Browsing by Subject "Uralic languages"

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  • Aikio, Ante (Helsingin yliopiston kirjasto, 2022)
  • Culver, Christopher (Helsingin yliopiston kirjasto, 2022)
  • Pirinen, Tommi A.; Tyers, Francis M. (2021)
    Digital infrastructures are a vital part of support for providing a research framework and platform in engineering their digital lexicography and grammars and deploying the to end-users as real NLP software products.
  • Grünthal, Riho; Heyd, Volker; Holopainen, Sampsa; Janhunen, Juha; Khanina, Olga; Miestamo, Matti; Nichols, Johanna; Saarikivi, Janne; Sinnemäki, Kaius (2022)
    The widespread Uralic family offers several advantages for tracing prehistory: a firm absolute chronological anchor point in an ancient contact episode with well-dated Indo-Iranian; other points of intersection or diagnostic non-intersection with early Indo-European (the Late Proto-Indo-European-speaking Yamnaya culture of the western steppe, the Afanasievo culture of the upper Yenisei, and the Fatyanovo culture of the middle Volga); lexical and morphological reconstruction sufficient to establish critical absences of sharings and contacts. We add information on climate, linguistic geography, typology, and cognate frequency distributions to reconstruct the Uralic origin and spread. We argue that the Uralic homeland was east of the Urals and initially out of contact with Indo-European. The spread was rapid and without widespread shared substratal effects. We reconstruct its cause as the interconnected reactions of early Uralic and Indo-European populations to a catastrophic climate change episode and interregionalization opportunities which advantaged riverine hunter-fishers over herders.
  • Kaheinen, Kaisla; Leisiö, Larisa; Erkkilä, Riku; Qiu, Toivo E. H. (Helsingin yliopiston kirjasto, 2022)
    Juhlakirja koostuu Tapani Salmisen ystävien ja kollegoiden kirjoittamista artikkeleista, jotka tavalla tai toisella käsittelevät Tapanin uralla keskeisiksi muodostuneita teemoja. Valtaosa artikkeleista sijoittuu suomalais-ugrilaisen kielentutkimuksen alalle. Näkökulmien kirjo on laaja: artikkelit käsittelevät niin synkronista kuin diakronista kielentutkimusta etenkin Tapanin omissa tutkimuksissaan käsittelemien suomen murteiden ja samojedologian piiristä. Kielitieteellisten artikkeleiden lisäksi kirjaan sisältyy myös folkloristiikan ja etnomusikologian alaan kuuluvia tutkielmia, joiden teemat ovat niin ikään suomalais-ugrilaiselle kielentutkimukselle läheisiä. Tapanin lintuharrastus poiki sekin tieteellisiä artikkeleita tähän kirjaan.
  • Rueter, Jack Michael (МГУ им. Н. П. Огарёва, 2020)
    The purpose of this article is to outline morphological facts about the two literary languages Erzya and Moksha, which can be used for estimating the distinctive character of these individual language forms. Whereas earlier morphological evaluations of the linguistic distance between Erzya and Moksha have placed them in the area of 90% cohesion, this one does not. This study evaluates the languages on the basis of non-ambiguity, parallel sets of ambiguity and divergent ambiguity. Non-ambiguity is found in combinatory function to morphological formant alignment, e.g. молян go+V+Ind+Prs+ScSg1. Parallel sets of ambiguity is found in combinatory-function set to morphological formant alignment where both languages share the same sets of ambiguous readings, e.g. саизь v s сявозь take+V+Ind+ScPl3+OcSg3, ScPl3+OcPl3. Divergent ambiguity is found in forms with non- symmetric alignments of combinatory functions, e.g. саинек take+V+Ind+Prt1+ScPl1, +Prt1+ScPl1+OcSg3, +Prt1+ScPl1+OcPl3 vs сявоме take+V+Ind+Prt1+ScPl1, сявоськ take+V+Ind+Prt1+ScPl1+OcSg3, +Prt1+ScPl1+OcPl3. This morphological evaluation will establish the preparatory work in syntactic disambiguation necessary for facilitating Erzya↔Moksha machine translation, whereas machine translation will enhance the usage of mutual language resources. Results show that the Erzya and Moksha languages, in the absence of loan words from the 20 th century, share less than 50% of their vocabularies, 63% of their regular nominal declensions and 48% of their regular finite conjugations.
  • Laptander, Roza (Helsingin yliopiston kirjasto, 2022)
  • Rueter, Jack; Partanen, Niko; Pirinen, Tommi A (The Association for Computational Linguistics, 2021)
    This study discusses the way different numerals and related expressions are currently annotated in the Universal Dependencies project, with a specific focus on the Uralic language family and only occasional references to the other language groups. We analyse different annotation conventions between individual treebanks, and aim to highlight some areas where further development work and systematization could prove beneficial. At the same time, the Universal Dependencies project already offers a wide range of conventions to mark nuanced variation in numerals and counting expressions, and the harmonization of conventions between different languages could be the next step to take. The discussion here makes specific reference to Universal Dependencies version 2.8, and some differences found may already have been harmonized in version 2.9. Regardless of whether this takes place or not, we believe that the study still forms an important documentation of this period in the project.
  • Shagal, Ksenia; Volkova, Anna (2018)
  • Rueter, Jack; Hämäläinen, Mika (Ижевск: Институт компьютерных исследований, 2020)
    This paper presents the current lexical, morphological, syntactic and rule-based machine translation work for Erzya and Moksha that can and should be used in the development of a roadmap for Mordvin linguistic research. We seek to illustrate and outline initial problem types to be encountered in the construction of an Apertium-based shallow-transfer machine translation system for the Mordvin language forms. We indicate reference points within Mordvin Studies and other parts of Uralic studies, as a point of departure for outlining a linguistic studies with a means for measuring its own progress and developing a roadmap for further studies. Keywords: Erzya, Moksha, Uralic, Shallow-transfer machine translation, Measurable language research, Measurable language distance, Finite-State Morphology, Universal Dependencies
  • Häkkinen, Jaakko (Helsingin yliopiston kirjasto, 2022)
  • Rueter, Jack; Hämäläinen, Mika (Peter Lang, 2020)
    Österreichisches Deutsch – Sprache der Gegenwart
    This paper will provide a brief description of Skolt Sami and how it might be construed as a pluricentric language. Historical factors are identified that might contribute to a pluricentric identity: geographic location and political history; shortages of language documentation, and the establishment of a normative body for the development of a standard language. Skolt Sami is assessed in the context of Sami languages and is forwarded as one of a closely related yet distinct language group. Here the issue then becomes one of facilitating diversity even for under-documented languages. And we aptly describe opportunities in language technology that have been utilized to this end. Finally, brief insight is given for other Uralic languages with regard to pluricentric character and possibilities for language users to facilitate the maintenance of their individual language needs.
  • Rueter, Jack; Partanen, Niko (The Association for Computational Linguistics, 2019)
    This paper attempts to evaluate some of the systematic differences in Uralic Universal Dependencies treebanks from a perspective that would help to introduce reasonable improvements in treebank annotation consistency within this language family. The study finds that the coverage of Uralic languages in the project is already relatively high, and the majority of typically Uralic features are already present and can be discussed on the basis of existing treebanks. Some of the idiosyncrasies found in individual treebanks stem from language-internal grammar traditions, and could be a target for harmonization in later phases.
  • Honti, László (Helsingin yliopiston kirjasto, 2022)