony Giddensin rakenteistumisteoriaa käytetään linssinä ymmärtää sitä, kuinka tapahtumat muotoutuvat ja kuinka niiden kautta on mahdollista kytkeytyä yhteiskuntaan. Tutkielmassa huomataan analyysin pohjalta, että tutkitut tapahtumat eroavat toisistaan monin tavoin. Niiden toiminta- ja organisoitumistavat sekä niihin liittyvän omistajuuden hajaumassa huomataan suuria eroja. Ravintolapäivä ja Siivouspäivä määritellään eräänlaiseksi osallistumisen alustaksi, jonka puitteissa osallistuvat kykenevät edistämään omia henkilökohtaiseen elämäänsä liittyviä pyrintöjä muilla elämänaloilla, esimerkiksi järjestöissä. Kallio Block Party ja Arabian Katufestarit määritellään fasilitoiduiksi tapahtumiksi, joissa tapahtumaorganisaatio näyttäytyy jykevämpänä, mutta joissa toiminta ei kuitenkaan jäsenny ensisijaisesti organisaation kautta. Mätäjokifestari on tapahtumista organisaatiokeskeisin, sen sijaitessa toimintatapojensa ja organisaatiomallinsa puolesta tukevasti kolmannella sektorilla. Tapahtuma määritettiin työssä keskusohjatuksi. Näiden tyypittelyiden lisäksi sovellettiin Giddensin rakenteistumisteoriaa sen ymmärtämisessä minkälaisissa prosesseissa tapahtumat rakenteistuvat. Tapahtumien luonteen muotoutumiseen näyttäisikin vaikuttavan sääntöjä ja resursseja, joita aineistosta tunnistetaan, jotka vaikuttavat siihen miten tapahtumien kanssa ollaan vuorovaikutuksessa. Giddensin rakenteistumisteoria tarjoaa myös näkökulman osallisuuteen, kun huomataan kuinka eri tapahtumien puitteissa toteutettu toiminta tulee tulkituksi myös laajemmin yhteiskunnassa. Giddensin rakenteistumisteorian avulla valotetaan myös sitä logiikkaa, jolla uudenlainen, laajemmin ymmärretty osallisuus ymmärretään neljännen sektorin kontekstissa. Keskeinen kontribuutio aikaisemmalle tutkimukselle on tarkentava havainto neljännellä sektorilla, instituutioiden välillä liikkuvien kansalaisten sosiaalisiin positioihin nojaavasta instituutioihin paikantuvien resurssien realisoinnista vapaamuotoisessa yhteistoiminnassa.
  • Hatunpää, Fanny (Helsingin yliopisto, 2020)
    This Master’s thesis examines the prerequisites of successful integration services. In my thesis I examine the Kotoklubi Kaneli integration service organized by the city of Helsinki as part of the integration of immigrant women. The purpose of Kotoklubi Kaneli is to offer experiential learning of the Finnish language for adults and children in the playgrounds and family houses of Helsinki. In my thesis I study the significance of playground services for the integration of immigrant women through the perspective of participants as well as employees (instructors). My research question is: What prerequisites of successful integration services are there in the City of Helsinki’s playground services? Finnish integration politics have reached a turning point and are considered to need reform. According to remarks given to the state of Finland, Finnish integration politics should focus more on better integrating women and children. Discussions and decision making concerning integration often occurs without the participation of target groups. This renders decision making dynamics discriminatory and leads to an imbalance of power. Therefore, my research examines the service through the experiences of its participants. The purpose is to provide information in order to improve the integration services specifically in Helsinki and Finland, but also elsewhere. This thesis represents the field of urban sociology and pioneer research, since research on the integration processes and the significance of social networks for immigrant women is scarce. This thesis also represents a piece of feminist research, as it is research conducted by a woman about women (a predominantly female clientele) and for women (to improve their integration processes). The research data consists of interviews with participants and instructors (n=15). The focus on women is based on the fact that a large proportion of the participants are women, as are all of the interviewed participants in this study. The data has been analysed through content analysis and is based on grounded theory. The analysis groups excerpts from the interviews as significations and entities of significations that describe the studied phenomenon. The theoretical framework that supports the analysis is based mainly on the theories of Mark Granovetter (1973) on weak ties, Judith Lynam’s (1985) research on support networks of immigrant women and the model of different forms of social capital (BR, BO+ and BO–) by Nannestad et al. (2008). The theoretical framework also discusses Otherness, resocialisation and the structure of integration services. The core finding emerging from research is that the prerequisite of successful integration services is the successful realization of an unofficial integration process that is connected to social interaction, wherein a participant or user of a service feels that they are met and accepted without prejudice as their true self. This creates a crucially important atmosphere suitable for learning and integration through the social interaction that is based on trust. Immigrant people are just like anyone who finds themselves in a new environment and whose need for help is ample, but specifically concerns social interaction amidst a lack of relations in a strange environment. My results complement those of earlier studies on the significance of social networks in the integration processes. If the realised quality of the service corresponds with the needs of its target group, people will wish to participate. These participants in turn enable a successful service together with its executors, that is, the employees. The flexibility of the employees is significant in enabling the service, but their work seems to suffer if the service is governed and measured with disregard to the expertise of the employees. The results can be applied in improving integration processes and services for early support.
  • Jämsén, Janita (Helsingin yliopisto, 2022)
    My master's thesis examines the opportunities and challenges of introducing cultural planning. Cultural planning is a model of strategic urban development that has culture at its core, as well as cross-sectional work and participation. This is a commissioned work for the City of Oulu, which is also as a case study for my research. In Finland, cultural planning is a relatively new way of developing cities and little amount of research about the topic has been made. Culture planning has been used in mostly in medium-sized and small municipalities and cities. The city of Oulu has not utilized cultural planning before. My work aims to find out if cultural planning could work for the development of a larger city. There is no specific method for cultural planning, but each municipality or city that uses it must consider how to start doing it. Oulu has been chosen as the European Capital of Culture for 2026 and its theme is culture climate change. What does this change mean for the City of Oulu's own operations? Or what could it be? My research aims to clarify the current understanding of culture, as well as its position and developers in Oulu. In addition, it looks at the opportunities and challenges for the city to embark on cultural planning with its current city’s structure, as it has been seen as the greatest opportunity but also the challenge for cultural planning. My work gives voice to the views of the employees of the City of Oulu regarding the new method. Culture is a complex phenomenon, and it is challenging to define. The role of culture varies depending on who defines it. Culture has influenced cities both internally and externally through the ages. Over time, cities as organizations have also developed into very multi-level systems of their interests, networks, and practices. Thus, today, the city is not a single system with a single action culture. How do different internal action cultures affect the city's operations? I study my topic through a dual position, which consists of the role of a researcher and an employee of the City of Oulu. I conducted 11 semi-structured thematic interviews with experts from the City of Oulu. The interviews were both insider and expert type interviews. We first discussed culture with the interviewees and then the potential opportunities and challenges of cultural planning. I used coding and theme design to analyse my materials. My results were divided into two parts, such as my conversations with the interviewees. In the first part, I focused on cultural definitions and developers. Because culture is at the heart of cultural planning, I think it’s important to understand how interviewees perceive culture and its role and developers. In the second part, I focused on the opportunities and challenges of cultural planning through the main themes that emerged from the material. These themes are internal bottom-up work, mental and physical silos, interactions with residents in many different ways, resources (money, time, skills) and the use of digitalisation. Based on my observations, it seems that the responses of the interviewees do not differ significantly from the already existing information related to cultural planning. So, are the challenges related only to cultural planning or mainly to the current city structures and the action culture in the city? The larger the organization, the more different operating cultures may exist. Based on the research material and theory, I think the city of Oulu has a good opportunity to implement cultural planning as other cities, but in smaller places cultural planning can succeed more easily because they are hierarchically lower in structure and thus might have less different action cultures. As the best opportunity for cultural planning for the city of Oulu, I see that it could bring clarity and a common denominator to the new common making. On the other hand, prevailing operating cultures can be a brake on the success of cultural planning. Therefore, it is up to the management level to decide how to start working with cultural planning or whether to start at all. The initiation of cultural planning usually requires a review and change of the current way of doing, and so it does in Oulu. On the other hand, the title of European Capital of Culture is creating a favourable climate for discussion about the culture planning and what it could be for in the city of Oulu
  • Suomalainen, Aino (Helsingin yliopisto, 2020)
    This Master’s thesis studies the mechanisms connected to negative changes in educational outcomes in upper comprehensive schools in Helsinki. What are the factors associated with negative changes in educational outcomes of individual students during the transition from 7th to 9th grade? There is an increased socioeconomic and ethnic segregation in Helsinki Metropolitan Area, and the differences between schools’ levels of success have also been growing throughout the 21st century. There is little research on combining schools and city development in Finland. The aim is to examine is there an association between decreasing individual educational outcomes and socio-spatial or school segregation, and to look at what is the role of individual factors and social context in decreased educational outcomes. Studying pupils and schools is a good way to capture local processes of differentiation and neighbourhood effect, because children and youth are especially prone to neighbourhood and school effects due to their ongoing process of socialization, localized lives in their neighbourhood and shared institutions, such as school. This study is conducted quantitatively, and the main method in this study is hierarchical linear regression. The data is from Metropolitan Longitudinal Finland research, which studies the success and wellbeing of pupils in upper comprehensive schools in the Helsinki Metropolitan area. The study was conducted during the Fall of 2011 and the Spring of 2014 tracking the same cohort when the pupils were in their 7th and 9th grades. The results suggest that there are no differences found between schools, but some of the qualities describing neighborhoods indicate that some neighbourhood effect might be found. There are indications that pupils with decreased educational outcomes are more likely to study in schools that are located in low income areas than higher income areas. Also, for pupils with decreased educational outcomes, attending a school that is located in Northern or Southeastern Great districts is more likely than attending a school in Eastern Great district. Based on the results, pupils with negative change in educational outcomes are more likely to spend time with friends of own area than with school friends. Boys have a bigger risk for a negative change in educational outcomes than girls, and the change of school is connected to decreased educational outcomes. Mother’s education and immigration background was not found to have connection with decreased educational outcomes. Decreased educational outcomes have a connection with a low parents’ pedagogical ethos, but no connection with peers’ pedagogical ethos was found. The results are significant from the perspective of urban and educational politics and planning. The indications that the educational outcomes in upper comprehensive schools in Helsinki are differentiated in neighborhood level for example between Great districts, and in individual level between genders, challenge the goals of equal educational opportunities. Also, urban planning should be targeted to prevent socio-spatial differentiation of neighborhoods, in order to combat differentiation in schools’ composition of pupils. In future research, the starting level of educational success could be studied more closely- does decrease in educational outcomes implicate different educational paths for pupils that start with high starting level than pupils that have lower starting level in the beginning? This study provided information that there are no differences between schools found currently, but the processes of differentiation are not stable, so the processes should be observed continuously.
  • Niemi, Eetu (Helsingin yliopisto, 2021)
    Uudenlaiset sopimusperustaiset suunnittelun tavat ovat nousseet 2000-luvun aikana osaksi suomalaista hallinto- ja suunnittelutoimintaa. Uudet suunnittelun tavat ovat nostaneet esiin kysymyksiä sopimusperustaisen suunnittelun demokraattisesta legitimiteetistä eli kansanvallan mukaisesta hyväksyttävyydestä. Tässä tutkimuksessa tarkastelen sopimusperustaisen suunnittelun legitimiteetin ongelmia ja mahdollisuuksia strategisen kaupunkiseutusuunnittelun kontekstissa. Mistä riippuu se, onko uusissa toimintatavoissa demokraattisen legitimiteetin ongelmaa? Tutkimukseni tuottaa tietoa niistä tavoista, joilla relationaalinen legitimiteetti muodostuu uusien hallinnon toimintatapojen tapauksessa. Analyysini mahdollistaa esimerkiksi niiden päätöksenteon ja suunnittelun legitimiteettiä koskevien periaatteiden kriittisen tarkastelun, joihin nykyisenkaltaista sopimusperustaista kaupunkiseutusuunnittelua tehtäessä sitoudutaan. Valtion, kaupunkien ja kuntien välinen MAL-suunnittelutoiminta ja sitä ympäröivä keskustelu tarjoaa lähestymispisteen sopimusperustaisen suunnittelun legitimiteetin analyysille. Käsittelen sopimusperustaisen MALsuunnittelun legitimiteettiä tukeutuen teorioihin demokraattisuudesta ja osallistumisesta. Analyysini mukaan MAL-suunnittelu edustaa institutionaalisen kontrollin ja episteemisen realismin arvoja. Johtopäätöksenä esitän tulkintani legitimiteetin relationaalisesta muodostumisesta MAL-suunnittelussa. Uusien hallinnon innovaatioiden hyväksyttävyys ja tehokkuus riippuvat toimintatavan suhteesta muihin hallinnon osiin ja oikeuttavan yleisön arvoista. Jaettujen näkemisen tapojen kiinnittyminen osaksi instituutioiden käytäntöjä ja poliittista kulttuuria ovat keskeisessä osassa paremman legitimiteetin rakentumiselle sopimusperustaiselle suunnittelulle. MALsuunnittelun kannalta keskeinen imaginaari on toiminnallinen kaupunkiseutu suunnittelun, hallinnon, elämisen ja talouden tilallisena yksikkönä.
  • Huynh, Yu-Yi (Helsingin yliopisto, 2019)
    This master’s thesis studies the residential mobility patterns of the “second generation”, i.e., the native-born descendants of immigrants, in Finnish cities. The focus of the study is on the first-time departures from the parental home, and especially on their timing and destination neighbourhood types, which will be reflected through the theoretical framework of spatial integration. The study aims to provide new empirical knowledge on the home-leaving second generation which will be used to reflect whether the classic theory of spatial assimilation manages to depict their residential mobility patterns in relation to the native-born Finns and first-generation immigrants. The study analyses the differences in the timing and destination neighbourhood types of the home-leaving event using register-based longitudinal data on individuals between ages 16 and 32 in Helsinki, Tampere and Turku regions over the period 1999–2015. The neighbourhoods are classified either as concentrations or non-concentrations based on their share of inhabitants with an immigrant background. The study employs mainly discrete-time event-history methods in analysis. The impacts of the demographic and socioeconomic attributes on the home-leaving patterns are evaluated with logistic regression analysis. The results suggest a general similarity of residential mobility patterns for the home-leaving second generation and their native-born Finnish peers while the first-generation immigrants remain a distinct group, especially by moving more often to concentrations compared to the two other groups. Among the second generation, the classic straight-line assimilation theory manages to depict the best the home-leaving patterns for the individuals with Western and West Asian and North African background. There is a small delay in the timing of the home-leaving for all individuals with an immigrant background compared to the native-born Finns which cannot be completely explained by the differences in their demographic and socioeconomic background. The parental neighbourhood type appears as a significant predictor for the destination neighbourhood type; having lived in a concentration as a child suggested increased odds of home-leaving to a concentration as well. One possible explanation for this is discrimination in the housing markets which is both impacting the possibilities for the young adults to pursue their independent housing careers and the neighbourhoods where they are growing up in. The remaining differences in the timing, after taking the differences in the demographic and socioeconomic background into account, is small but significant enough to be taken into account in further studies.
  • Harju, Tuomas (Helsingin yliopisto, 2021)
    Julkinen tila on kaupungissa keskeinen tekijä ja tori on julkisista tiloista leimallisin. Historiallisesti torien merkitys kaupungissa on suuri ja vaihdellut historian aikana. Tori on mielenkiintoinen keskus kaupungissa: dynaaminen ja eläväinen torikaupan aikoina, hiljainen ja autio niiden ulkopuolella. Julkisten tilojen monipuolistuminen on asettanut torit asemaan, jossa ne eivät enää ole ensisijainen kokoontumispaikka. Tori elää kaupungin mukana ja saa kehityksen tuloksena uusia funktioita. Tutkimus selvittää näitä käyttötarkoitusten muutoksia käyttäen tapausesimerkkinä Porvoon toria 1832–2021. Tutkimus on saanut alkunsa Porvoon kaupungin keskustakehittämishankkeesta, johon liittyen tutkimuksen tekijä laati toriympäristön historiaselvityksen vuonna 2020. Tutkimuksen metodina on temaattinen tarkastelu, joka torin historiallisia vaiheita vertaamalla ja yhteiskunnalliseen kontekstiin asettamalla vastaa kysymykseen, kuinka torin muuttuvat funktiot ovat vaikuttaneet sen rooliin kaupungissa. Lähdeaineisto koostuu arkistolähteistä, valokuvista, sanomalehtijulkaisuista täydennettynä toriyrittäjien haastatteluilla. Kirjallisuus hyödyntää erityisesti julkisen tilan piirteitä sekä Porvoon historiaa selvittäneitä teoksia. Tutkimuksen teoreettinen viitekehys soveltaa Lefebvren tilan tuotannon teoriaa korostamalla ihmisen oikeutta kaupunkiin ja toria kaupunkilaisten arjen tilana. Teoria tarjoaa perustan kaupunkisuunnittelun historiassa tehtyjen arvovalintojen tutkimiseen. Tutkimus teoretisoi myös tilaa suhteellisena käsitteenä ja tarkastelee paikan merkitystä kaupungissa siihen liitettyjen mielikuvien avulla. Tutkimus jakaa torin neljään toiminnalliseen funktioon, jotka ovat tulleet torille eri aikoina, mutta ovat kaikki läsnä nykyisin. Ensimmäinen funktio, torikauppa, on pitkään hiipuneenakin yhä elävä torin käyttötarkoitus. Toinen funktio on torin symbolisesti merkittävä edustusrooli. Se näkyy paitsi torin varrelle sijoittuneissa instituutioissa myös torin ajoittain korostuvassa roolissa kansalaisaktivismin näyttämönä. Kolmas funktio on kaupungin keskeisenä liikennealueena toimiminen. Keskeinen sijainti on tuonut torille linja-auto- ja taksiasemat, jotka ovat merkittävästi muokanneet torikuvaa 1930-luvulta tähän päivään. Neljäs funktio on tapahtumapaikka, joka liittyy kaupunkikeskustojen kehittämisen trendiin. Tori tarjoaa puitteet niin perinteisten kuin uusien kaupunkitapahtumien paikkana. Lisäksi tutkimus vertaa Porvoon toria kolmeen muuhun suomalaiskaupungin samanikäiseen toriin ja niiden historiaan. Torien taustojen analysointi selvittää, miksi ne ovat kehittyneet eri tavoin ja asettaa Porvoon torin historian laajempaan yhteiskunnalliseen kontekstiin.
  • Hänninen, Juho (Helsingin yliopisto, 2020)
    The themes of this thesis are alternative, informal, and uncommercial cultural spaces, the scenes using the spaces, and the individual scene participants. The study’s frame is Helsinki between 2000–2019. The study combines relevant theoretical discussion from subculture research tradition and urbanism. The key concepts of the thesis are ‘scenes,’ a cultural definition of ‘subculture,’ ‘alternative cultural spaces,’ ‘DIY culture’ (‘do it yourself’), and ‘enclaves.’ The thesis presents Helsinki’s ‘DIY landscape’ to consist of interconnected actors—scene participants—who are part of a network that revolves around making, performing and facilitating music in a specific urban infrastructure—the city, Helsinki—and in which the alternative cultural spaces create physical ‘hubs’ for the scene. The data has been collected online via a combination of oral history recollections and qualitative surveying. The data was collected in collaboration between Helsinki City Museum and Music Archive Finland in fall 2019. The data consist of 70 individual responses. The data is treated through the epistemology of qualitative research and oral history, and therefore is seen to include both ‘factual’ information and the informant’s subjective interpretations, their experience. On a practical level, the analysis has been conducted mainly via qualitative content analysis (QCA), but also geographic information system (GIS) has been used. The study aims to explicate a widely recognized but poorly known cultural phenomenon. The study’s key results are as follows. Four types of alternative cultural spaces have existed: dedicated buildings, rooms, outdoor venues, and even a ship. All of the study’s 34 spaces have hosted live music events and a variety of other cultural, political, and social activities. The spaces have been acquired for use by renting, squatting, and asking permission, and in two cases are owned by the facilitator. With some exceptions, they are located in the fringe areas of Helsinki’s city center, have a relatively short lifespan (maximum of five years in a set location) and share ‘aesthetics of necessity’ that roots meager or non-existent funding and the use of subcultural symbols and art. The spaces follow certain ‘DIY operating principles’ that aim to create an encouraging and inclusive atmosphere for DIY participation. The spaces, and their users, have faced a variety of challenges, setbacks, and problems. These are rooted in funding, the deficits of the buildings and their facilities, and to other citizens, the police, and the City of Helsinki. The City’s role emerges from the data as ambivalent—a constrainer and enabler. According to the responder’s experience, the City does not have a uniform policy towards the use of vacant urban space, and DIY culture overall is not recognized. For the scenes, the alternative cultural spaces function as platforms where cherish—often ‘marginal’—music and subcultures. Some of the participants connect political and societal ideals to the spaces and DIY activities. DIY activities emerged as—sometimes self-purposefully—social and communal by their nature. In the spaces between scene participants take place socio-cultural ‘cross-fertilization,’ which sometimes leads to new organizational groups and even scenes forming. These might relocate their practices elsewhere, and thus DIY culture spreads to new locations in the urban infrastructure. For the individual scene participants, crossing with the scene represents an important part of finding a social reference group. Some of the responders described going through a ‘DIY phase,’ which is a several yearlong period in their youth when life orientations and identity are intensively connected to DIY culture. The meaningfulness of scene participation lasts to later life, even if the participant’s active years are foregone. For some, the skills and knowledge acquired in the scene creates a basis for a more professional career in cultural production. As the reasons for the diminish or end of the DIY participation are given the closure of an alternative cultural space focal for the participant, challenges in activities, and major life events. In the discussion, the thesis suggests the concept of ‘urban DIY enclaves’ in the toolboxes of urban planners and designers. The DIY enclaves differentiate from the broader urban landscape by their condition, aesthetics, political messages, and subcultural symbols. Socially they have been constructed to advance DIY culture and cherish the creative lifestyle associated with it. The concept is suggested as a device for acknowledging the existence of DIY culture; in other words, its need for space, and its participants’ eagerness to participate in the construction of the urban and cultural landscape.
  • Hakala, Anna (Helsingin yliopisto, 2021)
    The Master´s thesis examines the conceived value patterns the city officials use in the context of land-use regulation of small forest fragments. As a theoretical framework, the study utilises Boltanski and Thévenot´s theory on the common worlds with complementary literature, such as Thévenot’s cognitive formats and engagements. In light of extensive scientific research, urban greenspaces have multiple positive impacts to both urban structure and wellbeing of the residents. Small greenspaces, so-called forest fragments with no appointed recreational activities are, nevertheless, often presented as potential sites for infill construction. This appears especially in cities where strong population growth causes pressure for urban development. This Master´s thesis complements existing research in this regard by revealing the diversity of valuation that form the basis to differing interests, perspectives and decisions that direct urban land-use policy in these forest fragments. The empirical phase has been conducted among city officials in the City of Espoo (FI), who represent different operative units and positions. The analysis was conducted through an exploratory and semiquantitative Q methodology. In the study, the respondents (N=27) validated statements (Q=35) related to planning decisions on small forest fragments. The factor extraction was conducted by principal component analysis. The seven analysed factors form consistent value patterns, which may be used when describing and interpreting the justification of urban planning regulation in forest fragments. In each individual value pattern, either valuation of the local landscape, public good or personal advantage is emphasised. From the common worlds, argumentation based on the industrial or the market worlds highlight personal affinity, whereas, for instance, the civic or the domestic world form a basis for argumentation on social values and the common good. Human-centred biophilia is the most explanatory of the value patterns. Based on the valuation, forest fragments are seen as an integral part of the urban structure especially due to their cultural ecosystem services, such as recreational possibilities, effect on residents´ environmental consciousness and stability of the local landscape.
  • Salmijärvi, Joonas (Helsingin yliopisto, 2020)
    Tässä tutkielmassa tarkastellaan vantaalaisista asuinalueista vallitsevia mielikuvia verkkokeskusteluissa. Työssä kysytään, millaisia mielikuvia yhdeksään vantaalaiseen asuinalueeseen keskusteluissa liitetään ja mitä sisällöllisiä teemoja sekä laadullisia sävyjä niihin tyypillisimmin sisältyy. Lisäksi verrataan, miten mielikuvien sisältö ja laatu vertautuvat alueiden sosioekonomisissa taustatekijöissä esiintyviin eroihin. Tarkoituksena on tarkastella mielikuvien ja alueiden sosioekonomisten taustojen mahdollista yhteyttä, joka voisi kiihdyttää asuinalueiden sosioekonomista eriytymistä toisistaan. Mielikuvan käsitteellä tarkoitetaan yksilön mieleensä jostakin kohteesta muodostamaa tietorakennetta, joka ohjaa hänen käyttäytymistään. Kun kohde on maantieteellinen paikka, puhutaan paikkamielikuvista. Mielikuvista voi sosiaalisessa vuorovaikutuksessa muodostua maineita, jotka ovat kulttuurisesti jaettuja ja uusinnettuja käsityksiä kohteestaan. Asuinalueiden maineilla on huomattu olevan vaikutusta siihen, miten yksilöt suuntaavat muuttopäätöksiään kaupunkiseuduilla. Tämä voi kiihdyttää alueellista eriytymistä, joka edetessään voi aiheuttaa negatiivisia vaikutuksia sosioekonomisesti huono-osaisilla asuinalueilla asuvien hyvinvointiin, elämänkulkuun ja toimintamahdollisuuksiin. Työn tutkimusalueiksi valittiin yhdeksän sosioekonomisesti erilaista asuinaluetta Vantaalta. Niitä käsitteleviä keskusteluketjuja kerättiin Vauva.fi-keskustelufoorumilta 91 kappaletta, joista analysoitiin alueisiin liitettyjä viestejä ja niiden ilmauksia sisällön ja sävyn mukaan. Sisällönanalyysin pohjalta kävi ilmi, että sosioekonomisesti kaikkein hyväosaisimpiin asuinalueisiin (Hämevaara, Vaarala ja Ylästö) liitettiin kaikkein eniten positiivisia mielikuvia ja sosioekonomisesti huono-osaisimpiin asuinalueisiin (Hakunila, Koivukylä) eniten negatiivisia mielikuvia. Poikkeustapauksiakin löytyi: sosioekonomisilta taustoiltaan keskiarvoinen Tikkurila nähtiin varsin positiivisena erityisesti liikenneyhteyksien ja palvelujen osalta. Samoin Korso nähtiin yleisellä tasolla enemmän positiivisesti kuin negatiivisesti. Sosioekonomisesti huono-osaisemman Myyrmäen alueen palvelut ja liikenneyhteydet nähtiin hyvin positiivisesti, mutta rauhallisuus ja väestö negatiivisesti. Sosioekonomisesti hyväosaiseen Kivistöön taas liitettiin paljon negatiivisia mielikuvia sen uuden keskusta-alueen suhteen. Alueella ei nähdä olevan niitä palveluja ja asuinmahdollisuuksia, joita siltä on odotettu. Tuloksien pohjalta näyttää siltä, että asuinalueiden sosioekonomisen taustan ja niistä johdettujen mielikuvien välillä on tiettyä yhteyttä, mutta se ei ole automaattinen. Alueesta voidaan johtaa sosioekonomista taustaansa positiivisempia mielikuvia sekä päinvastoin, jos alueista tulkitaan niitä vahvistavia merkkejä. Alueellisen eriytymisen ehkäisemisen kannalta olisikin tärkeää, että huono-osaisia asuinalueita kehitettäessä myös mielikuva- ja mainetyöhön panostettaisiin kokonaisuuden onnistumiseksi.