Browsing by Subject "VISUAL-ACUITY"

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  • Nussinovitch, Hanan; Tsumi, Erez; Tuuminen, Raimo; Malyugin, Boris; Lior, Yotam; Rosenblatt, Hadar Naidorf; Boyko, Matthew; Achiron, Asaf; Knyazer, Boris (2021)
    Advancements in surgical techniques and increased life expectancy have made cataract surgery more common among very old patients. However, surgical outcomes seem impaired in patients older than 90 years, especially with ocular comorbidities. A retrospective case-control study of 53 eyes of 53 very old patients (mean 92.6 ± 3.0) and 140 eyes of 140 matched patients (mean 75.2 ± 7.6) was undertaken. Groups were matched in terms of gender and systemic and ocular comorbidities. In very old patients, higher phacoemulsification energy (cumulative dissipated energy [CDE], 25.0 ± 22.4 vs. 16.1 ± 10.7, p = 0.01) and rate of intraoperative floppy iris syndrome (IFIS, 9.4% vs. 1.4%, p = 0.02) were observed compared to controls. Uncorrected (UCVA) and best-corrected distance visual acuity (BCVA) gains were significantly poorer among the very old patients than among the control at postoperative day 30 (0.20 ± 0.70 vs. 0.56 ± 0.61 logMAR, p < 0.001 and 0.27 ± 0.64 vs. 0.55 ± 0.62 logMAR, p = 0.006, respectively). Even after including CDE and IFIS as covariates, age remained an independent factor for poor visual gain at 30 days (p < 0.001). Cataract surgery in very old patients may demand more experienced surgeons due to higher nuclear density and the rates of IFIS. Expectations in visual acuity gains should be aligned with the patient’s age.
  • Kanclerz, Piotr; Tuuminen, Raimo; Khoramnia, Ramin (2021)
    Introduction: Urbanization has caused dramatic changes in lifestyle, and these rapid transitions have led to an increased risk of noncommunicable diseases, such as type 2 diabetes. In terms of cost-effectiveness, screening for diabetic retinopathy is a critical aspect in diabetes management. The aim of this study was to review the imaging modalities employed for retinal examination in diabetic retinopathy screening. Methods: The PubMed and Web of Science databases were the main sources used to investigate the medical literature. An extensive search was performed to identify relevant articles concerning "imaging ", "diabetic retinopathy " and "screening " up to 1 June 2021. Imaging techniques were divided into the following: (i) mydriatic fundus photography, (ii) non-mydriatic fundus photography, (iii) smartphone-based imaging, and (iv) ultrawide-field imaging. A meta-analysis was performed to analyze the performance and technical failure rate of each method. Results: The technical failure rates for mydriatic and non-mydriatic digital fundus photography, smartphone-based and ultrawide-field imaging were 3.4% (95% CI: 2.3-4.6%), 12.1% (95% CI: 5.4-18.7%), 5.3% (95% CI: 1.5-9.0%) and 2.2% (95% CI: 0.3-4.0%), respectively. The rate was significantly different between all analyzed techniques (p < 0.001), and the overall failure rate was 6.6% (4.9-8.3%; I-2 = 97.2%). The publication bias factor for smartphone-based imaging was significantly higher than for mydriatic digital fundus photography and non-mydriatic digital fundus photography (b = -8.61, b = -2.59 and b = -7.03, respectively; p < 0.001). Ultrawide-field imaging studies were excluded from the final sensitivity/specificity analysis, as the total number of patients included was too small. Conclusions: Regardless of the type of the device used, retinal photographs should be taken on eyes with dilated pupils, unless contraindicated, as this setting decreases the rate of ungradable images. Smartphone-based and ultrawide-field imaging may become potential alternative methods for optimized DR screening; however, there is not yet enough evidence for these techniques to displace mydriatic fundus photography.