Browsing by Subject "UTE"

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  • Unnaslahti, Jenna (Helsingfors universitet, 2017)
    Water deficiency limits the growth of cereals and the utilization of nutrients worldwide. In Finland, the problem is lack of rain during vegetative growth in the spring. At that time plants are most sensitive to stresses. Irrigation in spring could improve yields and the utilization of nutrients in cereals. The aim of this study was to investigate whether spring irrigation affects the nitrogen use of spring wheat (Triticum aestivum L. emend Thell ’Amaretto') and what are the possible effective mechanisms. Study was conducted in the greenhouse as a completely randomized split-plot experiment where the main plot was irrigation (0 or 32 mm) and the sub-plot was nitrogen fertilization (0 and 150 kg/ha). The rate of photosynthesis, leaf area index (LAI), stomatal conductance, leaf temperature and SPAD value were measured from the crop. At flowering stage leaf area was measured and the numbers of fertile and sterile flowers were counted and plant nitrogen content was analysed. At maturity stage the yield components and nitrogen content of the grains were determined. The components of nitrogen use of wheat was investigated by calculating nitrogen use efficiency (NUE), uptake efficiency (UPE), utilization efficiency (UTE), agronomic efficiency (AE), grain accumulation efficiency (GAE), internal efficiency (IE), nitrogen harvest index (NHI) as well as nitrogen fertilizer partial factor productivity (PFP) and nitrogen fertilizer recovery (FNR). Biomass production efficiency (BPE) and harvest index (HI) were also calculated. Irrigation increased NUE, UPE and UTE. The NUE of irrigated wheat was 35 whereas the NUE was 25 without irrigation. The increase of NUE due to irrigation was explained for the most part by UTE which was 40 with irrigation and 35 without irrigation. Irrigation increased also the uptake of nitrogen by approximately 20 kg/ha. Additionally, FNR was 60 % and 40 % with and without irrigation, respectively. However, phytomass increased more than nitrogen uptake as a consequence of the irrigation and vegetative mass increased more than grain mass. Furthermore, it was observed that both the photosynthesis and the stomatal conductance became more effective and LAI was higher as a consequence of the irrigation. In conclusion, NUE of wheat can be increased by irrigation. One explanation for this could be that irrigation intensifies netphotosynthesis and stomatal conductivity.