Browsing by Subject "VOC EMISSIONS"

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  • Zhang-Turpeinen, Huizhong; Kivimaenpaa, Minna; Berninger, Frank; Koster, Kajar; Zhao, Peng; Zhou, Xuan; Pumpanen, Jukka (2021)
    The amplification of global warming in the Northern regions results in a higher probability of wildfires in boreal forests. On the forest floor, wildfires have long-term effects on vegetation composition as well as soil and its microbial communities. A large variety of biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs) such as isoprene, monoterpenes, sesquiterpenes have been observed to be emitted from soil and understory vegetation of boreal forest floor. Ultimately, the fire-induced changes in the forest floor affect its BVOC fluxes, and the recovery of the forest floor determines the quantity and quality of BVOC fluxes. However, the effects of wildfires on forest floor BVOC fluxes are rarely studied. Here we conducted a study of the impacts of post-fire succession on forest floor BVOC fluxes along a 158-year fire chronosequence in boreal Scots pine stands near the northern timberline in north-eastern Finland throughout a growing season. We determined the forest floor BVOC fluxes and investigated how the environmental and ground vegetation characteristics, soil respiration rates, and soil microbial and fungal biomass are associated with the BVOC fluxes during the post-fire succession. The forest floor was a source of diverse BVOCs. Monoterpenes (MTs) were the largest group of emitted BVOCs. We observed forest age-related differences in the forest floor BVOC fluxes along the fire chronosequence. The forest floor BVOC fluxes decreased with the reduction in ground vegetation coverage resulted from wildfire, and the decreased fluxes were also connected to a decrease in microbial activity as a result of the loss of plant roots and soil organic matter. The increase in BVOC fluxes was associated with the recovery of aboveground plant coverage and soils. Our results suggested taking into consideration the implications of BVOC flux variations on the atmospheric chemistry and climate feedbacks.
  • Rantala, P.; Aalto, J.; Taipale, R.; Ruuskanen, T. M.; Rinne, J. (2015)
    Long-term flux measurements of volatile organic compounds (VOC) over boreal forests are rare, although the forests are known to emit considerable amounts of VOCs into the atmosphere. Thus, we measured fluxes of several VOCs and oxygenated VOCs over a Scots-pine-dominated boreal forest semi-continuously between May 2010 and December 2013. The VOC profiles were obtained with a proton transfer reaction mass spectrometry, and the fluxes were calculated using vertical concentration profiles and the surface layer profile method connected to the Monin-Obukhov similarity theory. In total fluxes that differed significantly from zero on a monthly basis were observed for 13 out of 27 measured masses. Monoterpenes had the highest net emission in all seasons and statistically significant positive fluxes were detected from March until October. Other important compounds emitted were methanol, ethanol+ formic acid, acetone and isoprene+ methylbutenol. Oxygenated VOCs showed also deposition fluxes that were statistically different from zero. Isoprene+ methylbutenol and monoterpene fluxes followed well the traditional isoprene algorithm and the hybrid algorithm, respectively. Emission potentials of monoterpenes were largest in late spring and autumn which was possibly driven by growth processes and decaying of soil litter, respectively. Conversely, largest emission potentials of isoprene+ methylbutenol were found in July. Thus, we concluded that most of the emissions of m/z 69 at the site consisted of isoprene that originated from broadleaved trees. Methanol had deposition fluxes especially before sunrise. This can be connected to water films on surfaces. Based on this assumption, we were able to build an empirical algorithm for bi-directional methanol exchange that described both emission term and deposition term. Methanol emissions were highest in May and June and deposition level increased towards autumn, probably as a result of increasing relative humidity levels leading to predominance of deposition.
  • Joutsensaari, Jorma; Yli-Pirilä, Pasi; Korhonen, Hannele; Arola, Antti; Blande, James D.; Heijari, Juha; Kivimäenpää, Minna; Mikkonen, S.; Hao, Liging; Miettinen, Pasi; Lyytikainen-Saarenmaa, Päivi; Faiola, C. L.; Laaksonen, Ari; Holopainen, Jarmo K. (2015)
    Boreal forests are a major source of climate-relevant biogenic secondary organic aerosols (SOAs) and will be greatly influenced by increasing temperature. Global warming is predicted to not only increase emissions of reactive biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs) from vegetation directly but also induce large-scale insect outbreaks, which significantly increase emissions of reactive BVOCs. Thus, climate change factors could substantially accelerate the formation of biogenic SOAs in the troposphere. In this study, we have combined results from field and laboratory experiments, satellite observations and global-scale modelling in order to evaluate the effects of insect herbivory and large-scale outbreaks on SOA formation and the Earth's climate. Field measurements demonstrated 11-fold and 20-fold increases in monoterpene and sesquiterpene emissions respectively from damaged trees during a pine sawfly (Neodiprion sertifer) outbreak in eastern Finland. Laboratory chamber experiments showed that feeding by pine weevils (Hylobius abietis) increased VOC emissions from Scots pine and Norway spruce seedlings by 10-50 fold, resulting in 200-1000-fold increases in SOA masses formed via ozonolysis. The influence of insect damage on aerosol concentrations in boreal forests was studied with a global chemical transport model GLOMAP and MODIS satellite observations. Global-scale modelling was performed using a 10-fold increase in monoterpene emission rates and assuming 10% of the boreal forest area was experiencing outbreak. Results showed a clear increase in total particulate mass (local max. 480 %) and cloud condensation nuclei concentrations (45 %). Satellite observations indicated a 2-fold increase in aerosol optical depth over western Canada's pine forests in August during a bark beetle outbreak. These results suggest that more frequent insect outbreaks in a warming climate could result in substantial increase in biogenic SOA formation in the boreal zone and, thus, affect both aerosol direct and indirect forcing of climate at regional scales. The effect of insect outbreaks on VOC emissions and SOA formation should be considered in future climate predictions.
  • Mäki, Mari; Aaltonen, Hermanni; Heinonsalo, Jussi; Hellén, Heidi; Pumpanen, Jukka; Bäck, Jaana (2019)
    Vegetation emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are intensively studied world-wide, because oxidation products of VOCs contribute to atmospheric processes. The overall aim of this study was to identify and quantify the VOCs that originate from boreal podzolized forest soil at different depths, in addition to studying the association of VOC concentrations with VOC and CO2 fluxes from the boreal forest floor.
  • Acton, W. Joe F.; Schallhart, Simon; Langford, Ben; Valach, Amy; Rantala, Pekka; Fares, Silvano; Carriero, Giulia; Tillmann, Ralf; Tomlinson, Sam J.; Dragosits, Ulrike; Gianelle, Damiano; Hewitt, C. Nicholas; Nemitz, Eiko (2016)
    This paper reports the fluxes and mixing ratios of biogenically emitted volatile organic compounds (BVOCs) 4aEuro-m above a mixed oak and hornbeam forest in northern Italy. Fluxes of methanol, acetaldehyde, isoprene, methyl vinyl ketoneaEuro-+aEuro-methacrolein, methyl ethyl ketone and monoterpenes were obtained using both a proton-transfer-reaction mass spectrometer (PTR-MS) and a proton-transfer-reaction time-of-flight mass spectrometer (PTR-ToF-MS) together with the methods of virtual disjunct eddy covariance (using PTR-MS) and eddy covariance (using PTR-ToF-MS). Isoprene was the dominant emitted compound with a mean daytime flux of 1.9aEuro-mgaEuro-m(-2)aEuro-h(-1). Mixing ratios, recorded 4aEuro-m above the canopy, were dominated by methanol with a mean value of 6.2aEuro-ppbv over the 28-day measurement period. Comparison of isoprene fluxes calculated using the PTR-MS and PTR-ToF-MS showed very good agreement while comparison of the monoterpene fluxes suggested a slight over estimation of the flux by the PTR-MS. A basal isoprene emission rate for the forest of 1.7aEuro-mgaEuro-m(-2)aEuro-h(-1) was calculated using the Model of Emissions of Gases and Aerosols from Nature (MEGAN) isoprene emission algorithms (Guenther et al., 2006). A detailed tree-species distribution map for the site enabled the leaf-level emission of isoprene and monoterpenes recorded using gas-chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS) to be scaled up to produce a bottom-up canopy-scale flux. This was compared with the top-down canopy-scale flux obtained by measurements. For monoterpenes, the two estimates were closely correlated and this correlation improved when the plant-species composition in the individual flux footprint was taken into account. However, the bottom-up approach significantly underestimated the isoprene flux, compared with the top-down measurements, suggesting that the leaf-level measurements were not representative of actual emission rates.
  • Schurgers, G.; Hickler, T.; Miller, P. A.; Arneth, A. (2009)
  • Mäki, Mari; Aalto, Juho; Hellen, Heidi; Pihlatie, Mari; Bäck, Jaana (2019)
    In the northern hemisphere, boreal forests are a major source of biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs), which drive atmospheric processes and lead to cloud formation and changes in the Earth's radiation budget. Although forest vegetation is known to be a significant source of BVOCs, the role of soil and the forest floor, and especially interannual variations in fluxes, remains largely unknown due to a lack of long-term measurements. Our aim was to determine the interannual, seasonal and diurnal dynamics of boreal forest floor volatile organic compound (VOC) fluxes and to estimate how much they contribute to ecosystem VOC fluxes. We present here an 8-year data set of forest floor VOC fluxes, measured with three automated chambers connected to the quadrupole proton transfer reaction mass spectrometer (quadrupole PTR-MS). The exceptionally long data set shows that forest floor fluxes were dominated by monoterpenes and methanol, with relatively comparable emission rates between the years. Weekly mean monoterpene fluxes from the forest floor were highest in spring and in autumn (maximum 59 and 86 mu g m(-2) h(-1), respectively), whereas the oxygenated VOC fluxes such as methanol had highest weekly mean fluxes in spring and summer (maximum 24 and 79 mu g m(-2) h(-1), respectively). Although the chamber locations differed from each other in emission rates, the inter-annual dynamics were very similar and systematic. Accounting for this chamber location dependent variability, temperature and relative humidity, a mixed effects linear model was able to explain 79-88% of monoterpene, methanol, acetone, and acetaldehyde fluxes from the boreal forest floor. The boreal forest floor was a significant contributor in the forest stand fluxes, but its importance varies between seasons, being most important in autumn. The forest floor emitted 2-93% of monoterpene fluxes in spring and autumn and 1-72% of methanol fluxes in spring and early summer. The forest floor covered only a few percent of the forest stand fluxes in summer.
  • Aalto, J.; Kolari, P.; Hari, P.; Kerminen, V. -M.; Schiestl-Aalto, P.; Aaltonen, H.; Levula, J.; Siivola, E.; Kulmala, M.; Back, J. (2014)
  • Aalto, J.; Porcar-Castell, A.; Atherton, J.; Kolari, P.; Pohja, T.; Hari, P.; Nikinmaa, E.; Petäjä, T.; Bäck, J. (2015)
    Emissions of biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOC) by boreal evergreen trees have strong seasonality, with low emission rates during photosynthetically inactive winter and increasing rates towards summer. Yet, the regulation of this seasonality remains unclear. We measured in situ monoterpene emissions from Scots pine shoots during several spring periods and analysed their dynamics in connection with the spring recovery of photosynthesis. We found high emission peaks caused by enhanced monoterpene synthesis consistently during every spring period (monoterpene emission bursts, MEB). The timing of the MEBs varied relatively little between the spring periods. The timing of the MEBs showed good agreement with the photosynthetic spring recovery, which was studied with simultaneous measurements of chlorophyll fluorescence, CO2 exchange and a simple, temperature history-based proxy for state of photosynthetic acclimation, S. We conclude that the MEBs were related to the early stages of photosynthetic recovery, when the efficiency of photosynthetic carbon reactions is still low whereas the light harvesting machinery actively absorbs light energy. This suggests that the MEBs may serve a protective functional role for the foliage during this critical transitory state and that these high emission peaks may contribute to atmospheric chemistry in the boreal forest in springtime. Emissions of biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOC) by boreal evergreen trees have strong seasonality. We measured high emission peaks from Scots pine shoots caused by enhanced monoterpene synthesis taking place simultaneously with the photosynthetic spring recovery. We conclude that the increased emissions were related to the photosynthetic recovery, when the efficiency of photosynthetic carbon reactions is low whereas the light harvesting machinery actively absorbs light energy. Increased emissions may serve a protective functional role for the foliage during the transitory state, and these high emission peaks may contribute to atmospheric chemistry in the boreal forest in springtime.
  • Rissanen, Kaisa; Vanhatalo, Anni; Salmon, Yann; Bäck, Jaana; Hölttä, Teemu (2020)
    Abstract Tree stems are an overlooked source of volatile organic compounds (VOCs). Their contribution to ecosystem processes and total VOC fluxes is not well studied, and assessing it requires better understanding of stem emission dynamics and their driving processes. To gain more mechanistic insight into stem emission patterns, we measured monoterpene, methanol, and acetaldehyde emissions from the stems of mature Scots pines (Pinus sylvestris L.) in a boreal forest over three summers. We analysed the effects of temperature, soil water content, tree water status, transpiration, and growth on the VOC emissions, and used generalized linear models to test their relative importance in explaining the emissions. We show that Scots pine stems are considerable sources of monoterpenes, methanol, and acetaldehyde, and their emissions are strongly regulated by temperature. However, even small changes in water availability affected the emission potentials: increased soil water content increased the monoterpene emissions within a day, whereas acetaldehyde and methanol emissions responded within two to four days. This lag corresponded to their transport time in the xylem sap from the roots to the stem. Moreover, the emissions of monoterpenes, methanol, and acetaldehyde were influenced by the cambial growth rate of the stem with six- to ten-day lags. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
  • Hakola, Hannele; Tarvainen, Virpi; Praplan, Arnaud P.; Jaars, Kerneels; Hemmilä, Marja; Kulmala, Markku; Bäck, Jaana; Hellen, Heidi (2017)
    We present spring and summer volatile organic compound (VOC) emission rate measurements from Norway spruce (Picea abies L. Karst) growing in a boreal forest in southern Finland. The measurements were conducted using in situ gas chromatograph with 1 to 2 h time resolution to reveal quantitative and qualitative short-term and seasonal variability of the emissions. The measurements cover altogether 14 weeks in years 2011, 2014 and 2015. Monoterpene (MT) and sesquiterpene (SQT) emission rates were measured all the time, but isoprene only in 2014 and 2015 and acetone and C-4-C-10 aldehydes only in 2015. The emission rates of all the compounds were low in spring, but MT, acetone, and C-4-C-10 aldehyde emission rates increased as summer proceeded, reaching maximum emission rates in July. Late summer mean values (late July and August) were 29, 17, and 33 ng g(dw)(-1) h(-1) for MTs, acetone, and aldehydes respectively. SQT emission rates increased during the summer and highest emissions were measured in late summer (late summer mean value 84 ng g(dw)(-1) h(-1)) concomitant with highest linalool emissions most likely due to stress effects. The between-tree variability of emission pattern was studied by measuring seven different trees during the same afternoon using adsorbent tubes. Especially the contributions of limonene, terpinolene, and camphene were found to vary between trees, whereas proportions of alpha-pinene (25 +/- 5 %) and beta-pinene (7 +/- 3 %) were more stable. Our results show that it is important to measure emissions at canopy level due to irregular emission pattern, but reliable SQT emission data can be measured only from enclosures. SQT emissions contributed more than 90% of the ozone reactivity most of the time, and about 70% of the OH reactivity during late summer. The contribution of aldehydes to OH reactivity was comparable to that of MT during late summer, 10-30% most of the time.
  • Rissanen, Kaisa; Hölttä, Teemu; Bäck, Jaana (2018)
    Most plant-based emissions of volatile organic compounds are considered mainly temperature dependent. However, certain oxygenated volatile organic compounds (OVOCs) have high water solubility; thus, also stomatal conductance could regulate their emissions from shoots. Due to their water solubility and sources in stem and roots, it has also been suggested that their emissions could be affected by transport in the xylem sap. Yet further understanding on the role of transport has been lacking until present. We used shoot-scale long-term dynamic flux data from Scots pines (Pinus sylvestris) to analyse the effects of transpiration and transport in xylem sap flow on emissions of 3 water-soluble OVOCs: methanol, acetone, and acetaldehyde. We found a direct effect of transpiration on the shoot emissions of the 3 OVOCs. The emissions were best explained by a regression model that combined linear transpiration and exponential temperature effects. In addition, a structural equation model indicated that stomatal conductance affects emissions mainly indirectly, by regulating transpiration. A part of the temperature's effect is also indirect. The tight coupling of shoot emissions to transpiration clearly evidences that these OVOCs are transported in the xylem sap from their sources in roots and stem to leaves and to ambient air.
  • Vanhatalo, A.; Chan, T.; Aalto, J.; Korhonen, J. F.; Kolari, P.; Holtta, T.; Nikinmaa, E.; Back, J. (2015)
    Tree canopies are known to emit large amounts of VOCs( volatile organic compounds) such as monoterpenes into the surrounding air. High VOC emission rates from bo-real forests have been observed during the transition from winter to summer activity. The most important sources of these are considered to be the green foliage, understory vegetation and soil organisms, but emissions from the living stand woody compartments have so far not been quantified. We analyzed whether the non-foliar components could partially explain the springtime high emission rates. We measured the monoterpene emissions from Scots pine( Pinus sylvestris L.) stem and shoots during the dehardening phase of trees in field conditions in two consecutive springs. We observed a large, transient monoterpene burst from the stem, while the shoot monoterpene emissions remained low. The burst lasted about 12 h. Simultaneously, an unusual nighttime sap flow and a non-systematic diurnal pattern of tree diameter were detected. Hence, we suggest that the monoterpene burst was a consequence of the recovery of the stem from wintertime, and likely related to the refilling of embolized tracheids and/or phenological changes in the living cells of the stem. This indicates that the dominant processes and environmental drivers triggering the monoterpene emissions are different between the stem and the foliage.