Browsing by Subject "VIOLENCE"

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  • Gagnon, Joseph Calvin; Murphy, Kristin M.; Howie, Sheryl M. (2020)
    Child maltreatment and exposure to violence are pervasive in South African townships. Coupled with economic hardships, many youth turn to drugs and crime, and eventually come in contact with the juvenile justice system. The purpose of this study was to gain an in-depth understanding of how one young man perceives aspects of his life prior to, during, and after incarceration in South Africa. The study focuses on a semi-structured interview with “Bobby”, a twenty-six-year-old male living in a city in western South Africa. The theoretical perspective guiding this study was Dilthey’s hermeneutics. The interview data was analyzed using Gilligan’s Listening Guide methodology. Prevalent themes include pervasive violence for Bobby at home and in school, drug abuse, gang activity, and crime. Bobby’s experiences often produced dissonant melodic lines – conflicting voices that are in opposition with one another. Two voices of conflict were the voice of knowing his current reality and the voice of evading the violent reality that surrounds him. This study illustrates the need for research to hear the voices of other youth, as well as the need for research on effective school- and community-based interventions to address issues with the maltreatment of youth, substance abuse, and gang involvement.
  • Venäläinen, Satu (2018)
    The following poem crystallizes some of the core dilemmas and affects I have encountered in my research on the challenging and complex topic of women as perpetrators of violence. It engages, in particular, with the topic of emotions in research (e.g., Dickson-Swift et al. 2009); relations among research topics, theories, and methodologies; the possibilities for fluidity in these relations (see, e.g., Childers 2014); and the dilemmas in researching groups designated as "other" in wide-ranging socio- cultural practices (Kitzinger & Wilkinson 1996). Through the engagements with these issues, the poem also attunes to ambivalent relations between different research paradigms and their epistemological and ontological background assumptions. This attunement takes inspiration from socalled postqualitative approaches (St. Pierre 2011) that are based on questioning the assumptions at the very core of conventional research practices in qualitative inquiry and hence on troubling their taken-forgrantedness. The use of art forms such as poetic writing allows for practicing research in ways that question conventional methodologies by pointing toward a plurality of meanings that exceeds simplistic or reductionist interpretations (Richardson & St. Pierre 2005). It can therefore enhance reflexivity and ethicality in research by laying emphasis on the existence of alternatives in terms of approaches adopted and interpretations made. In line with these thoughts, the following poem aims to engage with the tension between different approaches and in relations between approaches and research areas, without attempting to dissolve it. To ensure anonymity, the descriptions of research encounters in the poem are purposefully vague and not based on any singular encounters but amalgams of various ones.
  • Yang, Lei; Hu, Yaoyue; Silventoinen, Karri; Martikainen, Pekka (2020)
    Objectives: A number of studies have established the link between childhood adversity (CA) and depression across the life span. This association can be culturally specific, and it remains unclear whether and how different aspects of CA affect depressive symptoms in later life in non-Western societies. Method: Data were from the China Health and Retirement Longitudinal Study in 2011, 2013, 2014 (Life Event History survey) and 2015 (N = 13,710). Depressive symptoms were measured repeatedly in 2011, 2013, and 2015 using the ten-item Centre for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D-10). CA was assessed in 2014 by parental physical abuse, maternal emotional neglect, early parental death, parental mental health problems, poor quality of parental relationship, and childhood socioeconomic disadvantage. Multilevel linear models were used to analyse the data. Results: Parental physical abuse was associated with 0.51 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.28, 0.74) and 0.59 (95% CI: 0.31, 0.88) higher CES-D-10 scores compared to those without such abuse experience for men and women, respectively. Emotional neglect predicted 0.30 (95% CI: 0.07, 0.51) and 0.33 (95% CI: 0.08, 0.58) higher CES-D-10 scores for men and women. Elevated CES-D-10 scores were also found among men and women whose parents had poor mental health and poor relationship, and those who experienced food inadequacy (men: 0.78, 95% CI: 0.54, 1.01; women: 1.15, 95% CI: 0.90, 1.41). Early parental death nevertheless was not associated with CES-D-10 scores. Conclusion: CA exerts long-term detrimental effects on mental health in mid- and late-life among Chinese adults. The findings are consistent with those from Western societies, except for early parental death.
  • Lahtinen, Hanna-Mari; Laitila, Aarno; Korkman, Julia; Ellonen, Noora (2018)
    Most previous studies on disclosing child sexual abuse (CSA) have either been retrospective or focused on children who already have disclosed. The present study aimed to explore the overall CSA disclosure rate and factors associated with disclosing to adults in a large population-based sample. A representative sample of 11,364 sixth and ninth graders participated in the Finnish Child Victim Survey conceming experiences of violence, including CSA. CSA was defined as having sexual experiences with a person at least five years older at the time of the experience. Within this sample, the CSA prevalence was 2.4%. Children reporting CSA experiences also answered questions regarding disclosure, the disclosure recipient, and potential reasons for not disclosing. The results indicate that most of the children (80%) had disclosed to someone, usually a friend (48%). However, only 26% had disclosed to adults, and even fewer had reported their experiences to authorities (12%). The most common reason for non-disclosing was that the experience was not considered serious enough for reporting (41%), and half of the children having CSA experiences did not self-label their experiences as sexual abuse. Relatively few children reported lacking the courage to disclose (14%). Logistic regression analyses showed that the perpetrator's age, the age of the victim at the time of abuse, and having no experiences of emotional abuse by the mother were associated with disclosing to an adult. The results contribute to understanding the factors underlying children's disclosure patterns in a population-based sample and highlight the need for age-appropriate safety education for children and adolescents.
  • Aine, Antti; Muhonen, Jatta; Toivonen, Virve-Maria (2022)
    According to the United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child (CRC), every child has a right to practise sports in a healthy, safe environment (art. 19). However, research indicates that child athletes experience various forms of violence in sports. Violence is particularly harmful to children, as the effects may be significant and long lasting. In addition, children often have difficulty identifying and reacting to violence. In this article, we first aim to shed light on the prevalence and implications of violence towards child athletes in sports. By child athletes, we mean athletes under the age of 18 (CRC art. 1). Thereafter, we discuss the following questions: (1) How does the CRC protect children in sports? (2) Can children's rights be effectively protected through sports self-regulation of sports bodies and legal remedies? (3) Who is responsible for safeguarding children's rights in sports? To answer these questions, we employ a multidisciplinary perspective that combines jurisprudence and sport psychology. In summary, we conclude that the CRC unequivocally prohibits all violence against children in all sectors of society, including sports. The responsibility for enforcing this prohibition lies with both member states and sports bodies. It is always the responsibility of adults. The full realisation of children's rights requires action on multiple fronts, including legislation, information, education and resources.
  • Erkman, Ahmet Cem; Basoglu, Oksan; Basibuyuk, Gulusan Ozgun; Kirmizioglu, Pinar Gozluk; Yigit, Ayhan; Yalcin, Yarenkur Alkan; Kaya, Ferhat (2016)
    The excavations conducted at Van Castle Mound, East Anatolia, between 1987 and 2010 uncovered a total of 328 human skeletons dating back to the Medieval period. Thirty trauma cases were identified within the collection, constituting 9.14% of the entire population. Typology and distribution of the trauma among different sexes indicated that depression fractures, oblique fractures, comminuted fractures, and head deformation were more frequently observed in male skeletons, while a post-fractural infection appeared only in a female skeleton. Trauma cases were more common on post-cranial bones. In addition, a trepanned cranial specimen belonging to a mature individual is identified in which grooving technique was performed. Most of the observed trauma cases were related to heavy labor, unsafe working conditions, and challenges of everyday agrarian life. Previous paleopathological studies from the Medieval Van Castle Mound also indicates an insufficient nutritation and high physical stress.
  • Yu, Rongqin; Aaltonen, Mikko; Branje, Susan; Ristikari, Tiina; Meeus, Wim; Salmela-Aro, Katariina; Goodwin, Guy M.; Fazel, Seena (2017)
    Objective: Despite recent research demonstrating associations between violence and depression in adults, links in adolescents are uncertain. This study aims to assess the longitudinal associations between young people's depression and later violent outcomes. Method: We used data from three cohorts with different measurements of depression exposures and subsequent violent outcomes. In a Dutch community cohort Research on Adolescent Development And Relationships (RADAR; N = 623) and a population-based British birth cohort Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC; N = 4,030), we examined the longitudinal links between adolescent depressive symptoms and violent behaviors from age 13 to 17 years. In a total Finnish birth cohort (FBC 1987; N = 57,526), we estimated risk of violent convictions in individuals clinically diagnosed with depression from age 15 to 27 years. Results: During a mean follow-up period of 4 years, the adjusted odds ratio (aOR) of violent behaviors per unit of increase in depressive symptoms was 1.7 (95% CI = 1.2-2.5) in the Dutch RADAR community sample and 1.8 (95% CI = 1.4-2.3) in the British ALSPAC birth cohort. In the FBC 1987 cohort, the aOR of violent convictions was 2.1 (95% CI = 1.7-2.7) among individuals with a depression diagnosis compared with general population controls without depression. All risk estimates were adjusted for family socioeconomic status and previous violence. Conclusion: Consistent findings across three longitudinal studies suggest that clinical guidelines should consider recommending risk assessment for violence in young people with depression. The benefits of targeting risk management in subgroups by gender need further investigation.
  • Weizmann-Henelius, Ghitta; Grönroos, Matti; Putkonen, Hanna; Eronen, Markku; Lindberg, Nina; Hakkanen-Nyholm, Helinä (2012)
  • Kaakinen, Markus; Sirola, Anu; Savolainen, Iina; Oksanen, Atte (2020)
    Online hate is widely identified as a social problem, but its social psychological dimensions are yet to be explored. We used an integrative social psychological framework for analyzing online hate offending and found that both personal risk factors and online group behavior were associated with online hate offending. Study 1, based on socio-demographically balanced survey data (N = 1200) collected from Finnish adolescents and young adults, found that impulsivity and internalizing symptoms were positively associated with online hate offending. Furthermore, social homophily was positively associated with online hate offending but only among those with average or high level of internalizing symptoms. Social identification with online communities was not associated with hate offending. In Study 2, based on a vignette experiment (N = 160), online hate offenders were more likely than others to rely on in-group stereotypes (i.e. self-stereotype) in anonymous online interaction and, as a consequence, follow perceived group norms. These associations were found only when a shared group identity was primed. We conclude that both personal risk factors and group behavior are related to online hate but they have different implications for reducing hateful communication in social media.
  • Nygren, Anja Kaarina (2018)
    Cities in different parts of the world are going through intensive transformations based on institutional efforts to govern urban spaces and populations in the face of global environmental change and neoliberalization of governance. This essay examines inequalities and interconnectivities in urban governance and justice, drawing on a case-study of three, socially-differentiated sectors of the city of Villahermosa, Mexico, between 2011 and 2016. My analysis contributes to a multi-dimensional approach toward justice, and the cognate fields of right to the city, and segregation and inequality, that encompasses: (1) (re)distribution of residents’ exposure to risks and access to services; (2) recognition of the causes and consequences of risks and vulnerabilities; (3) fields of representation available for different residents; and (4) residents’ capabilities to recover from disasters and achieve everyday well-being within the existing urban governance and service provision structures. Instead of conceptualizing segregated cities as composed of isolated worlds, I argue that it is only possible to understand how the prevailing forms of governance produce multifaceted inequalities through a relational analysis of how residents from different parts of the city interact with the authorities and with each other. The study shows how residents’ tactics to accommodate, reconfigure and contest institutional endeavors to place them in hierarchical positions link to their differentiated ways of constructing urban space.
  • Venäläinen, Satu (2021)
    Men's victimisation is a central topic in online discussions, particularly in the manosphere, where its emphasis is often combined with a strong anti-feminist stance. This article examines the interplay of affects and discourse in meaning-making around men's victimisation both in online discussions and among social and crisis workers asked to comment upon meanings circulating online. By using the concept of affective-discursive practice, the analysis shows how this meaning-making reiterates socially shared interpretative repertoires and positionings that mobilise affects based on sympathy, anger and hate. Furthermore, the article demonstrates how the practitioners respond to these affective meanings by adopting positions of responsibility, while also redirecting and neutralising online affect. The article contributes to knowledge on the interaction between online and offline meaning-making around men's victimisation, and to building an understanding of affects and discourse in seemingly moderate meaning-making around this topic that however resonates and links with the more extreme anti-feminism of the manosphere.
  • Kaakinen, Markus; Koivula, Aki; Savolainen, Iina; Sirola, Anu; Mikkola, Marko; Zych, Izabela; Paek, Hye-Jin; Oksanen, Atte (2021)
    Based on lifestyle exposure theory (LET), this study examined online dating application (ODA) use and victimization experiences among adolescents using large cross-national samples of Finnish, American, Spanish, and South Korean young people between ages 15 and 18. According to logistic regression analyses in two substudies, ODA use was associated with more likely victimization to online harassment, online sexual harassment, and other cybercrimes and sexual victimization by adults and peers. According to mediation analyses, this relationship was mainly accounted for by the fact that ODA users engage in more risky activities in online communication and information sharing. Attention should be paid to the risks ODAs pose to vulnerable groups, such as young people, with insufficient skills to regulate their social relationships online.
  • Laiho, Tero; Lindberg, Nina; Joffe, Grigori; Putkonen, Hanna; Hottinen, Anja; Kontio, Raija; Sailas, Eila (2014)
  • Thomson, Annika; Tiihonen, Jari; Miettunen, Jouko; Sailas, Eila; Virkkunen, Matti; Lindberg, Nina (2015)
    Background: Psychopathy, a severe disorder of personality, is well represented in the criminal and forensic psychiatric population and is significantly associated with increased risk of violence and crime. Fire-setting is a major source of property damage, injury, and death in many Western countries. The primary aim of this study was to evaluate psychopathic traits in a consecutive sample of Finnish male pretrial fire-setting offenders. Further, we wanted to investigate whether fire-setting recidivists show higher traits of psychopathy than one-time firesetters and whether exclusive firesetters show lower traits of psychopathy than those with criminal versatility. Methods: The forensic psychiatric examination statements for male firesetters who underwent a pretrial forensic psychiatric evaluation during a 10-year period (1989 - 1998) were reviewed. The sample comprised 129 firesetters with normal IQ, 41 of whom were fire-setting recidivists. Fifty men were exclusive firesetters. Assessment of psychopathy-like personality character was performed using the 20-item Hare Psychopathy Checklist-Revised. Results: Two individuals (1.6%, 95% CI: 0.0-3.7) scored >= 30 points and 19 (14.7%, 95% CI: 8.6-20.8) >= 25 points on the PCL-R. The mean PCL-R total score was 16.1 (SD 6.88), the mean Factor 1 score 5.0 (SD 3.41), and the mean Factor 2 score 9.9 (SD 3.86). No significant differences emerged between the recidivists and the one-time firesetters. The versatile firesetters exhibited significantly higher mean total and factor scores than the exclusive ones. Conclusion: Among firesetters, there is a subgroup of persons with significant psychopathic traits, which should be recognized in legal and health care organizations. Although psychopathy was associated with greater criminal versatility, it bore no relationship to fire-setting recidivism.
  • Urnberg, Heidi; Gluschkoff, Kia; Saukkonen, Petra; Elovainio, Marko; Vänskä, Jukka; Heponiemi, Tarja (2022)
    Background: Physicians commonly suffer from workplace aggression and its negative consequences. Previous studies have shown that stressors such as job demands increase the risk of inappropriate treatment at workplace. Poorly functioning, and constantly changing information systems form a major work stressor for physicians. The current study examined the association between physicians’ stress attributed to information systems (SAIS) and their experiences of workplace aggression. Workplace aggression covered physical and non-physical aggression, perpetrated by coworkers, patients, patient’s relatives, or supervisors. Methods: A cross-sectional survey study was conducted. The participants included 2786 physicians (67.4% women) who were sampled randomly from the registry of Finnish Medical Association, which covers almost all of the Finnish physician population. First, bivariate associations were studied among participant characteristics, SAIS and workplace aggression. Logistic regression analysis was then used to further determine how SAIS was associated with the likelihood of experiencing different types of aggression. Results: Higher levels of SAIS were associated with higher likelihood of aggression with regard to all types of aggression, except non-physical aggression perpetrated by patients or relatives. The demographic factors (work-sector, gender, age) did not have a noticeable influence on the association between SAIS and aggression. Conclusions: The present results build on previous evidence on the prevalence of SAIS and its negative effects on healthcare workers. Since SAIS may increase the risk of experiencing aggression, it is possible that SAIS also endangers the wellbeing of physicians and thereby the quality of patient care. Resourcing time and training during introduction of a new IS could alleviate time pressure and thus stress attributed to managing new information systems. The role of organizational climate and general workload in arousing SAIS and aggression should be examined in future studies.
  • Uusitalo, Jenna (2020)
    The Emergency Medical Services (EMS) are emergency services generally been designed to provide urgent treatment of patients with life-threatening conditions outside medical facilities. Even though the EMS belongs to the category of socio-economic rights, it nevertheless has great significance in safeguarding one of the most fundamental human rights, the right to life. In fact, international humanitarian law has recognised this important connection by establishing explicit legal rules that oblige states to ensure urgent medical care for the wounded and sick. International human rights law, on the other hand, has no such expressed provisions. However, the problem is not the lack of legal rules applicable to the EMS as such but rather the challenges in human rights perception, which hinder the EMS being perceived as a valuable human right. Therefore, this article essentially argues that international human rights law does not recognise the EMS as a human right sufficiently and that more thorough actions are required from the UN Committee of Economic, Social and Cultural Rights (CESCR) in this regard.
  • Lehti, Martti Mikael; Sirén, Reino (2020)
    The article explores the statistical association between annual alcohol consumption and homicide mortality in Finland, Sweden and Norway from the early 19th century to 2013. The results show statistically significant impacts on overall and male homicide mortality in Finland and on male homicide mortality in Sweden. In Norway, we found no significant impacts. The results suggest that changes in the level of alcohol consumption have had a stronger impact on homicide rates in Finland, characterized by a heavier drinking culture, than in Norway or Sweden. The strength of the association between alcohol consumption and homicide levels seems also to vary over time and to be conditioned by economic and socio-political factors.
  • Saukkonen, Suvi; Laajasalo, Taina; Jokela, Markus; Kivivuori, Janne; Salmi, Venla; Aronen, Eeva T. (2016)
    We investigated the prevalence of juvenile weapon carrying and psychosocial and personality-related risk factors for carrying different types of weapons in a nationally representative, population-based sample of Finnish adolescents. Specifically, we aimed to investigate psychopathic-like personality features as a risk factor for weapon carrying. The participants were 15-16-year-old adolescents from the Finnish self-report delinquency study (n = 4855). Four different groups were formed based on self-reported weapon carrying: no weapon carrying, carrying knife, gun or other weapon. The associations between psychosocial factors, psychopathic-like features and weapon carrying were examined with multinomial logistic regression analysis. 9 % of the participants had carried a weapon in the past 12 months. Adolescents with a history of delinquency, victimization and antisocial friends were more likely to carry weapons in general; however, delinquency and victimization were most strongly related to gun carrying, while perceived peer delinquency (antisocial friends) was most strongly related to carrying a knife. Better academic performance was associated with a reduced likelihood of carrying a gun and knife, while feeling secure correlated with a reduced likelihood of gun carrying only. Psychopathic-like features were related to a higher likelihood of weapon carrying, even after adjusting for other risk factors. The findings of the study suggest that adolescents carrying a weapon have a large cluster of problems in their lives, which may vary based on the type of weapon carried. Furthermore, psychopathic-like features strongly relate to a higher risk of carrying a weapon.
  • Taavetti, Riikka (2021)
    This article analyzes two autobiographies of the Estonian-Canadian Heljo Liitoja (1923 - 2010) as participation in the post-Soviet national reconstruction of Estonia. The article argues that some of Liitoja's experiences, such as her connection to the Toronto gay and lesbian community and the controversies within the Estonian diaspora, could not be addressed in an autobiography framed within an Estonian life story writing competition. The article suggests that Liitoja's autobiographical book that discussed these topics was able to stretch the limits of the Estonian diaspora narrative.