Browsing by Subject "VIRION ARCHITECTURE"

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  • Mizuno, Carolina M.; Prajapati, Bina; Lucas-Staat, Soizick; Sime-Ngando, Telesphore; Forterre, Patrik; Bamford, Dennis Henry; Prangishvili, David; Krupovic, Mart; Oksanen, Hanna Maarit (2019)
    The diversity of archaeal viruses is severely undersampled compared with that of viruses infecting bacteria and eukaryotes, limiting our understanding on their evolution and environmental impacts. Here, we describe the isolation and characterization of four new viruses infecting halophilic archaea from the saline Lake Retba, located close to Dakar on the coast of Senegal. Three of the viruses, HRPV10, HRPV11 and HRPV12, have enveloped pleomorphic virions and should belong to the family Pleolipoviridae, whereas the forth virus, HFTV1, has an icosahedral capsid and a long non-contractile tail, typical of bacterial and archaeal members of the order Caudovirales. Comparative genomic and phylogenomic analyses place HRPV10, HRPV11 and HRPV12 into the genus Betapleolipovirus, whereas HFTV1 appears to be most closely related to the unclassified Halorubrum virus HRTV-4. Differently from HRTV-4, HFTV1 encodes host-derived minichromosome maintenance helicase and PCNA homologues, which are likely to orchestrate its genome replication. HFTV1, the first archaeal virus isolated on a Haloferax strain, could also infect Halorubrum sp., albeit with an eightfold lower efficiency, whereas pleolipoviruses nearly exclusively infected autochthonous Halorubrum strains. Mapping of the metagenomic sequences from this environment to the genomes of isolated haloarchaeal viruses showed that these known viruses are underrepresented in the available viromes.
  • Pietilä, Maija K.; Roine, Elina; Sencilo, Ana; Bamford, Dennis H.; Oksanen, Hanna M. (2016)
    Viruses infecting archaea show a variety of virion morphotypes, and they are currently classified into more than ten viral families or corresponding groups. A pleomorphic virus morphotype is very common among haloarchaeal viruses, and to date, several such viruses have been isolated. Here, we propose the classification of eight such viruses and formation of a new family, Pleolipoviridae (from the Greek pleo for more or many and lipos for lipid), containing three genera, Alpha-, Beta-, and Gammapleolipovirus. The proposal is currently under review by the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses (ICTV). The members of the proposed family Pleolipoviridae infect halophilic archaea and are nonlytic. They share structural and genomic features and differ from any other classified virus. The virion of pleolipoviruses is composed of a pleomorphic membrane vesicle enclosing the genome. All pleolipoviruses have two major structural protein species, internal membrane and spike proteins. Although the genomes of the pleolipoviruses are single- or double-stranded, linear or circular DNA molecules, they share the same genome organization and gene synteny and show significant similarity at the amino acid level. The canonical features common to all members of the proposed family Pleolipoviridae show that they are closely related and thus form a new viral family.