Browsing by Subject "VOICE"

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  • Kostilainen, Kaisamari; Mikkola, Kaija; Erkkilä, Jaakko; Huotilainen, Minna (2021)
    Introduction Preterm birth may disturb the typical development of the mother-infant relationship, when physical separation and emotional distress in the neonatal intensive care unit may increase maternal anxiety and create challenges for early interaction. This cluster-randomized controlled trial examined the effects of maternal singing during kangaroo care on mothers' anxiety, wellbeing, and the early mother-infant relationship after preterm birth. Method In the singing intervention group, a certified music therapist guided the mothers (n = 24) to sing or hum during daily kangaroo care during 33-40 gestational weeks (GW). In the control group, the mothers (n = 12) conducted daily kangaroo care without specific encouragement to sing. Using a convergent mixed methods design, the quantitative outcomes included the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI) at 35 GW and 40 GW to assess the change in maternal-state anxiety levels and parent diaries to examine intervention length. Post-intervention, the singing intervention mothers completed a self-report questionnaire consisting of quantitative and qualitative questions about their singing experiences. Results The mothers in the singing intervention group showed a statistically significant decrease in STAI anxiety levels compared to the control group mothers. According to the self-report questionnaire results, maternal singing relaxed both mothers and infants and supported their relationship by promoting emotional closeness and creating early interaction moments. Discussion Maternal singing can be used during neonatal hospitalization to support maternal wellbeing and early mother-infant relationship after preterm birth. However, mothers may need information, support, and privacy for singing.
  • Niemi, Reetta (2019)
    Background: The new core curriculum for basic education in Finland emphasises the interrelation between learners’ participation and multidisciplinary learning. Each learner must be provided with an opportunity to join at least one multidisciplinary learning module each year. Hence, student teachers also implement a multidisciplinary learning module as part of their teaching practice at the University of Helsinki. Aim: In this article, I describe how two multidisciplinary learning modules were implemented by four third-year student teachers in a teacher training school and how they were educated to analyse the different forms of participation in their teaching. Setting: The research question of this article is as follows: How do different teaching practices used in multidisciplinary learning modules support learners’ participation? Methods: The data of this study consist of two documentation forms: two semi-structured group interviews and a field note diary. Results: The results showed that most of the practices used in multidisciplinary learning modules supported an active joining form of participation and a collaborative form of participation. In the multidisciplinary learning modules, a child-oriented form of participation was supported through practices that related to creating artistic learning outcomes; however, no practices supported a child-led form of participation. Conclusion: In this study, the student teachers learned to analyse the different forms of participation in their teaching. Nevertheless, more data about the workability of the mentoring method in other contexts are needed.
  • Wikström, Valtteri; Falcon, Mari; Martikainen, Silja; Pejoska, Jana; Dural, Eva; Bauters, Merja; Saarikivi, Katri Annukka (2021)
    Augmenting online interpersonal communication with biosignals, often in the form of heart rate sharing, has shown promise in increasing affiliation, feelings of closeness, and intimacy. Increasing empathetic awareness in the professional domain and in the customer interface could benefit both customer and employee satisfaction, but heart rate sharing in this context needs to consider issues around physiological monitoring of employees, appropriate level of intimacy, as well as the productivity outlook. In this study, we explore heart rate sharing at the workplace and study its effects on task performance. Altogether, 124 participants completed a collaborative visual guidance task using a chat box with heart rate visualization. Participants’ feedback about heart rate sharing reveal themes such as a stronger sense of human contact and increased self-reflection, but also raise concerns around unnecessity, intimacy, privacy and negative interpretations. Live heart rate was always measured, but to investigate the effect of heart rate sharing on task performance, half of the customers were told that they were seeing a recording, and half were told that they were seeing the advisor’s live heart beat. We found a negative link between awareness and task performance. We also found that higher ratings of usefulness of the heart rate visualization were associated with increased feelings of closeness. These results reveal that intimacy and privacy issues are particularly important for heart rate sharing in professional contexts, that preference modulates the effects of heart rate sharing on social closeness, and that heart rate sharing may have a negative effect on performance.
  • Shekhar, Shashank; Maria, Ambika; Kotilahti, Kalle; Huotilainen, Minna; Heiskala, Juha; Tuulari, Jetro J.; Hirvi, Pauliina; Karlsson, Linnea; Karlsson, Hasse; Nissila, Ilkka (2019)
    Emotional speech is one of the principal forms of social communication in humans. In this study, we investigated neural processing of emotional speech (happy, angry, sad and neutral) in the left hemisphere of 21 two-month-old infants using diffuse optical tomography. Reconstructed total hemoglobin (HbT) images were analysed using adaptive voxel-based clustering and region-of-interest (ROI) analysis. We found a distributed happy > neutral response within the temporo-parietal cortex, peaking in the anterior temporal cortex; a negative HbT response to emotional speech (the average of the emotional speech conditions <baseline) in the temporo-parietal cortex, neutral > angry in the anterior superior temporal sulcus (STS), happy > angry in the superior temporal gyrus and posterior superior temporal sulcus, angry <baseline in the insula, superior temporal sulcus and superior temporal gyrus and happy <baseline in the anterior insula. These results suggest that left STS is more sensitive to happy speech as compared to angry speech, indicating that it might play an important role in processing positive emotions in two-month-old infants. Furthermore, happy speech (relative to neutral) seems to elicit more activation in the temporo-parietal cortex, thereby suggesting enhanced sensitivity of temporo-parietal cortex to positive emotional stimuli at this stage of infant development.
  • Lindstrom, R.; Lepisto-Paisley, T.; Vanhala, R.; Alen, R.; Kujala, T. (2016)
    Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are characterized by deficient social and communication skills, including difficulties in perceiving speech prosody. The present study addressed processing of emotional prosodic changes (sad, scornful and commanding) in natural word stimuli in typically developed school aged children and in children with ASD and language impairment. We found that the responses to a repetitive word were diminished in amplitude in the children with ASD, reflecting impaired speech encoding. Furthermore, the amplitude of the MMN/LDN component, reflecting cortical discrimination of sound changes, was diminished in the children with ASD for the scornful deviant. In addition, the amplitude of the P3a, reflecting involuntary orienting to attention-catching changes, was diminished in the children with ASD for the scornful deviant and tended to be smaller for the sad deviant. These results suggest that prosody processing in ASD is impaired at various levels of neural processing, including deficient pre-attentive discrimination and involuntary orientation to speech prosody. (C) 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
  • Niemistö, Charlotta; Hearn, Jeff; Karjalainen, Mira; Tuori, Annamari (2020)
    Abstract Purpose Privilege is often silent, invisible and not made explicit, and silence is a key question for theorizing on organizations. This paper examines interrelations between privilege and silence for relatively privileged professionals in high-intensity knowledge businesses (KIBs). Design/methodology/approach This paper draws on 112 interviews in two rounds of interviews using the collaborative interactive action research method. The analysis focuses on processes of recruitment, careers and negotiation of boundaries between work and nonwork in these KIBs. The authors study how relative privilege within social inequalities connects with silences in multiple ways, and how the invisibility of privilege operates at different levels: individual identities and interpersonal actions of privilege (micro), as organizational level phenomena (meso) or as societally constructed (macro). Findings At each level, privilege is reproduced in part through silence. The authors also examine how processes connecting silence, privilege and social inequalities operate differently in relation to both disadvantage and the disadvantaged, and privilege and the privileged. Originality/value This study is relevant for organization studies, especially in the kinds of “multi-privileged” contexts where inequalities, disadvantages and subordination may remain hidden and silenced, and, thus, are continuously reproduced.
  • Ansaranta, Maaria; Geneid, Ahmed; Kauppi, Paula; Malmberg, Leo Pekka; Vilkman, Erkki (2017)
    Objectives/Hypothesis. To examine the changes in the larynx, as well as self-reported voice and throat symptoms, among patients undergoing a histamine challenge test. Thus, to understand the possible clinical effects of histamine on the larynx. Study design. Controlled, open prospective study. Methods. Thirty adult patients with prolonged cough and suspicion of bronchial asthma underwent a histamine challenge test. Videolaryngostroboscopy was performed immediately before and after the challenge. Voice and throat symptoms immediately before and after the challenge test were assessed using a visual analog scale. Results. Videolaryngostroboscopy after exposure showed significant increases in edema (P <0.001) as well as redness (P <0.001) of the vocal folds after the exposure. Self-reported voice complaints increased significantly for 8 of 11 symptoms. Amoderate positive correlation was found between the increase in edema of the vocal folds and reported heartburn/regurgitation symptoms (r = 0.42, P <0.05). Atopy, asthma, nasal symptoms, or bronchial hyperreactivity during the histamine challenge test were not associated with laryngeal reactions. Conclusions. According to the results, the laryngeal mucosal reaction during a histamine challenge test can be objectively visualized. Videolaryngostroboscopy findings, together with an increase in self-reported voice and throat symptoms, show that histamine has potential effects on vocal folds. The mucosal reaction seems to be pronounced among patients with reflux symptoms, probably reflecting the permeability features of the vocal folds.
  • Geneid, Ahmed; Rihkanen, Heikki; Kinnari, Teemu J (2015)
    In this study, we aimed to assess the long-term effects of the mucosal layer plastic surgery of the vocal folds performed on the voices of male-to-female transgenders. This retrospective cohort study enrolled 22 patients who were operated during 2004-2010 by a combined technique of transmucosal anterior suturing and stiffening of the vocal folds through a longitudinal cordotomy incision using CO2 laser. Long-term effects were assessed based on completed questionnaires on four different categories including subjective evaluation of patient's own voice perception and a standardized voice inventory (VHI), as well as an acoustic assessment and videolaryngoscopic examination. Out of the 22 patients contacted, 16 returned the questionnaires, and 13 of them participated in the subsequent acoustic analysis and videolaryngoscopic assessment. Results of the study were as follows: The total VHI score, after the procedure, was 32. F0 increased significantly for both the vowel/a/ and text from 157 to 207 Hz and 139 to 162 Hz, respectively. Perturbation measures did not show a significant change. F0 did not correlate with the VHI score. One patient had symptomatic anterior perforation that needed re-operation. The combination of transmucosal anterior suturing and stiffening of the vocal folds by laser cordectomy results in significant elevation of the F0 in the long term and in acceptable levels of VHI score compared to other reports. In conclusion, the results of the procedures show that it is enough to get the mucosal edges sutured together without the need to suture either the ligaments or the muscle of the vocal folds. The need for revision is minimal with this procedure.