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  • Dayeh, Tasnim; Tuomi, Tiinamaija; Almgren, Peter; Perfilyev, Alexander; Jansson, Per-Anders; de Mello, Vanessa D.; Pihlajamaki, Jussi; Vaag, Allan; Groop, Leif; Nilsson, Emma; Ling, Charlotte (2016)
    Identification of subjects with a high risk of developing type 2 diabetes (T2D) is fundamental for prevention of the disease. Consequently, it is essential to search for new biomarkers that can improve the prediction of T2D. The aim of this study was to examine whether 5 DNA methylation loci in blood DNA (ABCG1, PHOSPHO1, SOCS3, SREBF1, and TXNIP), recently reported to be associated with T2D, might predict future T2D in subjects from the Botnia prospective study. We also tested if these CpG sites exhibit altered DNA methylation in human pancreatic islets, liver, adipose tissue, and skeletal muscle from diabetic vs. non-diabetic subjects. DNA methylation at the ABCG1 locus cg06500161 in blood DNA was associated with an increased risk for future T2D (OR = 1.09, 95% CI = 1.02-1.16, P-value = 0.007, Q-value = 0.018), while DNA methylation at the PHOSPHO1 locus cg02650017 in blood DNA was associated with a decreased risk for future T2D (OR = 0.85, 95% CI = 0.75-0.95, P-value = 0.006, Q-value = 0.018) after adjustment for age, gender, fasting glucose, and family relation. Furthermore, the level of DNA methylation at the ABCG1 locus cg06500161 in blood DNA correlated positively with BMI, HbA1c, fasting insulin, and triglyceride levels, and was increased in adipose tissue and blood from the diabetic twin among monozygotic twin pairs discordant for T2D. DNA methylation at the PHOSPHO1 locus cg02650017 in blood correlated positively with HDL levels, and was decreased in skeletal muscle from diabetic vs. non-diabetic monozygotic twins. DNA methylation of cg18181703 (SOCS3), cg11024682 (SREBF1), and cg19693031 (TXNIP) was not associated with future T2D risk in subjects from the Botnia prospective study.
  • McAlister, Louise; Pugh, Pearl; Greenbaum, Laurence; Haffner, Dieter; Rees, Lesley; Anderson, Caroline; Desloovere, An; Nelms, Christina; Oosterveld, Michiel; Paglialonga, Fabio; Polderman, Nonnie; Qizalbash, Leila; Renken-Terhaerdt, Jose; Tuokkola, Jetta; Warady, Bradley; Walle, Johan Vande; Shaw, Vanessa; Shroff, Rukshana (2020)
    In children with chronic kidney disease (CKD), optimal control of bone and mineral homeostasis is essential, not only for the prevention of debilitating skeletal complications and achieving adequate growth but also for preventing vascular calcification and cardiovascular disease. Complications of mineral bone disease (MBD) are common and contribute to the high morbidity and mortality seen in children with CKD. Although several studies describe the prevalence of abnormal calcium, phosphate, parathyroid hormone, and vitamin D levels as well as associated clinical and radiological complications and their medical management, little is known about the dietary requirements and management of calcium (Ca) and phosphate (P) in children with CKD. The Pediatric Renal Nutrition Taskforce (PRNT) is an international team of pediatric renal dietitians and pediatric nephrologists, who develop clinical practice recommendations (CPRs) for the nutritional management of various aspects of renal disease management in children. We present CPRs for the dietary intake of Ca and P in children with CKD stages 2-5 and on dialysis (CKD2-5D), describing the common Ca- and P-containing foods, the assessment of dietary Ca and P intake, requirements for Ca and P in healthy children and necessary modifications for children with CKD2-5D, and dietary management of hypo- and hypercalcemia and hyperphosphatemia. The statements have been graded, and statements with a low grade or those that are opinion-based must be carefully considered and adapted to individual patient needs based on the clinical judgment of the treating physician and dietitian. These CPRs will be regularly audited and updated by the PRNT.
  • Nuotio, Krista; Koskinen, Suvi M.; Mäkitie, Laura; Tuimala, Jarno; Ijäs, Petra; Heikkilä, Hanna M.; Saksi, Jani; Vikatmaa, Pirkka; Sorto, Pia; Kasari, Sonja; Paakkari, Ilari; Silvennoinen, Heli; Valanne, Leena; Mäyränpää, Mikko I.; Soinne, Lauri; Kovanen, Petri T.; Lindsberg, Perttu J. (2021)
    Background: Long-term treatment with the vitamin K antagonist warfarin is widely used for the prevention of venous thrombosis and thromboembolism. However, vitamin K antagonists may promote arterial calcification, a phenomenon that has been previously studied in coronary and peripheral arteries, but not in extracranial carotid arteries. In this observational cohort study, we investigated whether warfarin treatment is associated with calcification of atherosclerotic carotid arteries. Methods: Overall, 500 consecutive patients underwent carotid endarterectomy, 82 of whom had received long-term warfarin therapy. The extent of calcification was assessed with preoperative computed tomography angiography, and both macroscopic morphological grading and microscopic histological examination of each excised carotid plaque were performed after carotid endarterectomy. Results: Compared with non-users, warfarin users had significantly more computed tomography angiography-detectable vascular calcification in the common carotid arteries (odds ratio 2.64, 95% confidence interval 1.51-4.63, P < 0.001) and even more calcification in the internal carotid arteries near the bifurcation (odds ratio 18.27, 95% confidence interval 2.53-2323, P < 0.001). Histological analysis revealed that the intramural calcified area in plaques from warfarin users was significantly larger than in plaques from non-users (95% confidence interval 3.36-13.56, P = 0.0018). Conclusions: Long-lasting warfarin anticoagulation associated with increased calcification of carotid atherosclerotic plaques, particularly in locations known to be the predilection sites of stroke-causing plaques. The clinical significance of this novel finding warrants further investigations.