Browsing by Subject "VACCINATION"

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  • Luukkainen, Annika; Puan, Kia Joo; Yusof, Nurhashikin; Lee, Bernett; Tan, Kai Sen; Liu, Jing; Yan, Yan; Toppila-Salmi, Sanna; Renkonen, Risto; Chow, Vincent T.; Rotzschke, Olaf; Wang, De Yun (2018)
    Background: We established an in vitro co-culture model involving H3N2-infection of human nasal epithelium with peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) to investigate their cross-talk during early H3N2 infection. Methods: Nasal epithelium was differentiated from human nasal epithelial stem/progenitor cells and cultured wtih fresh human PBMC. PBMC and supernatants were harvested after 24 and 48 h of co-culture with H3N2-infected nasal epithelium. We used flow cytometry and Luminex to characterize PBMC subpopulations, their activation and secretion of cytokine and chemokines. Results: H3N2 infection of the nasal epithelium associated with significant increase in interferons (IFN-alpha, IFN-gamma, IL-29), pro-inflammatory cytokines (TNF-alpha, BDNF, IL-3) and viral-associated chemokines (IP-10, MCP-3, I-TAC, MIG), detectable already after 24 h. This translates into rapid activation of monocytes, NK-cells and innate T-cells (MAIT and gamma delta T cells), evident with CD38+ and/or CD69+ upregulation. Conclusions: This system may contribute to in vitro mechanistic immunological studies bridging systemic models and possibly enable the development of targeted immunomodulatory therapies.
  • Vaarala, Outi; Vuorela, Arja; Partinen, Markku; Baumann, Marc; Freitag, Tobias L.; Meri, Seppo; Saavalainen, Paivi; Jauhiainen, Matti; Soliymani, Rabah; Kirjavainen, Turkka; Olsen, Paivi; Saarenpaa-Heikkila, Outi; Rouvinen, Juha; Roivainen, Merja; Nohynek, Hanna; Jokinen, Jukka; Julkunen, Ilkka; Kilpi, Terhi (2014)
  • Fusciello, Manlio; Fontana, Flavia; Tähtinen, Siri; Capasso, Cristian; Feola, Sara; da Silva Lopes Martins, Beatriz; Chiaro, Jacopo; Peltonen, Karita; Ylösmäki, Leena; Ylösmäki, Erkko; Hamdan Hissaoui, Firas; Kari, Otto K.; Ndika, Joseph; Alenius, Harri; Urtti, Arto; Hirvonen, Jouni T.; Santos, Hélder A.; Cerullo, Vincenzo (2019)
    Virus-based cancer vaccines are nowadays considered an interesting approach in the field of cancer immunotherapy, despite the observation that the majority of the immune responses they elicit are against the virus and not against the tumor. In contrast, targeting tumor associated antigens is effective, however the identification of these antigens remains challenging. Here, we describe ExtraCRAd, a multi-vaccination strategy focused on an oncolytic virus artificially wrapped with tumor cancer membranes carrying tumor antigens. We demonstrate that ExtraCRAd displays increased infectivity and oncolytic effect in vitro and in vivo. We show that this nanoparticle platform controls the growth of aggressive melanoma and lung tumors in vivo both in preventive and therapeutic setting, creating a highly specific anti-cancer immune response. In conclusion, ExtraCRAd might serve as the next generation of personalized cancer vaccines with enhanced features over standard vaccination regimens, representing an alternative way to target cancer.
  • Heikkinen, T.; Silvennoinen, H.; Heinonen, S.; Vuorinen, T. (2016)
    Some studies have assessed the efficacy of influenza vaccination in children separately for moderate-to-severe and any influenza, but the definition used for identifying children with moderate-to-severe illness has not been validated. We analyzed clinical and socioeconomic data from two prospective cohort studies of respiratory infections among children aged
  • Griffith, Evan F.; Pius, Loupa; Manzano, Pablo; Jost, Christine C. (2020)
    COVID-19 is a global pandemic that continues to spread around the world, including to Africa where cases are steadily increasing. The African Centres for Disease Control and Prevention is leading the pandemic response in Africa, with direction from the World Health Organization guidelines for critical preparedness, readiness, and response actions. These are written for national governments, lacking nuance for population and local differences. In the greater Horn of Africa, conditions unique to pastoralists such as inherent mobility and limited health and service infrastructure will influence the dynamics of COVID-19. In this paper, we present a One Health approach to the pandemic, consisting of interdisciplinary and intersectoral collaboration focused on the determinants of health and health outcomes amongst pastoralists. Our contextualized public health strategy includes community One Health teams and suggestions for where to implement targeted public health measures. We also analyse the interaction of COVID-19 impacts, including those caused directly by the disease and those that result from control efforts, with ongoing shocks and vulnerabilities in the region (e.g. desert locusts, livestock disease outbreaks, floods, conflict, and development displacement). We give recommendations on how to prepare for and respond to the COVID-19 pandemic and its secondary impacts on pastoral areas. Given that the full impact of COVID-19 on pastoral areas is unknown currently, our health recommendations focus on disease prevention and understanding disease epidemiology. We emphasize targeting pastoral toponymies with public health measures to secure market access and mobility while combating the direct health impacts of COVID-19. A contextualized approach for the COVID-19 public health response in pastoral areas in the Greater Horn of Africa, including how the pandemic will interact with existing shocks and vulnerabilities, is required for an effective response, while protecting pastoral livelihoods and food, income, and nutrition security.
  • Virtanen, Jenni; Aaltonen, Kirsi; Vapalahti, Olli; Sironen, Tarja (2020)
    Aleutian disease (AD), caused by Aleutian mink disease virus (AMDV), causes significant welfare problems to mink, and financial losses to the farmers. As there is no vaccine or treatment available, reliable diagnostics is important for disease control. Here, we set up a probe-based real-time PCR (NS1-probe-PCR) to detect all strains of AMDV. PCR was validated and compared to two other real-time PCR methods (pan-AMDV- and pan-AMDO-PCR) currently used for AMDV diagnostics in Finland. The NS1-probe-PCR had a similar detection limit of 20 copies/reaction based on plasmid dilution series, and similar or better diagnostic sensitivity, when evaluated using spleen samples from mink, and stool samples from mink and foxes. None of the three PCR tests cross-reacted with other parvoviruses. The NS1-probe-PCR also showed a significantly higher specificity than the pan-AMDO-PCR with spleen samples and the best specificity with stool samples. Furthermore, it produced the results more rapidly than the other two PCRs making it a promising tool for both diagnostic and research purposes.
  • Nokireki, Tiina; Jakava-Viljanen, Miia; Virtala, Anna-Maija; Sihvonen, Liisa (2017)
    Background: Rabies is preventable by pre-and/or post-exposure prophylaxis consisting of series of rabies vaccinations and in some cases the use of immunoglobulins. The success of vaccination can be estimated either by measuring virus neutralising antibodies or by challenge experiment. Vaccines based on rabies virus offer cross-protection against other lyssaviruses closely related to rabies virus. The aim was to assess the success of rabies vaccination measured by the antibody response in dogs (n = 10,071) and cats (n = 722), as well as to investigate the factors influencing the response to vaccination when animals failed to reach a rabies antibody titre of = 0.5 IU/ml. Another aim was to assess the level of protection afforded by a commercial veterinary rabies vaccine against intracerebral challenge in mice with European bat lyssavirus type 2 (EBLV-2) and classical rabies virus (RABV), and to compare this with the protection offered by a vaccine for humans. Results: A significantly higher proportion of dogs (10.7%, 95% confidence interval CI 10.1-11.3) than cats (3.5%; 95% CI 2.3-5.0) had a vaccination antibody titre of <0.5 IU/ml. In dogs, vaccination with certain vaccines, vaccination over 6 months prior the time of antibody determination and vaccination of dogs with a size of > 60 cm or larger resulted in a higher risk of failing to reach an antibody level of at least 0.5 IU/ml. When challenged with EBLV-2 and RABV, 80 and 100% of mice vaccinated with the veterinary rabies vaccine survived, respectively. When mice were vaccinated with the human rabies vaccine and challenged with EBLV-2, 75-80% survived, depending on the booster. All vaccinated mice developed sufficient to high titres of virus-neutralising antibodies (VNA) against RABV 21-22 days post-vaccination, ranging from 0.5 to 128 IU/ml. However, there was significant difference between antibody titres after vaccinating once in comparison to vaccinating twice (P <0.05). Conclusions: There was a significant difference between dogs and cats in their ability to reach a post vaccination antibody titre of = 0.5 IU/ml. Mice vaccinated with RABV-based rabies vaccines were partly cross-protected against EBLV-2, but there was no clear correlation between VNA titres and cross-protection against EBLV-2. Measurement of the RABV VNA titre can only be seen as a partial tool to estimate the cross-protection against other lyssaviruses. Booster vaccination is recommended for dogs and cats if exposed to infected bats.
  • Ollila, Hanna M.; Ravel, Jean-Marie; Han, Fang; Faraco, Juliette; Lin, Ling; Zheng, Xiuwen; Plazzi, Giuseppe; Dauvilliers, Yves; Pizza, Fabio; Hong, Seung-Chul; Jennum, Poul; Knudsen, Stine; Kornum, Birgitte R.; Dong, Xiao Song; Yan, Han; Hong, Heeseung; Coquillard, Cristin; Mahlios, Joshua; Jolanki, Otto; Einen, Mali; Arnulf, Isabelle; Hoegl, Birgit; Frauscher, Birgit; Crowe, Catherine; Partinen, Markku; Huang, Yu Shu; Bourgin, Patrice; Vaarala, Outi; Desautels, Alex; Montplaisir, Jacques; Mack, Steven J.; Mindrinos, Michael; Fernandez-Vina, Marcelo; Mignot, Emmanuel (2015)
  • Burstein, Roy; Henry, Nathaniel J.; Collison, Michael L.; Marczak, Laurie B.; Sligar, Amber; Watson, Stefanie; Marquez, Neal; Abbasalizad-Farhangi, Mahdieh; Abbasi, Masoumeh; Abd-Allah, Foad; Abdoli, Amir; Abdollahi, Mohammad; Abdollahpour, Ibrahim; Abdulkader, Rizwan Suliankatchi; Abrigo, Michael R. M.; Acharya, Dilaram; Adebayo, Oladimeji M.; Adekanmbi, Victor; Adham, Davoud; Afshari, Mahdi; Aghaali, Mohammad; Ahmadi, Keivan; Ahmadi, Mehdi; Ahmadpour, Ehsan; Ahmed, Rushdia; Akal, Chalachew Genet; Akinyemi, Joshua O.; Alahdab, Fares; Alam, Noore; Alamene, Genet Melak; Alene, Kefyalew Addis; Alijanzadeh, Mehran; Alinia, Cyrus; Alipour, Vahid; Aljunid, Syed Mohamed; Almalki, Mohammed J.; Al-Mekhlafi, Hesham M.; Altirkawi, Khalid; Alvis-Guzman, Nelson; Amegah, Adeladza Kofi; Amini, Saeed; Amit, Arianna Maever Loreche; Anbari, Zohreh; Androudi, Sofia; Anjomshoa, Mina; Ansari, Fereshteh; Antonio, Carl Abelardo T.; Arabloo, Jalal; Arefi, Zohreh; Aremu, Olatunde; Armoon, Bahram; Arora, Amit; Artaman, Al; Asadi, Anvar; Asadi-Aliabadi, Mehran; Ashraf-Ganjouei, Amir; Assadi, Reza; Ataeinia, Bahar; Atre, Sachin R.; Quintanilla, Beatriz Paulina Ayala; Ayanore, Martin Amogre; Azari, Samad; Babaee, Ebrahim; Babazadeh, Arefeh; Badawi, Alaa; Bagheri, Soghra; Bagherzadeh, Mojtaba; Baheiraei, Nafiseh; Balouchi, Abbas; Barac, Aleksandra; Bassat, Quique; Baune, Bernhard T.; Bayati, Mohsen; Bedi, Neeraj; Beghi, Ettore; Behzadifar, Masoud; Behzadifar, Meysam; Belay, Yared Belete; Bell, Brent; Bell, Michelle L.; Berbada, Dessalegn Ajema; Bernstein, Robert S.; Bhattacharjee, Natalia V.; Bhattarai, Suraj; Bhutta, Zulfiqar A.; Bijani, Ali; Bohlouli, Somayeh; Breitborde, Nicholas J. K.; Britton, Gabrielle; Browne, Annie J.; Nagaraja, Sharath Burugina; Busse, Reinhard; Butt, Zahid A.; Car, Josip; Cardenas, Rosario; Castaneda-Orjuela, Carlos A.; Cerin, Ester; Chanie, Wagaye Fentahun; Chatterjee, Pranab; Chu, Dinh-Toi; Cooper, Cyrus; Costa, Vera M.; Dalal, Koustuv; Dandona, Lalit; Dandona, Rakhi; Daoud, Farah; Daryani, Ahmad; Das Gupta, Rajat; Davis, Ian; Weaver, Nicole Davis; Davitoiu, Dragos Virgil; De Neve, Jan-Walter; Demeke, Feleke Mekonnen; Demoz, Gebre Teklemariam; Deribe, Kebede; Desai, Rupak; Deshpande, Aniruddha; Desyibelew, Hanna Demelash; Dey, Sagnik; Dharmaratne, Samath Dhamminda; Dhimal, Meghnath; Diaz, Daniel; Doshmangir, Leila; Duraes, Andre R.; Dwyer-Lindgren, Laura; Earl, Lucas; Ebrahimi, Roya; Ebrahimpour, Soheil; Effiong, Andem; Eftekhari, Aziz; Ehsani-Chimeh, Elham; El Sayed, Iman; Zaki, Maysaa El Sayed; El Tantawi, Maha; El-Khatib, Ziad; Emamian, Mohammad Hassan; Enany, Shymaa; Eskandarieh, Sharareh; Eyawo, Oghenowede; Ezalarab, Maha; Faramarzi, Mahbobeh; Fareed, Mohammad; Faridnia, Roghiyeh; Faro, Andre; Fazaeli, Ali Akbar; Fazlzadeh, Mehdi; Fentahun, Netsanet; Fereshtehnejad, Seyed-Mohammad; Fernandes, Joao C.; Filip, Irina; Fischer, Florian; Foigt, Nataliya A.; Foroutan, Masoud; Francis, Joel Msafiri; Fukumoto, Takeshi; Fullman, Nancy; Gallus, Silvano; Gebre, Destallem Gebremedhin; Gebrehiwot, Tsegaye Tewelde; Gebremeskel, Gebreamlak Gebremedhn; Gessner, Bradford D.; Geta, Birhanu; Gething, Peter W.; Ghadimi, Reza; Ghadiri, Keyghobad; Ghajarzadeh, Mahsa; Ghashghaee, Ahmad; Gill, Paramjit Singh; Gill, Tiffany K.; Golding, Nick; Gomes, Nelson G. M.; Gona, Philimon N.; Gopalani, Sameer Vali; Gorini, Giuseppe; Goulart, Barbara Niegia Garcia; Graetz, Nicholas; Greaves, Felix; Green, Manfred S.; Guo, Yuming; Haj-Mirzaian, Arvin; Haj-Mirzaian, Arya; Hall, Brian James; Hamidi, Samer; Haririan, Hamidreza; Haro, Josep Maria; Hasankhani, Milad; Hasanpoor, Edris; Hasanzadeh, Amir; Hassankhani, Hadi; Hassen, Hamid Yimam; Hegazy, Mohamed I.; Hendrie, Delia; Heydarpour, Fatemeh; Hird, Thomas R.; Hoang, Chi Linh; Hollerich, Gillian; Rad, Enayatollah Homaie; Hoseini-Ghahfarokhi, Mojtaba; Hossain, Naznin; Hosseini, Mostafa; Hosseinzadeh, Mehdi; Hostiuc, Mihaela; Hostiuc, Sorin; Househ, Mowafa; Hsairi, Mohamed; Ilesanmi, Olayinka Stephen; Imani-Nasab, Mohammad Hasan; Iqbal, Usman; Irvani, Seyed Sina Naghibi; Islam, Nazrul; Islam, Sheikh Mohammed Shariful; Jurisson, Mikk; Balalami, Nader Jafari; Jalali, Amir; Javidnia, Javad; Jayatilleke, Achala Upendra; Jenabi, Ensiyeh; Ji, John S.; Jobanputra, Yash B.; Johnson, Kimberly; Jonas, Jost B.; Shushtari, Zahra Jorjoran; Jozwiak, Jacek Jerzy; Kabir, Ali; Kahsay, Amaha; Kalani, Hamed; Kalhor, Rohollah; Karami, Manoochehr; Karki, Surendra; Kasaeian, Amir; Kassebaum, Nicholas J.; Keiyoro, Peter Njenga; Kemp, Grant Rodgers; Khabiri, Roghayeh; Khader, Yousef Saleh; Khafaie, Morteza Abdullatif; Khan, Ejaz Ahmad; Khan, Junaid; Khan, Muhammad Shahzeb; Khang, Young-Ho; Khatab, Khaled; Khater, Amir; Khater, Mona M.; Khatony, Alireza; Khazaei, Mohammad; Khazaei, Salman; Khazaei-Pool, Maryam; Khubchandani, Jagdish; Kianipour, Neda; Kim, Yun Jin; Kimokoti, Ruth W.; Kinyoki, Damaris K.; Kisa, Adnan; Kisa, Sezer; Kolola, Tufa; Kosen, Soewarta; Koul, Parvaiz A.; Koyanagi, Ai; Kraemer, Moritz U. G.; Krishan, Kewal; Krohn, Kris J.; Kugbey, Nuworza; Kumar, G. Anil; Kumar, Manasi; Kumar, Pushpendra; Kuupiel, Desmond; Lacey, Ben; Lad, Sheetal D.; Lami, Faris Hasan; Larsson, Anders O.; Lee, Paul H.; Leili, Mostafa; Levine, Aubrey J.; Li, Shanshan; Lim, Lee-Ling; Listl, Stefan; Longbottom, Joshua; Lopez, Jaifred Christian F.; Lorkowski, Stefan; Magdeldin, Sameh; Abd El Razek, Hassan Magdy; Abd El Razek, Muhammed Magdy; Majeed, Azeem; Maleki, Afshin; Malekzadeh, Reza; Malta, Deborah Carvalho; Mamun, Abdullah A.; Manafi, Navid; Manda, Ana-Laura; Mansourian, Morteza; Martins-Melo, Francisco Rogerlandio; Masaka, Anthony; Massenburg, Benjamin Ballard; Maulik, Pallab K.; Mayala, Benjamin K.; Mazidi, Mohsen; Mckee, Martin; Mehrotra, Ravi; Mehta, Kala M.; Meles, Gebrekiros Gebremichael; Mendoza, Walter; Menezes, Ritesh G.; Meretoja, Atte; Meretoja, Tuomo J.; Mestrovic, Tomislav; Miller, Ted R.; Miller-Petrie, Molly K.; Mills, Edward J.; Milne, George J.; Mini, G. K.; Mir, Seyed Mostafa; Mirjalali, Hamed; Mirrakhimov, Erkin M.; Mohamadi, Efat; Mohammad, Dara K.; Darwesh, Aso Mohammad; Mezerji, Naser Mohammad Gholi; Mohammed, Ammas Siraj; Mohammed, Shafiu; Mokdad, Ali H.; Molokhia, Mariam; Monasta, Lorenzo; Moodley, Yoshan; Moosazadeh, Mahmood; Moradi, Ghobad; Moradi, Masoud; Moradi, Yousef; Moradi-Lakeh, Maziar; Moradinazar, Mehdi; Moraga, Paula; Morawska, Lidia; Mosapour, Abbas; Mousavi, Seyyed Meysam; Mueller, Ulrich Otto; Muluneh, Atalay Goshu; Mustafa, Ghulam; Nabavizadeh, Behnam; Naderi, Mehdi; Nagarajan, Ahamarshan Jayaraman; Nahvijou, Azin; Najafi, Farid; Nangia, Vinay; Ndwandwe, Duduzile Edith; Neamati, Nahid; Negoi, Ionut; Negoi, Ruxandra Irina; Ngunjiri, Josephine W.; Huong Lan Thi Nguyen; Long Hoang Nguyen; Son Hoang Nguyen; Nielsen, Katie R.; Ningrum, Dina Nur Anggraini; Nirayo, Yirga Legesse; Nixon, Molly R.; Nnaji, Chukwudi A.; Nojomi, Marzieh; Noroozi, Mehdi; Nosratnejad, Shirin; Noubiap, Jean Jacques; Motlagh, Soraya Nouraei; Ofori-Asenso, Richard; Ogbo, Felix Akpojene; Oladimeji, Kelechi E.; Olagunju, Andrew T.; Olfatifar, Meysam; Olum, Solomon; Olusanya, Bolajoko Olubukunola; Oluwasanu, Mojisola Morenike; Onwujekwe, Obinna E.; Oren, Eyal; Ortega-Altamirano, Doris D. V.; Ortiz, Alberto; Osarenotor, Osayomwanbo; Osei, Frank B.; Osgood-Zimmerman, Aaron E.; Otstavnov, Stanislav S.; Owolabi, Mayowa Ojo; Mahesh, P. A.; Pagheh, Abdol Sattar; Pakhale, Smita; Panda-Jonas, Songhomitra; Pandey, Animika; Park, Eun-Kee; Parsian, Hadi; Pashaei, Tahereh; Patel, Sangram Kishor; Pepito, Veincent Christian Filipino; Pereira, Alexandre; Perkins, Samantha; Pickering, Brandon V.; Pilgrim, Thomas; Pirestani, Majid; Piroozi, Bakhtiar; Pirsaheb, Meghdad; Plana-Ripoll, Oleguer; Pourjafar, Hadi; Puri, Parul; Qorbani, Mostafa; Quintana, Hedley; Rabiee, Mohammad; Rabiee, Navid; Radfar, Amir; Rafiei, Alireza; Rahim, Fakher; Rahimi, Zohreh; Rahimi-Movaghar, Vafa; Rahimzadeh, Shadi; Rajati, Fatemeh; Raju, Sree Bhushan; Ramezankhani, Azra; Ranabhat, Chhabi Lal; Rasella, Davide; Rashedi, Vahid; Rawal, Lal; Reiner, Robert C.; Renzaho, Andre M. N.; Rezaei, Satar; Rezapour, Aziz; Riahi, Seyed Mohammad; Ribeiro, Ana Isabel; Roever, Leonardo; Roro, Elias Merdassa; Roser, Max; Roshandel, Gholamreza; Roshani, Daem; Rostami, Ali; Rubagotti, Enrico; Rubino, Salvatore; Sabour, Siamak; Sadat, Nafis; Sadeghi, Ehsan; Saeedi, Reza; Safari, Yahya; Safari-Faramani, Roya; Safdarian, Mahdi; Sahebkar, Amirhossein; Salahshoor, Mohammad Reza; Salam, Nasir; Salamati, Payman; Salehi, Farkhonde; Zahabi, Saleh Salehi; Salimi, Yahya; Salimzadeh, Hamideh; Salomon, Joshua A.; Sambala, Evanson Zondani; Samy, Abdallah M.; Milicevic, Milena M. Santric; Sao Jose, Bruno Piassi; Saraswathy, Sivan Yegnanarayana Iyer; Sarmiento-Suarez, Rodrigo; Sartorius, Benn; Sathian, Brijesh; Saxena, Sonia; Sbarra, Alyssa N.; Schaeffer, Lauren E.; Schwebel, David C.; Sepanlou, Sadaf G.; Seyedmousavi, Seyedmojtaba; Shaahmadi, Faramarz; Shaikh, Masood Ali; Shams-Beyranvand, Mehran; Shamshirian, Amir; Shamsizadeh, Morteza; Sharafi, Kiomars; Sharif, Mehdi; Sharif-Alhoseini, Mahdi; Sharifi, Hamid; Sharma, Jayendra; Sharma, Rajesh; Sheikh, Aziz; Shields, Chloe; Shigematsu, Mika; Shiri, Rahman; Shiue, Ivy; Shuval, Kerem; Siddiqi, Tariq J.; Silva, Joao Pedro; Singh, Jasvinder A.; Sinha, Dhirendra Narain; Sisay, Malede Mequanent; Sisay, Solomon; Sliwa, Karen; Smith, David L.; Somayaji, Ranjani; Soofi, Moslem; Soriano, Joan B.; Sreeramareddy, Chandrashekhar T.; Sudaryanto, Agus; Sufiyan, Mu'awiyyah Babale; Sykes, Bryan L.; Sylaja, P. N.; Tabares-Seisdedos, Rafael; Tabb, Karen M.; Tabuchi, Takahiro; Taveira, Nuno; Temsah, Mohamad-Hani; Terkawi, Abdullah Sulieman; Tessema, Zemenu Tadesse; Thankappan, Kavumpurathu Raman; Thirunavukkarasu, Sathish; To, Quyen G.; Tovani-Palone, Marcos Roberto; Bach Xuan Tran, [No Value]; Khanh Bao Tran; Ullah, Irfan; Usman, Muhammad Shariq; Uthman, Olalekan A.; Vahedian-Azimi, Amir; Valdez, Pascual R.; van Boven, Job F. M.; Vasankari, Tommi Juhani; Vasseghian, Yasser; Veisani, Yousef; Venketasubramanian, Narayanaswamy; Violante, Francesco S.; Vladimirov, Sergey Konstantinovitch; Vlassov, Vasily; Vos, Theo; Giang Thu Vu; Vujcic, Isidora S.; Waheed, Yasir; Wakefield, Jon; Wang, Haidong; Wang, Yafeng; Wang, Yuan-Pang; Ward, Joseph L.; Weintraub, Robert G.; Weldegwergs, Kidu Gidey; Weldesamuel, Girmay Teklay; Westerman, Ronny; Wiysonge, Charles Shey; Wondafrash, Dawit Zewdu; Woyczynski, Lauren; Wu, Ai-Min; Xu, Gelin; Yadegar, Abbas; Yamada, Tomohide; Yazdi-Feyzabadi, Vahid; Yilgwan, Christopher Sabo; Yip, Paul; Yonemoto, Naohiro; Lebni, Javad Yoosefi; Younis, Mustafa Z.; Yousefifard, Mahmoud; Yousof, Hebat-Allah Salah A.; Yu, Chuanhua; Yusefzadeh, Hasan; Zabeh, Erfan; Moghadam, Telma Zahirian; Bin Zaman, Sojib; Zamani, Mohammad; Zandian, Hamed; Zangeneh, Alireza; Zerfu, Taddese Alemu; Zhang, Yunquan; Ziapour, Arash; Zodpey, Sanjay; Murray, Christopher J. L.; Hay, Simon I. (2019)
    Since 2000, many countries have achieved considerable success in improving child survival, but localized progress remains unclear. To inform efforts towards United Nations Sustainable Development Goal 3.2-to end preventable child deaths by 2030-we need consistently estimated data at the subnational level regarding child mortality rates and trends. Here we quantified, for the period 2000-2017, the subnational variation in mortality rates and number of deaths of neonates, infants and children under 5 years of age within 99 low- and middle-income countries using a geostatistical survival model. We estimated that 32% of children under 5 in these countries lived in districts that had attained rates of 25 or fewer child deaths per 1,000 live births by 2017, and that 58% of child deaths between 2000 and 2017 in these countries could have been averted in the absence of geographical inequality. This study enables the identification of high-mortality clusters, patterns of progress and geographical inequalities to inform appropriate investments and implementations that will help to improve the health of all populations.
  • Fan, Ruili; Geritz, Stefan A H (2022)
    Given an endemic infectious disease and a budget, how do we optimally allocate interventions to control the disease? This paper shows that the optimal strategy varies depending on the budget, the type of intervention, the trajectory of pathogen load, and the objective.Using a model with explicit within-and between-host dynamics, we model isolation, supportive treatment, and specific treatment. Isolation and supportive treatment affect the transmission coefficient and the disease -induced mortality rate, respectively, in the between-host dynamics. Specific treatment affects the clearance rate of pathogens in the within-host dynamics.We study the optimisation of the three interventions for various budget levels via evaluating isolation and supportive treatment at the population level and specific treatment at both the population and individual levels. At the population level, we consider the risk of transmission, the burden of illness, and the survival probability, and to that end, we choose the population-level infection rate, the population density of infected individuals, and the total disease-induced mortality rate as objective functions. At the individual level, we consider the length of infection and the pathogen load, and to that end, we choose the maximum infection-age and the maximum pathogen load as objective functions. The objective is to minimise these functions through varying two variables that refer to when the intervention starts and when it stops for an infected individual and also indicate what kind of individuals can get the intervention from the population perspective.We find that the optimal strategy of isolation is to isolate individuals with a higher pathogen load, given a lower budget. The optimal strategy of supportive treatment can be the same as isolation or simply no treatment. The optimal strategy of specific treatment is complicated, and it can be to treat individuals with pathogen loads above a particular level until they recover or until the pathogens can decrease when treatment stops, or it can be another scenario.
  • GBD 2017 Influenza Collaborators (2019)
    Background Although the burden of influenza is often discussed in the context of historical pandemics and the threat of future pandemics, every year a substantial burden of lower respiratory tract infections (LRTIs) and other respiratory conditions (like chronic obstructive pulmonary disease) are attributable to seasonal influenza. The Global Burden of Disease Study (GBD) 2017 is a systematic scientific effort to quantify the health loss associated with a comprehensive set of diseases and disabilities. In this Article, we focus on LRTIs that can be attributed to influenza. Methods We modelled the LRTI incidence, hospitalisations, and mortality attributable to influenza for every country and selected subnational locations by age and year from 1990 to 2017 as part of GBD 2017. We used a counterfactual approach that first estimated the LRTI incidence, hospitalisations, and mortality and then attributed a fraction of those outcomes to influenza. Findings Influenza LRTI was responsible for an estimated 145 000 (95% uncertainty interval [UI] 99 000-200 000) deaths among all ages in 2017. The influenza LRTI mortality rate was highest among adults older than 70 years (16.4 deaths per 100 000 [95% UI 11.6-21.9]), and the highest rate among all ages was in eastern Europe (5.2 per 100 000 population [95% UI 3.5-7.2]). We estimated that influenza LRTIs accounted for 9 459 000 (95% UI 3 709 000-22 935 000) hospitalisations due to LRTIs and 81 536 000 hospital days (24 330 000-259 851 000). We estimated that 11.5% (95% UI 10.0-12.9) of LRTI episodes were attributable to influenza, corresponding to 54 481 000 (38 465 000-73 864 000) episodes and 8 172 000 severe episodes (5 000 000-13 296 000). Interpretation This comprehensive assessment of the burden of influenza LRTIs shows the substantial annual effect of influenza on global health. Although preparedness planning will be important for potential pandemics, health loss due to seasonal influenza LRTIs should not be overlooked, and vaccine use should be considered. Efforts to improve influenza prevention measures are needed. Copyright (c) 2018 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd.
  • Pukkala, Eero; Engholm, Gerda; Schmidt, Lise Kristine Hojsgaard; Storm, Hans; Khan, Staffan; Lambe, Mats; Pettersson, David; Olafsdottir, Elinborg; Tryggvadottir, Laufey; Hakanen, Tiina; Malila, Nea; Virtanen, Anni; Johannesen, Tom Borge; Laronningen, Siri; Ursin, Giske (2018)
    Background: The Nordic Cancer Registries are among the oldest population-based registries in the world, with more than 60 years of complete coverage of what is now a combined population of 26 million. However, despite being the source of a substantial number of studies, there is no published paper comparing the different registries. Therefore, we did a systematic review to identify similarities and dissimilarities of the Nordic Cancer Registries, which could possibly explain some of the differences in cancer incidence rates across these countries.Methods: We describe and compare here the core characteristics of each of the Nordic Cancer Registries: (i) data sources; (ii) registered disease entities and deviations from IARC multiple cancer coding rules; (iii) variables and related coding systems. Major changes over time are described and discussed.Results: All Nordic Cancer Registries represent a high quality standard in terms of completeness and accuracy of the registered data.Conclusions: Even though the information in the Nordic Cancer Registries in general can be considered more similar than any other collection of data from five different countries, there are numerous differences in registration routines, classification systems and inclusion of some tumors. These differences are important to be aware of when comparing time trends in the Nordic countries.
  • Zafar, Sadia; Basnet, Saru; Launonen, Inga-Maria; Quixabeira, Dafne Carolina Alves; Santos, Joao; Hemminki, Otto; Malmstedt, Minna; Cervera-Carrascon, Victor; Aronen, Pasi; Kalliokoski, Riikka; Havunen, Riikka; Rannikko, Antti; Mirtti, Tuomas; Matikainen, Mika; Kanerva, Anna; Hemminki, Akseli (2021)
    Dendritic cell (DC)-based vaccines have shown some degree of success for the treatment of prostate cancer (PC). However, the highly immunosuppressive tumor microenvironment leads to DC dysfunction, which has limited the effectiveness of these vaccines. We hypothesized that use of a fully serotype 3 oncolytic adenovirus (Ad3-hTERT-CMV-hCD40L; TILT-234) could stimulate DCs in the prostate tumor microenvironment by expressing CD40L. Activated DCs would then activate cytotoxic T cells against the tumor, resulting in therapeutic immune responses. Oncolytic cell killing due to cancer cell-specific virus replication adds to antitumor effects but also enhances the immunological effect by releasing tumor epitopes for sampling by DC, in the presence of danger signals. In this study, we evaluated the companion effect of Ad3-hTERT-CMV-hCD40L and DC-therapy in a humanized mouse model and PC histocultures. Treatment with Ad3-hTERT-CMV-hCD40L and DC resulted in enhanced antitumor responses in vivo. Treatment of established histocultures with Ad3-hTERT-CMV-hCD40L induced DC maturation and notable increase in proinflammatory cytokines. In conclusion, Ad3-hTERT-CMV-hCD40L is able to modulate an immunosuppressive prostate tumor microenvironment and improve the effectiveness of DC vaccination in PC models and patient histocultures, setting the stage for clinical translation.
  • Kechagias, Konstantinos S.; Kalliala, Ilkka; Bowden, Sarah J.; Athanasiou, Antonios; Paraskevaidi, Maria; Paraskevaidis, Evangelos; Dillner, Joakim; Nieminen, Pekka; Strander, Bjorn; Sasieni, Peter; Veroniki, Areti Angeliki; Kyrgiou, Maria (2022)
    Objective: To explore the efficacy of human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination on the risk of HPV infection and recurrent diseases related to HPV infection in individuals undergoing local surgical treatment. Design: Systematic review and meta-analysis Data sources: PubMed (Medline), Scopus, Cochrane, Web of Science, and were screened from inception to 31 March 2021. Review methods: Studies reporting on the risk of HPV infection and recurrence of disease related to HPV infection after local surgical treatment of preinvasive genital disease in individuals who were vaccinated were included. The primary outcome measure was risk of recurrence of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 2 or higher (CIN2+) after local surgical treatment, with follow-up as reported by individual studies. Secondary outcome measures were risk of HPV infection or other lesions related to HPV infection. Independent and in duplicate data extraction and quality assessment were performed with ROBINS-I and RoB-2 tools for observational studies and randomised controlled trials, respectively. Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation (GRADE) was implemented for the primary outcome. Observational studies and randomised controlled trials were analysed separately from post hoc analyses of randomised controlled trials. Pooled risk ratios and 95% confidence intervals were calculated with a random effects meta-analysis model. The restricted maximum likelihood was used as an estimator for heterogeneity, and the Hartung-Knapp-Sidik-Jonkman method was used to derive confidence intervals. Results: 22 articles met the inclusion criteria of the review; 18 of these studies also reported data from a non-vaccinated group and were included in the meta-analyses (12 observational studies, two randomised controlled trials, and four post hoc analyses of randomised controlled trials). The risk of recurrence of CIN2+ was reduced in individuals who were vaccinated compared with those who were not vaccinated (11 studies, 19 909 participants; risk ratio 0.43, 95% confidence interval 0.30 to 0.60; I2=58%, τ2=0.14, median follow-up 36 months, interquartile range 24-43.5). The effect estimate was even stronger when the risk of recurrence of CIN2+ was assessed for disease related to HPV subtypes HPV16 or HPV18 (six studies, 1879 participants; risk ratio 0.26, 95% confidence interval 0.16 to 0.43; I2=0%, τ2=0). Confidence in the meta-analysis for CIN2+ overall and CIN2+ related to HPV16 or HPV18, assessed by GRADE, ranged from very low to moderate, probably because of publication bias and inconsistency in the studies included in the meta-analysis. The risk of recurrence of CIN3 was also reduced in patients who were vaccinated but uncertainty was large (three studies, 17 757 participants; 0.28, 0.01 to 6.37; I2=71%, τ2=1.23). Evidence of benefit was lacking for recurrence of vulvar, vaginal, and anal intraepithelial neoplasia, genital warts, and persistent and incident HPV infections, although the number of studies and participants in each outcome was low. Conclusion: HPV vaccination might reduce the risk of recurrence of CIN, in particular when related to HPV16 or HPV18, in women treated with local excision. GRADE assessment for the quality of evidence indicated that the data were inconclusive. Large scale, high quality randomised controlled trials are required to establish the level of effectiveness and cost of HPV vaccination in women undergoing treatment for diseases related to HPV infection. Systematic review registration: PROSPERO CRD42021237350.
  • Haveri, Anu; Ikonen, Niina; Kantele, Anu; Anttila, Veli-Jukka; Ruotsalainen, Eeva; Savolainen-Kopra, Carita; Julkunen, Ilkka (2019)
    Influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 viruses have been circulating throughout the world since the 2009 pandemic. A/California/07/2009 (H1N1) virus was included in seasonal influenza vaccines for seven years altogether, providing a great opportunity to analyse vaccine-induced immunity in relation to the postpandemic evolution of the A(H1N1)pdm09 virus. Serum antibodies against various epidemic strains of influenza A (H1N1)pdm09 viruses were measured among health care workers (HCWs) by haemagglutination inhibition and microneutralization tests before and after 2010 and 2012 seasonal influenza vaccinations. We detected high responses of vaccine-induced neutralizing antibodies to six distinct genetic groups. Our results indicate antigenic similarity between vaccine and circulating A(H1N1)pdm09 strains, and substantial vaccine-induced immunity against circulating epidemic viruses. (C) 2019 Published by Elsevier Ltd.