Browsing by Subject "VARIANT"

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  • Pittman, Alan M.; Naranjo, Silvia; Jalava, Sanni E.; Twiss, Philip; Ma, Yussanne; Olver, Bianca; Lloyd, Amy; Vijayakrishnan, Jayaram; Qureshi, Mobshra; Broderick, Peter; van Wezel, Tom; Morreau, Hans; Tuupanen, Sari; Aaltonen, Lauri A.; Eva Alonso, M.; Manzanares, Miguel; Gavilan, Angela; Visakorpi, Tapio; Luis Gomez-Skarmeta, Jose; Houlston, Richard S. (2010)
  • Schillemans, Tessa; Tragante, Vinicius; Maitusong, Buamina; Gigante, Bruna; Cresci, Sharon; Laguzzi, Federica; Vikstrom, Max; Richards, Mark; Pilbrow, Anna; Cameron, Vicky; Foco, Luisa; Doughty, Robert N.; Kuukasjarvi, Pekka; Allayee, Hooman; Hartiala, Jaana A.; Tang, W. H. Wilson; Lyytikainen, Leo-Pekka; Nikus, Kjell; Laurikka, Jari O.; Srinivasan, Sundararajan; Mordi, Ify R.; Trompet, Stella; Kraaijeveld, Adriaan; van Setten, Jessica; Gijsberts, Crystel M.; Maitland-van der Zee, Anke H.; Saely, Christoph H.; Gong, Yan; Johnson, Julie A.; Cooper-DeHoff, Rhonda M.; Pepine, Carl J.; Casu, Gavino; Leiherer, Andreas; Drexel, Heinz; Horne, Benjamin D.; van der Laan, Sander W.; Marziliano, Nicola; Hazen, Stanley L.; Sinisalo, Juha; Kahonen, Mika; Lehtimaki, Terho; Lang, Chim C.; Burkhardt, Ralph; Scholz, Markus; Jukema, J. Wouter; Eriksson, Niclas; Akerblom, Axel; James, Stefan; Held, Claes; Hagstrom, Emil; Spertus, John A.; Algra, Ale; de Faire, Ulf; Akesson, Agneta; Asselbergs, Folkert W.; Patel, Riyaz S.; Leander, Karin (2022)
    Background: The knowledge of factors influencing disease progression in patients with established coronary heart disease (CHD) is still relatively limited. One potential pathway is related to peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator-1 alpha (PPARGC1A), a transcription factor linked to energy metabolism which may play a role in the heart function. Thus, its associations with subsequent CHD events remain unclear. We aimed to investigate the effect of three different SNPs in the PPARGC1A gene on the risk of subsequent CHD in a population with established CHD.Methods: We employed an individual-level meta-analysis using 23 studies from the GENetIcs of sUbSequent Coronary Heart Disease (GENIUS-CHD) consortium, which included participants (n = 80,900) with either acute coronary syndrome, stable CHD, or a mixture of both at baseline. Three variants in the PPARGC1A gene (rs8192678, G482S; rs7672915, intron 2; and rs3755863, T528T) were tested for their associations with subsequent events during the follow-up using a Cox proportional hazards model adjusted for age and sex. The primary outcome was subsequent CHD death or myocardial infarction (CHD death/myocardial infarction). Stratified analyses of the participant or study characteristics as well as additional analyses for secondary outcomes of specific cardiovascular disease diagnoses and all-cause death were also performed.Results: Meta-analysis revealed no significant association between any of the three variants in the PPARGC1A gene and the primary outcome of CHD death/myocardial infarction among those with established CHD at baseline: rs8192678, hazard ratio (HR): 1.01, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.98-1.05 and rs7672915, HR: 0.97, 95% CI 0.94-1.00; rs3755863, HR: 1.02, 95% CI 0.99-1.06. Similarly, no significant associations were observed for any of the secondary outcomes. The results from stratified analyses showed null results, except for significant inverse associations between rs7672915 (intron 2) and the primary outcome among 1) individuals aged >= 65, 2) individuals with renal impairment, and 3) antiplatelet users.Conclusion: We found no clear associations between polymorphisms in the PPARGC1A gene and subsequent CHD events in patients with established CHD at baseline.
  • Costantini, Alice; Tournis, Symeon; Kämpe, Anders; Ul Ain, Noor; Taylan, Fulya; Doulgeraki, Artemis; Mäkitie, Outi (2018)
    Osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) is a skeletal dysplasia characterized by brittle bones and extraskeletal manifestations. The disease phenotype varies greatly. Most commonly, OI arises from monoallelic mutations in one of the two genes encoding type I collagen, COL1A1 and COL1A2 and is inherited as an autosomal dominant trait. Here, we describe a consanguineous family with autosomal recessive OI caused by a novel homozygous glycine substitution in COL1A2, NM_000089.3: c.604G > A, p.(Gly202Ser), detected by whole-genome sequencing. The index patient is a 31-year-old Greek woman with severe skeletal fragility. She had mild short stature, low bone mineral density of the lumbar spine and blue sclerae. She had sustained multiple long bone and vertebral fractures since childhood and had been treated with bisphosphonates for several years. She also had an affected sister with similar clinical manifestations. Interestingly, the parents and one sister, all carriers of the COL1A2 glycine mutation, did not have manifestations of OI. In summary, we report on autosomal recessive OI caused by a homozygous glycine-to-serine substitution in COL1A2, leading to severe skeletal fragility. The mutation carriers lacked OI manifestations. This family further expands the complex genetic spectrum of OI and underscores the importance of genetic evaluation for correct genetic counselling.
  • Hallamies, Sanna; Pelttari, Liisa M.; Poikonen-Saksela, Paula; Jekunen, Antti; Jukkola-Vuorinen, Arja; Auvinen, Paivi; Blomqvist, Carl; Aittomaki, Kristiina; Mattson, Johanna; Nevanlinna, Heli (2017)
    Background: Several susceptibility genes have been established for female breast cancer, of which mutations in BRCA1 and especially in BRCA2 are also known risk factors for male breast cancer (MBC). The role of other breast cancer genes in MBC is less well understood. Methods: In this study, we have genotyped 68 MBC patients for the known breast or ovarian cancer associated mutations in the Finnish population in CHEK2, PALB2, RAD51C, RAD51D, and FANCM genes. Results: CHEK2 c.1100delC mutation was found in 4 patients (5.9%), which is significantly more frequent than in the control population (OR: 4.47, 95% CI 1.51-13.18, p = 0.019). Four CHEK2 I157T variants were also detected, but the frequency did not significantly differ from population controls (p = 0.781). No RAD51C, RAD51D, PALB2, or FANCM mutations were found. Conclusions: These data suggest that the CHEK2 c.1100delC mutation is associated with an increased risk for MBC in the Finnish population.
  • Suomela, Emmi; Oikonen, Mervi; Pitkanen, Niina; Ahola-Olli, Ari; Virtanen, Johanna; Parkkola, Riitta; Jokinen, Eero; Laitinen, Tomi; Hutri-Kahonen, Nina; Kahonen, Mika; Lehtimaki, Terho; Taittonen, Leena; Tossavainen, Paivi; Jula, Antti; Loom, Britt-Marie; Mikkila, Vera; Telama, Risto; Viikari, Jorma S. A.; Juonala, Markus; Raitakari, Olli T. (2016)
    Background & Aims: Fatty liver is a potentially preventable cause of serious liver diseases. This longitudinal study aimed to identify childhood risk factors of fatty liver in adulthood in a population-based group of Finnish adults. Methods: Study cohort included 2,042 individuals from the Cardiovascular Risk in Young Finns Study aged 3-18 years at baseline in 1980. During the latest follow-up in 2011, the liver was scanned by ultrasound. In addition to physical and environmental factors related to fatty liver, we examined whether the genetic risk posed by a single nucleotide polymorphism in the patatin-like phospholipase domain-containing protein 3 gene (PNPLA3) (rs738409) strengthens prediction of adult fatty liver. Results: Independent childhood predictors of adult fatty liver were small for gestational age, (odds ratio = 1.71, 95% confidence interval = 1.07-2.72), variant in PNPLA3 (1.63, 1.29-2.07 per one risk allele), variant in the transmembrane 6 superfamily 2 gene (TM6SF2) (1.57, 1.08-2.30), BMI (1.30, 1.07-1.59 per standard deviation) and insulin (1.25, 1.05-1.49 per standard deviation). Childhood blood pressure, physical activity, C-reactive protein, smoking, serum lipid levels or parental lifestyle factors did not predict fatty liver. Risk assessment based on childhood age, sex, BMI, insulin levels, birth weight, TM6SF2 and PNPLA3 was superior in predicting fatty liver compared with the approach using only age, sex, BMI and insulin levels (C statistics, 0.725 vs. 0.749; p = 0.002). Conclusions: Childhood risk factors on the development of fatty liver were small for gestational age, high insulin and high BMI. Prediction of adult fatty liver was enhanced by taking into account genetic variants in PNPLA3 and TM6SF2 genes. Lay summary: The increase in pediatric obesity emphasizes the importance of identification of children and adolescents at high risk of fatty liver in adulthood. We used data from the longitudinal Cardiovascular Risk in Young Finns Study to examine the associations of childhood (3-18 years) risk variables with fatty liver assessed in adulthood at the age of 34-49 years. The findings suggest that a multifactorial approach with both lifestyle and genetic factors included would improve early identification of children with a high risk of adult fatty liver. (C) 2016 European Association for the Study of the Liver. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
  • Rantakokko-Jalava, Kaisu; Hokynar, Kati; Hieta, Niina; Keskitalo, Anniina; Jokela, Pia; Muotiala, Anna; Jokiranta, T. Sakari; Kuusela, Rutta; Sarkkinen, Hannu; Aittoniemi, Janne; Vuorinen, Tytti; Hakanen, Antti J.; Puolakkainen, Mirja (2019)
    Since February 2019, over 160 Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) cases testing negative or equivocal by Aptima Combo 2 (AC2) but positive by Aptima CT test run with Panther instruments occurred in Finland. The AC2 test targets chlamydial 23S rRNA while the CT test targets 16S rRNA. Sequencing of 10 strains revealed a nucleotide substitution in 23S rRNA. The significance of this for the failure of the AC2 test to detect the variant is not yet known.
  • 99 Lives Cat Genome Consortium; Jaffey, Jared A.; Reading, N. Scott; Giger, Urs; Abdulmalik, Osheiza; Buckley, Ruben M.; Johnstone, Sophie; Lyons, Leslie A.; Lohi, Hannes (2019)
    Two non-pedigreed male castrated cats had persistent cyanosis over a 3-year observation period. Clinical cardiopulmonary evaluations did not reveal abnormalities, but the blood remained dark after exposure to air. Erythrocytic methemoglobin concentrations were high (40% of hemoglobin) and cytochrome b(5) reductase (CYB5R) activities in erythrocytes were low (A missense variant (B4:137967506) and a c.232-1G>C splice acceptor variant (B4:137970815) in CYB5R3, respectively, which were absent in 193 unaffected additional cats. The p.Gly209Ser missense variant likely disrupts a nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH)-binding domain, while the splicing error occurs at the acceptor site for exon 4, which likely affects downstream translation of the protein. The 2 novel CYB5R3 variants were associated with methemoglobinemia using clinical, biochemical, genomics, and in silico protein studies. The variant prevalence is unknown in the cat population.
  • Huhtakangas, Justiina; Lehecka, Martin; Lehto, Hanna; Jahromi, Behnam Rezai; Niemela, Mika; Kivisaari, Riku (2017)
    Posterior communicating artery (PcomA) aneurysms are frequently encountered, but there are few publications on their morphology. A growing number of aneurysms are incidental findings, which makes evaluation of rupture risk important. Our goal was to identify morphological features and anatomical variants associated with PComA aneurysms and to assess parameters related to rupture. We studied CT angiographies of 391 consecutive patients treated between 2000 and 2014 at a single institution. We determined clinically important morphological parameters and performed univariate and multivariate analysis. There were a total of 413 PComA aneurysms: 258 (62%) were ruptured and 155 (38%) unruptured. Ruptured PComA aneurysms had the potential to cause severe bleeding with IVH and/or temporal ICH (n = 170, 66% of ruptured). The main types of PComA origin were classified as follows: (1) separate (32%), (2) side by side (21%) and (3) a joint neck with the aneurysm (6%). After the multivariate logistic regression, the morphological parameters related to PComA aneurysm rupture were an irregular aneurysm dome, neck diameter, and aspect ratio > 1.5. The most marked morphological features of the PComA aneurysms were: saccular nature (99%), infero-posterior dome orientation (42%), infrequency of large or giant aneurysms (4%), narrow neck compared to the aneurysm size, PComA originating directly from the aneurysm neck or the dome (28%), and fetal or dominant PComA on the side of the aneurysm (35%). There were location-related parameters that were more strongly associated with PComA aneurysm rupture than aneurysm size: an irregular aneurysm dome, larger diameter of the aneurysm neck and aspect ratio > 1.5.
  • Suzzi, Stefano; Ahrendt, Reiner; Hans, Stefan; Semenova, Svetlana A.; Chekuru, Avinash; Wirsching, Paul; Kroehne, Volker; Bilican, Saygin; Sayed, Shady; Winkler, Sylke; Spiess, Sandra; Machate, Anja; Kaslin, Jan; Panula, Pertti; Brand, Michael (2021)
    LRRK2 gain-of-function is considered a major cause of Parkinson's disease (PD) in humans. However, pathogenicity of LRRK2 loss-of-function in animal models is controversial. Here we show that deletion of the entire zebrafish lrrk2 locus elicits a pleomorphic transient brain phenotype in maternal-zygotic mutant embryos (mzLrrk2). In contrast to lrrk2, the paralog gene lrrk1 is virtually not expressed in the brain of both wild-type and mzLrrk2 fish at different developmental stages. Notably, we found reduced catecholaminergic neurons, the main target of PD, in specific cell populations in the brains of mzLrrk2 larvae, but not adult fish. Strikingly, age-dependent accumulation of monoamine oxidase (MAO)-dependent catabolic signatures within mzLrrk2 brains revealed a previously undescribed interaction between LRRK2 and MAO biological activities. Our results highlight mzLrrk2 zebrafish as a tractable tool to study LRRK2 loss-of-function in vivo, and suggest a link between LRRK2 and MAO, potentially of relevance in the prodromic stages of PD. Author summary Parkinson's disease is the second most common degenerative disorder of the brain. Mutations of the LRRK2 gene are the most recurrent genetic cause of pathology, and are thought to result in a more active LRRK2 protein, a large enzyme whose biological function is unclear. Therefore, LRRK2 inhibitors are regarded as promising therapeutics. However, mouse models do not reproduce human pathology unless they also lack LRRK1, and there is evidence of dominant negative effects of LRRK2 mutations. Therefore, the characterization of reliable LRRK2 knockout models might provide insights. In our study, we used the zebrafish as a tractable model to study both early developmental and adult phenotypes resulting from the loss of the entire endogenous lrrk2 gene. We found that mutant embryos displayed subtle brain phenotypes, including reduction of catecholaminergic neurons, the main target of human disease, that spontaneously resolved with development, and a late-onset and progressive increase of dopamine and serotonin degradation consistent with increased MAO enzyme activity. Our results suggest that similar defects might occur in the pre-symptomatic stage of the disease in humans, and warrant further evaluation of LRRK2 inhibition in a therapeutic perspective.
  • Luukkonen, Panu K.; Qadri, Sami; Ahlholm, Noora; Porthan, Kimmo; Mannisto, Ville; Sammalkorpi, Henna; Penttilä, Anne K.; Hakkarainen, Antti; Lehtimäki, Tiina E.; Gaggini, Melania; Gastaldelli, Amalia; Ala-Korpela, Mika; Orho-Melander, Marju; Arola, Johanna; Juuti, Anne; Pihlajamäki, Jussi; Hodson, Leanne; Yki-Järvinen, Hannele (2022)
    Background & Aims: There is substantial inter-individual variability in the risk of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Part of which is explained by insulin resistance (IR) ('MetComp') and part by common modifiers of genetic risk ('GenComp'). We examined how IR on the one hand and genetic risk on the other contribute to the pathogenesis of NAFLD. Methods: We studied 846 individuals: 492 were obese patients with liver histology and 354 were individuals who underwent intrahepatic triglyceride measurement by proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy. A genetic risk score was calculated using the number of risk alleles in PNPLA3, TM6SF2, MBOAT7, HSD17B13 and MARC1. Substrate concentrations were assessed by serum NMR metabolomics. In subsets of participants, non-esterified fatty acids (NEFAs) and their flux were assessed by D-5-glycerol and hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp (n = 41), and hepatic de novo lipogenesis (DNL) was measured by D2O (n = 61). Results: We found that substrate surplus (increased concentrations of 28 serum metabolites including glucose, glycolytic intermediates, and amino acids; increased NEFAs and their flux; increased DNL) characterized the 'MetComp'. In contrast, the 'GenComp' was not accompanied by any substrate excess but was characterized by an increased hepaticmitochondrial redox state, as determined by serum beta-hydroxybutyrate/acetoacetate ratio, and inhibition of hepatic pathways dependent on tricarboxylic acid cycle activity, such as DNL. Serum beta-hydroxybutyrate/acetoacetate ratio correlated strongly with all histological features of NAFLD. IR and hepatic mitochondrial redox state conferred additive increases in histological features of NAFLD. Conclusions: These data show that the mechanisms underlying 'Metabolic' and 'Genetic' components of NAFLD are fundamentally different. These findings may have implications with respect to the diagnosis and treatment of NAFLD. Lay summary: The pathogenesis of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease can be explained in part by a metabolic component, including obesity, and in part by a genetic component. Herein, we demonstrate that the mechanisms underlying these components are fundamentally different: the metabolic component is characterized by hepatic oversupply of substrates, such as sugars, lipids and amino acids. In contrast, the genetic component is characterized by impaired hepatic mitochondrial function, making the liver less able to metabolize these substrates. (C) 2021 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier B.V. on behalf of European Association for the Study of the Liver.
  • Boren, Jan; Adiels, Martin; Bjornson, Elias; Matikainen, Niina; Söderlund, Sanni; Rämö, Joel; Ståhlman, Marcus; Ripatti, Pietari; Ripatti, Samuli; Palotie, Aarno; Mancina, Rosellina M.; Hakkarainen, Antti; Romeo, Stefano; Packard, Chris J.; Taskinen, Marja-Riitta (2020)
    Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is characterized by hepatic lipid accumulation. The transmembrane 6 superfamily member 2 (TM6SF2) E167K genetic variant associates with NAFLD and with reduced plasma triglyceride levels in humans. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying these associations remain unclear. We hypothesized that TM65F2 E167K affects hepatic very low-density lipoprotein (VLDL) secretion and studied the kinetics of apolipoprotein 13100 (apoB100) and triglyceride metabolism in VLDL in homozygous subjects. In 10 homozygote TM6SF2 E167K carriers and 10 matched controls, we employed stable-isotope tracer and compartmental modeling techniques to determine apoB100 and triglyceride kinetics in the 2 major VIOL subtractions: large triglyceride-rich VLDL, and smaller, less triglyceride-rich VLDL2. VLDL1-apoB100 production was markedly reduced in homozygote TM6SF2 E167K carriers compared with controls. Likewise. VLDL,-triglyceride production was 35% lower in the TMSSF2 E167K carriers. In contrast, the direct production rates for VLDL2 apo13100 and triglyceride were not different between carriers and controls. In conclusion, the TM6SF2 E167K genetic variant was linked to a specific reduction in hepatic secretion of large triglyceride-rich VLDL1. The impaired secretion of VLDL1 explains the reduced plasma triglyceride concentration and provides a basis for understanding the lower risk of cardiovascular disease associated with the TM6SF2 E167K genetic variant.
  • Kiiski, Johanna I.; Tervasmäki, Anna; Pelttari, Liisa M.; Khan, Sofia; Mantere, Tuomo; Pylkäs, Katri; Mannermaa, Arto; Tengström, Maria; Kvist, Anders; Borg, Åke; Kosma, Veli-Matti; Kallioniemi, Anne; Schleutker, Johanna; Bützow, Ralf; Blomqvist, Carl; Aittomäki, Kristiina; Winqvist, Robert; Nevanlinna, Heli (2017)
    The FANCM c.5101C > T nonsense mutation was previously found to associate with breast cancer in the Finnish population, especially among triple-negative cases. Here, we studied the prevalence of three other FANCM variants: c.5791C > T, which has been reported to predispose to familial breast cancer, and the c.4025_4026delCT and c.5293dupA variants recently identified in Finnish cancer patients. We genotyped the FANCM c.5791C > T mutation in 4806 invasive breast cancer patients, including BRCA1/2 mutation negative familial cases and unselected cases, and in 2734 healthy population controls from four different geographical areas of Finland. The association of the mutation with breast cancer risk among patient subgroups was statistically evaluated. We further analyzed the combined risk associated with c.5101C > T and c.5791C > T mutations. We also genotyped 526 unselected ovarian cancer patients for the c.5791C > T mutation and 862 familial breast cancer patients for the c.4025_4026delCT and c.5293dupA variants. The frequency of the FANCM c.5791C > T mutation was higher among breast cancer cases than in controls (OR 1.94, 95% CI 0.87-4.32, P = 0.11), with a statistically significant association with triple-negative breast cancer (OR 5.14, 95% CI 1.65-16.0, P = 0.005). The combined analysis for c.5101C > T and c.5791C > T carriers confirmed a strong association with breast cancer (OR 1.86, 95% CI 1.32-2.49, P = 0.0002), especially among the triple-negative patients (OR 3.08, 95% CI 1.77-5.35, P = 0.00007). For the other variants, only one additional c.4025_4026delCT carrier and no c.5293dupA carriers were observed. These results support the role of FANCM as a breast cancer susceptibility gene, particularly for triple-negative breast cancer.
  • Schmidt, Eeva-Kaisa; Mustonen, Tuuli; Kiuru-Enari, Sari; Kivelä, Tero T.; Atula, Sari (2020)
    Background Hereditary gelsolin (AGel) amyloidosis is an autosomal dominantly inherited systemic amyloidosis that manifests with the characteristic triad of progressive ophthalmological, neurological and dermatological signs and symptoms. The National Finnish Gelsolin Amyloidosis Registry (FIN-GAR) was founded in 2013 to collect clinical data on patients with AGel amyloidosis, including altogether approximately one third of the Finnish patients. We aim to deepen knowledge on the disease burden and life span of the patients using data from the updated FIN-GAR registry. We sent an updated questionnaire concerning the symptoms and signs, symptomatic treatments and subjective perception on disease progression to 240 members of the Finnish Amyloidosis Association (SAMY). We analyzed the lifespan of 478 patients using the relative survival (RS) framework. Results The updated FIN-GAR registry includes 261 patients. Symptoms and signs corresponding to the classical triad of ophthalmological (dry eyes in 93%; corneal lattice amyloidosis in 89%), neurological (numbness, tingling and other paresthesias in 75%; facial paresis in 67%), and dermatological (drooping eyelids in 86%; cutis laxa in 84%) manifestations were highly prevalent. Cardiac arrhythmias were reported by 15% of the patients and 5% had a cardiac pacemaker installed. Proteinuria was reported by 13% and renal failure by 5% of the patients. A total of 65% of the patients had undergone a skin or soft tissue surgery, 26% carpal tunnel surgery and 24% at least unilateral cataract surgery. As regards life span, relative survival estimates exceeded 1 for males and females until the age group of 70-74 years, for which it was 0.96. Conclusions AGel amyloidosis causes a wide variety of ophthalmological, neurological, cutaneous, and oral symptoms that together with repeated surgeries cause a clinically significant disease burden. Severe renal and cardiac manifestations are rare as compared to other systemic amyloidoses, explaining in part the finding that AGel amyloidosis does not shorten the life span of the patients at least for the first 75 years.
  • Anstee, Quentin M.; Darlay, Rebecca; Cockell, Simon; Meroni, Marica; Govaere, Olivier; Tiniakos, Dina; Burt, Alastair D.; Bedossa, Pierre; Palmer, Jeremy; Liu, Yang-Lin; Aithal, Guruprasad P.; Allison, Michael; Yki-Järvinen, Hannele; Vacca, Michele; Dufour, Jean-Francois; Invernizzi, Pietro; Prati, Daniele; Ekstedt, Mattias; Kechagias, Stergios; Francque, Sven; Petta, Salvatore; Bugianesi, Elisabetta; Clement, Karine; Ratziu, Vlad; Schattenberg, Jörn M.; Valenti, Luca; Day, Christopher P.; Cordell, Heather J.; Daly, Ann K. (2020)
    Background and Aims Genetic factors associated with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) remain incompletely understood. To date, most GWAS studies have adopted radiologically assessed hepatic triglyceride content as reference phenotype and so cannot address steatohepatitis or fibrosis. We describe a genome-wide association study (GWAS) encompassing the full spectrum of histologically characterized NAFLD. Methods The GWAS involved 1483 European NAFLD cases and 17781 genetically-matched population controls. A replication cohort of 559 NAFLD cases and 945 controls was genotyped to confirm signals showing genome-wide or close to genome-wide significance. Results Case-control analysis identified signals showing p-values ≤ 5 x 10-8 at four locations (chromosome (chr) 2 GCKR/C2ORF16; chr4 HSD17B13; chr19 TM6SF2; chr22 PNPLA3) together with two other signals with p
  • Luukkonen, Panu K.; Zhou, You; Sädevirta, Sanja; Leivonen , Marja; Arola, Johanna; Oresic, Matej; Hyotylainen, Tuulia; Yki-Jarvinen, Hannele (2016)
    Background & Aims: Recent data in mice have identified de novo ceramide synthesis as the key mediator of hepatic insulin resistance (IR) that in humans characterizes increases in liver fat due to IR ('Metabolic NAFLD' but not that due to the I148M gene variant in PNPLA3 ('PNPLA3 NAFLD'). We determined which bioactive lipids co-segregate with IR in the human liver. Methods: Liver lipidome was profiled in liver biopsies from 125 subjects that were divided into equally sized groups based on median HOMA-IR ('High and Low HOMA-IR', n = 62 and n = 63) or PNPLA3 genotype (PNPIA3(148MM/MI), n = 61 vs. PNPLA3(148II), n = 64). The subjects were also divided into 4 groups who had either IR, the I148M gene variant, both of the risk factors or neither. Results: Steatosis and NASH prevalence were similarly increased in 'High HOMA-IR' and PNPLA3(148MM/MI) groups compared to their respective control groups. The 'High HOMA-IR' but not the PNPLA3(148MM/MI) group had features of IR. The liver in 'High HOMA-IR' vs. low HOMA-IR' was markedly enriched in saturated and monounsaturated triacylglycerols and free fatty acids, dihydroceramides (markers of de novo ceramide synthesis) and ceramides. Markers of other ceramide synthetic pathways were unchanged. In PNPLA3(148MM/MI) vs. PNPLA3(148II), the increase in liver fat was due to polyunsaturated triacylglycerols while other lipids were unchanged. Similar changes were observed when data were analyzed using the 4 subgroups. Conclusions: Similar increases in liver fat and NASH are associated with a metabolically harmful saturated, ceramide-enriched liver lipidome in 'Metabolic NAFLD' but not in 'PNPLA3 NAFLD'. This difference may explain why metabolic but not PNPLA3 NAFLD increases the risk of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. (C) 2016 European Association for the Study of the Liver. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
  • Uusi-Rauva, Kristiina; Blom, Tea; von Schantz-Fant, Carina; Blom, Tomas; Jalanko, Anu; Kyttala, Aija (2017)
    Neuronal ceroid lipofuscinoses (NCLs) are autosomal recessive progressive encephalopathies caused by mutations in at least 14 different genes. Despite extensive studies performed in different NCL animal models, the molecular mechanisms underlying neurodegeneration in NCLs remain poorly understood. To model NCL in human cells, we generated induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) by reprogramming skin fibroblasts from a patient with CLN5 (ceroid lipofuscinosis, neuronal, 5) disease, the late infantile variant form of NCL. These CLN5 patient-derived iPSCs (CLN5Y392X iPSCs) harbouring the most common CLN5 mutation, c.1175_1176delAT (p.Tyr392X), were further differentiated into neural lineage cells, the most affected cell type in NCLs. The CLN5Y392X iPSC-derived neural lineage cells showed accumulation of autofluorescent storage material and subunit C of the mitochondrial ATP synthase, both representing the hallmarks of many forms of NCLs, including CLN5 disease. In addition, we detected abnormalities in the intracellular organelles and aberrations in neuronal sphingolipid transportation, verifying the previous findings obtained from Cln5-deficient mouse macrophages. Therefore, patient-derived iPSCs provide a suitable model to study the mechanisms of NCL diseases.
  • Özel, B; Simsek, Ömer; Akcelik, M; Saris, Per Erik Joakim (2018)
    Nisin is a bacteriocin produced by Lactococcus lactis that has been approved by the Food Drug Administration for utilization as a GRAS status food additive. Nisin can inhibit spore germination and demonstrates antimicrobial activity against Listeria, Clostridium, Staphylococcus, and Bacillus species. Under some circumstances, it plays an immune modulator role and has a selective cytotoxic effect against cancer cells, although it is notable that the high production cost of nisin-a result of the low nisin production yield of producer strains-is an important factor restricting intensive use. In recent years, production of nisin has been significantly improved through genetic modifications to nisin producer strains and through innovative applications in the fermentation process. Recently, 15,400 IU ml-1 nisin production has been achieved in L. lactis cells following genetic modifications by eliminating the factors that negatively affect nisin biosynthesis or by increasing the cell density of the producing strains in the fermentation medium. In this review, innovative approaches related to cell and fermentation systems aimed at increasing nisin production are discussed and interpreted, with a view to increasing industrial nisin production.
  • Heni, Martin; Kullmann, Stephanie; Ahlqvist, Emma; Wagner, Robert; Machicao, Fausto; Staiger, Harald; Haring, Hans-Ulrich; Almgren, Peter; Groop, Leif C.; Small, Dana M.; Fritsche, Andreas; Preissl, Hubert (2016)
    Variations in FTO are the strongest common genetic determinants of adiposity, and may partly act by influencing dopaminergic signalling in the brain leading to altered reward processing that promotes increased food intake. Therefore, we investigated the impact of such an interaction on body composition, and peripheral and brain insulin sensitivity. Participants from the Tubingen Family study (n = 2245) and the Malmo Diet and Cancer study (n = 2921) were genotyped for FTO SNP rs8050136 and ANKK1 SNP rs1800497. Insulin sensitivity in the caudate nucleus, an important reward area in the brain, was assessed by fMRI in 45 participants combined with intranasal insulin administration. We found evidence of an interaction between variations in FTO and an ANKK1 polymorphism that associates with dopamine (D2) receptor density. In cases of reduced D2 receptor availability, as indicated by the ANKK1 polymorphism, FTO variation was associated with increased body fat and waist circumference and reduced peripheral insulin sensitivity. Similarly, altered central insulin sensitivity was observed in the caudate nucleus in individuals with the FTO obesity-risk allele and diminished D2 receptors. The effects of variations in FTO are dependent on dopamine D2 receptor density (determined by the ANKK1 polymorphism). Carriers of both risk alleles might, therefore, be at increased risk of obesity and diabetes.
  • Cserni, Gabor; Floris, Giuseppe; Koufopoulos, Nektarios; Kovacs, Aniko; Nonni, Afroditi; Regitnig, Peter; Ståhls, Anders; Varga, Zsuzsanna (2017)
    Invasive lobular carcinoma of the breast is known to produce intracellular mucin and has been recognized in single-case reports to show extracellular mucin production, as well. This latter morphology is not only rare but must also be under- or misdiagnosed. The aim was to better characterize this entity. Cases of lobular cancers demonstrating extracellular mucin formation were identified in a multi-institutional effort and their clinical and morphologic features were assessed. Immunohistochemistry was used to characterize the E-cadherin-membrane complex, neuroendocrine differentiation, and to some extent, mucin formation. All but one of the eight cases occurred in postmenopausal patients. Extracellular mucin production was present in 5 to 50% of the tumour samples and rarely also appeared in nodal and distant metastases. The tumours were completely E-cadherin negative and showed cytoplasmic p120 positivity. The majority (n = 6/8) was also completely negative for beta-catenin, but two tumours displayed focal beta-catenin positivity in the mucinous area. MUC1 and MUC2 expression was observed in all and 7/8 tumours, respectively; neuroendocrine differentiation was present in only one. Invasive lobular carcinoma with extracellular mucin formation is a rare morphologic variant of lobular carcinoma prone to be misdiagnosed and warranting further studies.
  • Paasela, Monika; Kolho, Kaija-Leena; Vaarala, Outi; Honkanen, Jarno (2014)