Browsing by Subject "VALUES"

Sort by: Order: Results:

Now showing items 1-20 of 41
  • Lommi, Henri; Turkkila, Miikka; Juuti, Kalle (Suomen ainedidaktinen tutkimusseura, 2019)
    Suomen ainedidaktisen tutkimusseuran julkaisuja, Ainedidaktisia tutkimuksia
  • Matthies, Brent D.; D'Amato, Dalia; Berghäll, Sami; Ekholm, Tommi; Hoen, Hans Fredrik; Holopainen, Jani; Korhonen, Jaana E.; Lähtinen, Katja; Mattila, Osmo; Toppinen, Anne; Valsta, Lauri; Wang, Lei; Yousefpour, Rasoul (2016)
    Natural and business ecosystems are complex and dynamic service systems that interact through the utilization of ecosystem service offerings for human well-being. Currently, natural and business sciences have not developed a shared and common set of service-based terms or concepts for discussing ecosystem service offerings in the process of value co-creation. In this study, the ecosystem service approach was compared with marketing science's service-dominant logic. The terminology and concepts were harmonized, and the two approaches were then integrated into a service-dominant value creation (SVC) framework. The incorporation of natural ecosystems includes accounting for the flow of positive and negative impacts through associated value networks. Therefore, the term value-in-impact was proposed to describe these value flows. A case study of the global forest-based sector was then presented, demonstrating how to discuss current research challenges using the proposed framework. In conclusion, a shared service-dominant approach provides an opportunity for deeper inter-disciplinary discussion between natural and business sciences. This study represents a contribution towards the development of a holistic service science that includes consideration for natural ecosystems. The SVC framework also addresses many of the multidimensional challenges noted by previous sustainability frameworks. (C) 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
  • Nagatsu, Michiru; Raymond, Prof. Christopher; Tuomisto, Hanna; Ruotsalainen, Laura; Soininen, Niko; Thoren, Henrik; Stojanovic, Milutin; Horcea-Milcu, Andra-Ioana; Lehtinen, Sanna; Mazac, Rachel; Lamuela Orta, Carlos; Korpelainen, Noora-Helena P; Vainio, Annukka; Toivanen, Reetta; McPhearson, Timon (2022)
    Sustainability transformations call forth new forms and systems of knowledge across society. However, few tools and processes exist for promoting dialogue among different interests and normative stances in knowledge co-creation. In this article, we build on the notion of thought collectives to argue that understanding and moderating normative tensions are necessary if sustainability science is to provide successful solutions. Drawing on an analysis of the normative tensions between rival high-tech and low-tech thought collectives in the mobility and food production sectors, we discuss three strategic approaches: applying common evaluative frameworks, building contextual convergence and embracing complexity. We argue that these strategies indicate a need to distinguish different kinds of reflexivity in managing tensions among thought collectives. As a practical conclusion, we establish sets of reflexive questions to help sustainability scientists deploy the knowledge management strategies discussed.
  • Loukomies, Anni; Juuti, Kalle; Lavonen, Jari; Salmela-Aro, Katariina (Springer, 2019)
    Contributions from Science Education Research
    The aim of this research was to examine if a set of three science and technology workshops would promote first-grade pupils’ science-related competence beliefs. The first workshop dealt with electric circuits and related handicraft tasks. The second workshop involved programming with Lego Mindstorms robots. The third workshop was related to computer-based data logging. Fifty-nine Finnish first graders (age 7–8 years) participated in the digitally intensive science workshops, and 38 pupils served as a control group. The data were analysed using a paired samples t-test. The analysis results reveal that the set of three workshops increased the pupils’ science and technology-related competence beliefs.
  • Zagidullin, B; Wang, Z; Guan, Y; Pitkänen, E; Tang, J (2021)
    Application of machine and deep learning methods in drug discovery and cancer research has gained a considerable amount of attention in the past years. As the field grows, it becomes crucial to systematically evaluate the performance of novel computational solutions in relation to established techniques. To this end, we compare rule-based and data-driven molecular representations in prediction of drug combination sensitivity and drug synergy scores using standardized results of 14 high-throughput screening studies, comprising 64 200 unique combinations of 4153 molecules tested in 112 cancer cell lines. We evaluate the clustering performance of molecular representations and quantify their similarity by adapting the Centered Kernel Alignment metric. Our work demonstrates that to identify an optimal molecular representation type, it is necessary to supplement quantitative benchmark results with qualitative considerations, such as model interpretability and robustness, which may vary between and throughout preclinical drug development projects.
  • Sutrop, Margit (2020)
    We frequently find ourselves in intractable disagreements about the morality of abortion euthanasia, restrictions to freedom, or eating meat for fun. An adequate reaction to a disagreement requires knowing which type of disagreements we arc confronted with. The main aim of my paper is to explain the source of moral disagreements and clarify their nature. I will argue that some moral disagreements are deep conceptual disagreements that similarly to disagreements in logic or ontology, are not resolvable, as the resolution of the disagreement requires the disputants to adopt perspectives that are conceptually unavailable to them. I will suggest four possible sources of moral disagreements: incommensurable fundamental values, different concepts of the good life, different motivating reasons and different concepts of morality.
  • Olander, R. F. W.; Sundholm, J. K. M.; Ojala, T. H.; Andersson, S.; Sarkola, T. (2020)
    Objectives Both excessive and restricted fetal growth are associated with changes in cardiac geometry and function at birth. There are significant issues when indexing cardiac parameters for body size in the neonatal period. The aims of this study were to determine to what extent cardiac geometry is dependent on body size in term and preterm neonates with restricted or excessive fetal growth and how this is affected by adiposity. Methods This was a cross-sectional study of neonates born between 31 and 42 weeks of gestation, divided into three groups: (1) small-for-gestational age (SGA, birth weight > 2 SD below the mean); (2) large-for-gestational age (LGA, birth weight > 2 SD above the mean); and (3) appropriate-for-gestational-age controls (AGA, birth weight Results In total, 174 neonates were included, of which 39 were SGA, 45 were LGA and 90 were AGA. Body size was reflected in cardiac dimensions, with differences in cardiac dimensions disappearing between the SGA and AGA groups when indexed for body surface area (BSA) or thoracic circumference. The same was true for the differences in atrial and ventricular areas between the LGA and AGA groups. However, left ventricular inflow and outflow tract dimensions did not follow this trend as, when indexed for BSA, they were associated negatively with adiposity, resulting in diminished dimensions in LGA compared with AGA and SGA neonates. Adiposity was associated positively with left ventricular mass, right ventricular length and area and right atrial area. The SGA group showed increased right ventricular fractional area change, possibly reflecting differences in the systolic function of the right ventricle. We found evidence of altered diastolic function between the groups, with the mitral valve inflow E-to lateral E'-wave peak velocity ratio being increased in the LGA group and decreased in the SGA group. Conclusions Cardiac geometry is explained by body size in both term and preterm AGA and SGA infants. However, the nature of the relationship between body size and cardiac dimensions may be influenced by adiposity in LGA infants, leading to underestimation of left ventricular inflow and outflow tract dimensions when adjusted for BSA. Adjustments for thoracic circumference provide similar results to those for BSA. Copyright (C) 2020 ISUOG. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
  • Loimu, Venla; Seppälä, Tiina; Kapanen, Mika; Tuomikoski, Laura; Nurmi, Heidi; Makitie, Antti; Tenhunen, Mikko; Saarilahti, Kauko (2017)
    Background and purposes: Permanent xerostomia as a result of radiation-induced salivary gland damage remains a common side effect of radiotherapy (RT) of the head and neck. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the usefulness of diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (DW-MRI) in assessing the post-RT salivary gland function in patients with head and neck cancer (HNC). Materials and methods: In this prospective study, 20 HNC patients scheduled for bilateral neck chemoradiotherapy (CRT) with weekly cisplatin went through diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (DW-MRI) and salivary gland scintigraphy (SGS) prior to and at a mean of six months after completing the treatment. The changes in apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) before and after treatment were compared with ejection fraction (EF) measured with SGS and the radiation dose absorbed by the salivary glands. Results: As a result of gustatory stimulation with ascorbic acid, the ADC showed a biphasic response with an initial increase and subsequent decrease. This pattern was seen both before and after RT. Post-RT ADC increased as a function of RT dose absorbed by the salivary glands. A moderate statistical correlation between pre- and post-RT ADCs at rest and EF measured with SGS was found. Conclusions: DW-MRI seems a promising tool for detection of physiological and functional changes in major salivary glands after RT. (C) 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
  • dos Santos, J. W.; Correia, R. A.; Malhado, A. C. M.; Campos-Silva, J.; Teles, D.; Jepson, P.; Ladle, R. J. (2020)
    Scientific knowledge of species and the ecosystems they inhabit is the cornerstone of modern conservation. However, research effort is not spread evenly among taxa (taxonomic bias), which may constrain capacity to identify conservation risk and to implement effective responses. Addressing such biases requires an understanding of factors that promote or constrain the use of a particular species in research projects. To this end, we quantified conservation science knowledge of the world's extant non-marine mammal species (n = 4108) based on the number of published documents in journals indexed on Clarivate Analytics' Web of Science (TM). We use an innovative hurdle model approach to assess the relative importance of several ecological, biogeographical and cultural factors for explaining variation in research production between species. The most important variable explaining the presence/absence of conservation research was scientific capacity of countries within the range of the species, followed by body mass and years since the taxonomic description. Research volume (more than one document) was strongly associated with number of years since the data describing on that species, followed by scientific capacity within the range of species, high body mass and invasiveness. The threat status was weakly associated to explain the presence/absence and research volume in conservation research. These results can be interpreted as a consequence of the dynamic interplay between the perceived need for conservation research about a species and its appropriateness as a target of research. As anticipated, the scientific capacity of the countries where a species is found is a strong driver of conservation research bias, reflecting the high variation in conservation research funding and human resources between countries. Our study suggests that this bias could be most effectively reduced by a combination of investing in pioneering research, targeted funding and supporting research in countries with low scientific capacity and high biodiversity.
  • Friberg, Kalervo (2020)
    This study detected and analyzed changes that took place in students' attitudes toward their future education and occupation after completion of the 3-year orientation to work-life through Grades 7 to 9 in different regions in Finland. The changes in the correlations of attitudes were seen as both precursors and consequences of the students' engagement in the work-life orientation (WLO) program. The changes were postulated not to correlate with the respondents' region and parents' education. The empirically measured changes in students' attitudes served as indicators of the efficacy of WLO. Efficacy referred to the power of WLO to produce effects in the form of changes in attitudes toward educational and occupational choices. Consequently, tentative hypotheses were formed to be tested through empirical observations (measurement points) of WLO. WLO was expected to positively affect student motivation and to guide idiographic decision-making concerning personal goals. Using an alpha level of .05, an independent samples test was conducted to evaluate whether independence, flexibility, and self-direction differed significantly in the measurement groups. For the WLO effect sizes (ES) estimation and for the comparison of the groups, Cohen's ds were calculated. WLO had a small to medium effect on independence and flexibility, and a near zero effect on self-direction. No notable regional differences in the variance of the students' attitudes were detected although the social environments differed considerably with regard to industrial structure. The statistically significant proportional differences between the parents' educational levels did not correlate with the efficacy of WLO.
  • Uotila, Riikka; Röntynen, Petteri; Pelkonen, Anna S.; Voutilainen, Helena; Kaarina Kukkonen, Anna; Mäkelä, Mika J. (2020)
  • Luomala, Harri; Puska, Petteri; Lähdesmäki, Merja; Siltaoja, Marjo; Kurki, Sami (2020)
    Status considerations have recently been linked to prosocial behaviors. This research shows that even everyday consumer behaviors such as favoring organic foods serve as prosocial status signaling. Key ideas from the continuum model of consumer impression formation and the theories of costly signaling and symbolic consumption are synthetized to make sense of this phenomenon. Two web-surveys (Ns = 187, 259) and a field study (N = 336) following experimental designs are conducted. This approach allows the analysis of both the more and less conscious reactions of consumers. Study 1 shows that the image of consumers favoring organic product versions is marked by characteristics consistent with prosocial status signaling. Study 2 replicates these findings with another sample and a wider range of products and demonstrate that observers’ conservative values influence the image formed of organic food users. Study 3 establishes that similar image effects also emerge through a less conscious formation process and that they extend to how organic food users are socially treated. This research advances the current understanding concerning the interlinkages between organic food usage, prosocial status signaling, consumer impressions and reputation management. Substantively, the studies provide novel compelling empirical evidence for the ability of non-luxurious everyday consumer behaviors to qualify as prosocial status signaling. Conceptually, the integration of evolutionary and sociocultural perspectives represents a major contribution. More specifically, this research yields new understanding as regards the role of individual variation in sensing and interpreting status symbols.
  • Orjatsalo, Maija; Alakuijala, Anniina; Partinen, Markku (2020)
    Introduction:Postural tachycardia syndrome (POTS) is a suspected dysautonomia with symptoms of orthostatic intolerance and abnormally increased heart rate while standing. We aimed to study cardiac autonomic nervous system functioning in head-up tilt (HUT) in adolescents with POTS to find out if parasympathetic tone is attenuated in the upright position. Methods:We compared characteristics of a group of 25 (females 14/25; 56%) adolescents with POTS and 12 (females 4/12; 34%) without POTS aged 9-17 years. We compared heart rate variability with high- and low-frequency oscillations, and their temporal changes in HUT. Results:The high-frequency oscillations, i.e., HF, attenuated in both groups during HUT (p<0.05), but the attenuation was bigger in POTS (p= 0.04). In the beginning of HUT, low-frequency oscillations, i.e., LF, increased more in POTS (p= 0.01), but in the end of HUT, an attenuation in LF was seen in the POTS group (p<0.05), but not in the subjects without POTS. There were no associations of previous infections or vaccinations with POTS. Subjects with POTS were sleepier and their overall quality of life was very low. Conclusion:The results imply to an impaired autonomic regulation while standing in POTS, presenting as a lower HF and higher LF in the beginning of HUT and an attenuated LF in the prolonged standing position.
  • Lo, Veronica B. P. G.; Lopez-Rodriguez, Maria D.; Metzger, Marc J.; Oteros-Rozas, Elisa; Cebrian-Piqueras, Miguel A.; Ruiz-Mallen, Isabel; March, Hug; Raymond, Christopher M. (2022)
    Envisioning processes enable protected area managers to chart a course for future management to reach desired goals, but unexpected changes that could affect future visions are not usually considered. The global COVID-19 pandemic provided an opportunity to explore changes in stakeholder visions, the values that underpin the visions, and their perceptions of landscape changes and the underlying drivers (e.g. climate change, mass tourism and demographic trends). Through a mixed-methods approach in this post-evaluation study, we gathered comparative data on these issues from stakeholders in the Sierra de Guadarrama National Park, Spain, between July 2019 (pre-pandemic) and October 2020 (mid-pandemic). Our qualitative analysis demonstrates that pre-pandemic, differences in visions for protected area management were largely spurred by different perceptions of drivers of change, rather than differences in values or perceived landscape changes, which were similar across different vision themes. One year later, in the midst of the COVID-19 pandemic, the majority of stakeholders reported that their values, visions and perceptions of drivers did not change despite this large-scale disturbance. Of the 20%-30% of stakeholders that did report changes, visions generally shifted towards greater prioritization of biodiversity and nature conservation as a result of heightened perceptions of the impacts of drivers of change associated with an increase in the numbers of park visitors. These drivers included mass tourism, mountain recreation, lack of environmental awareness, and change in values and traditions. Our findings reinforce the importance of adaptive and inclusive management of protected areas, including enhancing transparency and communications regarding factors driving change in the landscape, and integration of local and traditional knowledge and stakeholder perceptions of changes and drivers. Furthermore, management plans integrating stakeholder values have the potential to stay relevant even in the face of wildcard events such as a pandemic. To enhance the relevancy of visions and scenarios in conservation and land-use planning, scenario planning methodologies should more strongly consider different potential disturbances and how drivers of change in the near and far future can be affected by wildcard events such as a pandemic. A free Plain Language Summary can be found within the Supporting Information of this article.
  • Kukkala, Aija; Maiorano, Luigi; Thuiller, Wilfried; Arponen, Anni (2019)
    The concept of National responsibility species (NRS) was developed to coordinate the conservation efforts of species occurring in multiple countries. Calculated as the fraction of the global species' distribution within a country, it measures the contribution of a local population to global survival of the species. However, there may be more co-occurring species in one region than another, making the conservation of a species more cost-efficient in the first than the latter. If cost-efficient resource allocation is the goal, then identifying NRS should also be based on spatial priorities. We propose that a species is considered NRS when a large part of its distribution falls within high priority areas in a country. We identify NRS from spatial conservation prioritization outputs to (1) maximize the overall cost-efficiency of allocation of conservation resources and (2) to provide information about which species the spatial priorities are based on. We analyzed data on vertebrates in the Birds and Habitats directives in the EU28 countries and compared the traditional NRS measure to three alternative strategies. While the majority of species maintained their NRS status in most countries regardless of the approach, differences occurred, with varying numbers and identities of responsibility species in a country, or responsibilities for species shifting between countries. The differences were largest in geographically marginal countries and for species that were distributed across a few countries. Other NRS approaches may also be useful, and the choice of approach should ultimately depend on the purpose and complement information on conservation status in decision-making.
  • Dobewall, Henrik; Hintsanen, Mirka; Savelieva, Kateryna; Hakulinen, Christian; Merjonen, Päivi; Gluschkoff, Kia; Keltikangas-Järvinen, Liisa (2019)
    Intergenerational transmission of life satisfaction has been empirically established, but less is known about the continuity of satisfaction as being reflected across multiple life domains, unique effects of parental domain-specific satisfaction on offspring overall life satisfaction, and potential gender effects. In this population-based prospective study, the association between the life satisfaction of parents (G1) (2191 mothers and 2156 fathers) and their children (G2) (921 sons and 1277 daughters) was examined. In both generations, satisfaction as a parent, as a spouse, and at work was assessed in about the same developmental stage (mean age for G1 38-42years, and for G2 38-43years at the times when LS was measured). When both parents were considered jointly, only mothers' overall life satisfaction had an independent effect on their adult children's overall life satisfaction, with the effect diminishing over time. However, we also found a robust effect of paternal satisfaction at work on offspring's overall life satisfaction in adulthood. Gender of the offspring did not significantly moderate the strength of the associations between generations. The current findings emphasize the high interdependence of life satisfaction within families long after children have moved out of the parental home.
  • Jousi, Milla; Saikko, Simo; Nurmi, Jouni (2017)
    Background: Point-of-care (POC) testing is highly useful when treating critically ill patients. In case of difficult vascular access, the intraosseous (IO) route is commonly used, and blood is aspirated to confirm the correct position of the IO-needle. Thus, IO blood samples could be easily accessed for POC analyses in emergency situations. The aim of this study was to determine whether IO values agree sufficiently with arterial values to be used for clinical decision making. Methods: Two samples of IO blood were drawn from 31 healthy volunteers and compared with arterial samples. The samples were analysed for sodium, potassium, ionized calcium, glucose, haemoglobin, haematocrit, pH, blood gases, base excess, bicarbonate, and lactate using the i-STAT (R) POC device. Agreement and reliability were estimated by using the Bland-Altman method and intraclass correlation coefficient calculations. Results: Good agreement was evident between the IO and arterial samples for pH, glucose, and lactate. Potassium levels were clearly higher in the IO samples than those from arterial blood. Base excess and bicarbonate were slightly higher, and sodium and ionised calcium values were slightly lower, in the IO samples compared with the arterial values. The blood gases in the IO samples were between arterial and venous values. Haemoglobin and haematocrit showed remarkable variation in agreement. Discussion: POC diagnostics of IO blood can be a useful tool to guide treatment in critical emergency care. Seeking out the reversible causes of cardiac arrest or assessing the severity of shock are examples of situations in which obtaining vascular access and blood samples can be difficult, though information about the electrolytes, acid-base balance, and lactate could guide clinical decision making. The analysis of IO samples should though be limited to situations in which no other option is available, and the results should be interpreted with caution, because there is not yet enough scientific evidence regarding the agreement of IO and arterial results among unstable patients. Conclusions: IO blood samples are suitable for analysis with the i-STAT (R) point-of-care device in emergency care. The aspirate used to confirm the correct placement of the IO needle can also be used for analysis. The results must be interpreted within a clinical context while taking the magnitude and direction of bias into account.
  • Riechers, Maraja; Loos, Jacqueline; Balazsi, Agnes; Garcia-Llorente, Marina; Bieling, Claudia; Burgos-Ayala, Aracely; Chakroun, Leila; Mattijssen, Thomas J. M.; Muhr, Maximilian M.; Perez-Ramirez, Irene; Raatikainen, Kaisa J.; Rana, Sakshi; Richardson, Miles; Rosengren, Linda; West, Simon (2021)
    This perspective paper synthesises the special issue 'Human-nature connectedness as a leverage point for sustainability transformation'. Based on the articles in this special issue, we aim to foster the operationalisation of the leverage points perspective to shape human-nature relations to enable sustainability transformations. Specifically, we draw on four key advantages of the leverage points perspective: (i) the explicit recognition of deep leverage points; (ii) the ability to examine the interactions between shallow and deep system changes; (iii) the combination of causal and teleological modes of research; and (iv) the ability to function as a methodological boundary object. The contributions to this special issue revealed three deep leverage points addressing paradigm shifts in research and beyond: relational thinking and values, stewardship philosophy and shifting the economic growth paradigm to focus on human well-being. We highlight interlinkages between leverage points to further strengthen the transformative potential of interventions that aim at triggering shifts in our understanding about human-nature relations. Further, we show a way to bridge causal and teleological approaches by envisioning desired futures. Lastly, we emphasise the potential of arts-based methodologies, including participatory, transdisciplinary research to foster sustainability transformation and how this can be combined within the leverage points perspective.
  • Lundberg, Piia; Vainio, Annukka; Ojala, Ann; Arponen, Anni (2019)
    We explored the relationship between materialism, awareness of environmental consequences and environmental philanthropic behaviour with a web survey (n=2,079) targeted at potential donors living in Finland. Environmental philanthropic behaviour comprise of donations of money and/or time to environmental charities. The awareness of environmental consequences was divided into egoistic, altruistic and biospheric concerns. Biospheric and egoistic concerns were positively, while materialism was negatively related to environmental philanthropic behaviour. Materialism was related to preference of charismatic species when choosing a target for donation. The results have implications for conservation marketing emphasising the importance of taking the different donor segments into account.