Browsing by Subject "VARIETY"

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  • Ingutia, Rose Anyiko; Sumelius, John (2022)
    Food insecurity exacerbates malnutrition with irreversible consequences for children. Thus, we address the determinants of food security status with reference to women farmers, the determinants of access to irrigation technology as a critical determinant of food security and the effect of cooperatives on nutritional status. We used primary data from Kakamega, Kenya. Descriptive data analysis was applied together with regression analysis using logistic, probit and linear endogenous treatment models. Cooperative membership facilitates female farmers’ access to productive resources like credit, thereby contributing to improved food security status. Though most female farmers are not members of cooperatives, the female members of cooperatives perform slightly better as determinants of food security status and are more food secure than female non-members. The limitations of cooperatives include the low percentage of farmers using irrigation and farmers’ low nutritional status. Extension services positively impact irrigation, thereby calling for gender equality among field officers to enable communication with female farmers and for the formation of cooperatives that target women's needs. Governments, development agencies and civil societies should support cooperatives in their financial, technical and management issues to create awareness concerning family planning and offer access to credit and irrigation technology, resulting in increased food production, improved food security and nutrition status.
  • Cseh, András; Poczai, Péter; Kiss, Tibor; Balla, Kirsztina; Berki, Zita; Horváth, Ádám; Kúti, Csaba; Karsai, Ildikó (2021)
    Historical wheat landraces are rich sources of genetic diversity offering untapped reservoirs for broadening the genetic base of modern varieties. Using a 20K SNP array, we investigated the accessible genetic diversity in a Central European bread wheat landrace collection with great drought, heat stress tolerance and higher tillering capacity. We discovered distinct differences in the number of average polymorphisms between landraces and modern wheat cultivars, and identified a set of novel rare alleles present at low frequencies in the landrace collection. The detected polymorphisms were unevenly distributed along the wheat genome, and polymorphic markers co-localized with genes of great agronomic importance. The geographical distribution of the inferred Bayesian clustering revealed six genetically homogenous ancestral groups among the collection, where the Central European core bared an admixed background originating from four ancestral groups. We evaluated the effective population sizes (Ne) of the Central European collection and assessed changes in diversity overtime, which revealed a dramatic similar to 97% genetic erosion between 1955 and 2015.
  • Jokinen, Iina; Pihlava, Juha-Matti; Puganen, Anna; Sontag-Strohm, Tuula; Linderborg, Kaisa M.; Holopainen-Mantila, Ulla; Hietaniemi, Veli; Nordlund, Emilia (2021)
    The aim of this study was to determine whether the properties of the native oat grain or non-heat-treated groats (laboratory-scale dehulling) can be used to predict the quality of the industrially produced oat flour produced from heat-treated groats. Quality properties such as the color, hectoliter weight, thousand seed weight and hull content of Finnish native grains (n = 30) were determined. Furthermore, the relationship between the properties of the native grains and the chemical composition of the raw oat materials before and after the milling process were studied. A significant relationship (p < 0.01) was observed between the thousand seed weight of the native oat groats and the chemical composition of the industrially produced oat flour. Furthermore, the protein content of the native grains measured by NIT correlated with the chemical composition of the oat flours. These results suggest that the properties of oat flour produced on an industrial scale, including heat treatment, could be predicted based on the properties of native oat grains.