Browsing by Subject "VICTIMIZATION"

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  • Kaltiala-Heino, Riittakerttu; Lindberg, Nina; Fröjd, Sari; Haravuori, Henna; Marttunen, Mauri (2019)
    Purpose: To explore whether sexual harassment experiences are more common among adolescents reporting romantic and erotic interests in the same sex and both sexes, when sociodemographic and mental health confounding are controlled for, and whether the associations are similar in both sexes and in different phases of adolescence. Methods: A cross-sectional survey among a nationally representative dataset of 25,147 boys and 25,257 girls in comprehensive school, and 33,231 boys and 36,765 girls in upper secondary education. Self-reports of experiences of sexual harassment, and emotional (depression) and behavioral (delinquency) symptoms were used. Results: All associations between sexual minority status and harassment diminished clearly when mental disorder dimensions were controlled for. In the comprehensive school sample (mean age 15.4 years), sexual harassment experiences were 4-7-fold more common among boys, and 1.5-3-fold among girls, with same-sex/both-sexes interest, compared to those interested exclusively in the opposite sex. In the upper secondary education sample (mean age 17.4 years), among boys, sexual harassment was reported 3-6-fold more commonly by those not exclusively heterosexually interested. Among older girls, a slight increase in sexual harassment experiences was seen among those interested in both sexes. Conclusions: Sexual harassment experiences are associated with sexual minority status, particularly among boys. Confounding by mental disorders needs to be accounted for when studying sexual minority status and sexual harassment.
  • Näsi, Matti; Tanskanen, Maiju Aliisa; Kivivuori, Janne; Haara, Paula; Reunanen, Esa (2021)
    In this article, we examine the correlates of fear of violence in the cross-media landscape. The study draws on the Finnish National Crime Victim Survey (n = 6,141, respondents aged 15-74 years). First, we examine from what information and media sources respondents receive information on violent crime. We then examine how consumption of different types of media and information sources on violent crime associates with the contemporary experience of fear of street violence, avoidance behavior due to threat of violence, and perceived threat of terrorism to oneself. We also examine whether this association remains when age, gender, education, past victimization, and economic strain are adjusted for.
  • Yu, Rongqin; Aaltonen, Mikko; Branje, Susan; Ristikari, Tiina; Meeus, Wim; Salmela-Aro, Katariina; Goodwin, Guy M.; Fazel, Seena (2017)
    Objective: Despite recent research demonstrating associations between violence and depression in adults, links in adolescents are uncertain. This study aims to assess the longitudinal associations between young people's depression and later violent outcomes. Method: We used data from three cohorts with different measurements of depression exposures and subsequent violent outcomes. In a Dutch community cohort Research on Adolescent Development And Relationships (RADAR; N = 623) and a population-based British birth cohort Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC; N = 4,030), we examined the longitudinal links between adolescent depressive symptoms and violent behaviors from age 13 to 17 years. In a total Finnish birth cohort (FBC 1987; N = 57,526), we estimated risk of violent convictions in individuals clinically diagnosed with depression from age 15 to 27 years. Results: During a mean follow-up period of 4 years, the adjusted odds ratio (aOR) of violent behaviors per unit of increase in depressive symptoms was 1.7 (95% CI = 1.2-2.5) in the Dutch RADAR community sample and 1.8 (95% CI = 1.4-2.3) in the British ALSPAC birth cohort. In the FBC 1987 cohort, the aOR of violent convictions was 2.1 (95% CI = 1.7-2.7) among individuals with a depression diagnosis compared with general population controls without depression. All risk estimates were adjusted for family socioeconomic status and previous violence. Conclusion: Consistent findings across three longitudinal studies suggest that clinical guidelines should consider recommending risk assessment for violence in young people with depression. The benefits of targeting risk management in subgroups by gender need further investigation.
  • Kaltiala-Heino, Riittakerttu; Savioja, Hanna; Fröjd, Sari; Marttunen, Mauri (2018)
    Subjection to sexual harassment is associated with a number of negative outcomes, such as internalizing and externalizing symptoms and a disinclination to attend school. Among adolescents, sexual harassment may increase with both their emerging sexual desires and increased socializing in mixed-gender peer groups during early adolescence. We set out to study the possible associations between normative and risk-taking sexual behavior and subjection to sexual harassment among adolescents between the ages of 14 and 18 years. The informants included 90,953 boys and 91,746 girls, with a mean (SD) age of 16.3 (1.2) years, who responded to a classroom survey (School Health Promotion Study 2010-2011) in Finland. We found that even early steps in romantic and erotic experiences were associated with experiences of sexual harassment. The more advanced the adolescents' sexual experiences were, the more commonly they reported differing experiences of sexual harassment. These associations were particularly strong among the girls. Among the sexually active adolescents, the more partners the adolescents had for intercourse, the more commonly they reported experiences of sexual harassment. Adolescents actively interested in romantic and sexual relationships may socialize in contexts where sexual harassment is more likely to occur. They may be more sensitive to sexual cues than their non-interested peers, or sexual harassment may be a traumatic experience predisposing adolescents to risk-taking sexual behavior as a form of acting out. A double standard regarding the appropriate expression of sexuality received some support in our data.
  • Heino, Elias; Fröjd, Sari; Marttunen, Mauri; Kaltiala, Riittakerttu (2020)
    Background: Sexuality is a major facet of development during adolescence. Apace with normal sexual development, sexual experiences become more common and intimate. Recent research reports mixed results as to whether this is the case among transgender identifying adolescents. Recent research also suggests that trans youth experience negative sexual experiences (such as dating violence and sexual harassment) more often than their cisgender identifying peers. However, most studies have had clinical or selected samples. Objective: The aim of this study is to compare the normative as well as negative sexual experiences of trans youth with their cisgender peers in the general population. Method: Our study included 1386 pupils of the ninth year of comprehensive school in Finland, mean age (SD) 15.59 (0.41) years. We compared sexual experiences, sexual harassment and dating violence among trans youth and their cisgender identifying peers. Distributions of the outcome variables were calculated among the whole sample and by sex. Next, multivariate associations were studied using logistic regression adjusting for age, sex, honesty of responding and depression. Odds Ratios (OR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI) are given. Results: After adjusting for age, sex, honesty of responding and ultimately for depression, normative sexual experiences of trans youth did not differ systematically from those of the mainstream, cisgender identifying youth. After adjusting for sex, age and honesty, transgender youth had increased Odds Ratios for experiences of sexual coercion and dating violence perpetration. In the final models however, no statistically significant differences were detected in the negative sexual experiences between transgender and cisgender youth. Conclusion: Transgender identifying adolescents presented neither with delayed nor with excessively advanced sexual experiences. However, transgender youth seem to be more susceptible to subjection to sexual coercion and, unexpectedly, dating violence perpetration than their cisgender peers. However, these associations may in fact relate more closely to depression, a prevalent phenomenon among trans youth, than transgender identity itself.
  • Kaltiala-Heino, Riittakerttu; Lankinen, Vilma; Marttunen, Mauri; Lindberg, Nina; Frojd, Sari (2016)
    Overweight is reportedly a risk factor for being bullied, and body image may mediate this association. Research on associations between overweight and bullying has so far only focused on children and early adolescents. We explored associations between actual and perceived overweight at age 15 and involvement in bullying at ages 15 and 17. A total of 2070 Finnish adolescents responded to a survey at ages 15 and 17. Self-reported weight and height, perceived weight and involvement in bullying were elicited. Being overweight at age 15 was not associated with being bullied or with being a bully at age 15 or 17. Perceived overweight among girls was associated with subsequent involvement in bullying as a bully and in feeling shunned. Weight related bullying may decrease from pre- and early adolescence to middle adolescence. The associations between perceived overweight and self-identification as a bully, and those between perceived overweight and feeling isolated may be explained by the phenomena representing psychological dysfunction. (C) 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
  • Knaappila, Noora; Marttunen, Mauri; Fröjd, Sari; Lindberg, Nina; Kaltiala-Heino, Riittakerttu (2018)
  • Virokannas, Elina Tuulikki; Liuski, Suvi; Kuronen, Marjo (2020)
    The concept of vulnerability is widely used in the social sciences as well as in policy making, health and social care services and in social work, referring to a variety of groups or individuals, but it has rarely been theoretically defined or analysed. This article provides a literature review on how vulnerability has been used and defined in academic, peer-reviewed articles published in international social science journals between 2000 and 2016. The aim is to analyse and clarify critically the concept for social work research. The article analyses themes and topics connected to vulnerability, how gender is related to vulnerability and how vulnerability is conceptualised in these articles. The analysis showed that there is an important critical commentary on the concept, but only a few efforts to specify, theoretically analyse, reconceptualise or use the concept in an innovative way. The authors suggest that in social work research, instead of vulnerable groups or individuals we should focus on vulnerable life situations, and the role of the welfare services in reducing but possibly also (re)producing vulnerability. It is also important to recognise the temporal, situational, relational, and structural nature of vulnerability.