Browsing by Subject "VOLCANIC-ERUPTIONS"

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  • Brugnara, Y.; Auchmann, R.; Broennimann, S.; Allan, R. J.; Auer, I.; Barriendos, M.; Bergstrom, H.; Bhend, J.; Brazdil, R.; Compo, G. P.; Cornes, R. C.; Dominguez-Castro, F.; van Engelen, A. F. V.; Filipiak, J.; Holopainen, J.; Jourdain, S.; Kunz, M.; Luterbacher, J.; Maugeri, M.; Mercalli, L.; Moberg, A.; Mock, C. J.; Pichard, G.; Reznckova, L.; van der Schrier, G.; Slonosky, V.; Ustrnul, Z.; Valente, M. A.; Wypych, A.; Yin, X. (2015)
    The eruption of Mount Tambora (Indonesia) in April 1815 is the largest documented volcanic eruption in history. It is associated with a large global cooling during the following year, felt particularly in parts of Europe and North America, where the year 1816 became known as the "year without a summer". This paper describes an effort made to collect surface meteorological observations from the early instrumental period, with a focus on the years of and immediately following the eruption (1815-1817). Although the collection aimed in particular at pressure observations, correspondent temperature observations were also recovered. Some of the series had already been described in the literature, but a large part of the data, recently digitised from original weather diaries and contemporary magazines and newspapers, is presented here for the first time. The collection puts together more than 50 sub-daily series from land observatories in Europe and North America and from ships in the tropics. The pressure observations have been corrected for temperature and gravity and reduced to mean sea level. Moreover, an additional statistical correction was applied to take into account common error sources in mercury barometers. To assess the reliability of the corrected data set, the variance in the pressure observations is compared with modern climatologies, and single observations are used for synoptic analyses of three case studies in Europe. All raw observations will be made available to the scientific community in the International Surface Pressure Databank.
  • Oinonen, Markku; Alenius, Teija; Arppe, Laura; Bocherens, Hervé; Etu-Sihvola, Heli; Helama, Samuli; Huhtamaa, Heli; Lahtinen, Maria; Mannermaa, Kristiina; Onkamo, Päivi; Palo, Jukka; Sajantila, Antti; Salo, Kati; Sundell, Tarja; Vanhanen, Santeri; Wessman, Anna (2020)
    Levanluhta is a unique archaeological site with the remains of nearly a hundred Iron Age individuals found from a water burial in Ostrobothnia, Finland. The strongest climatic downturn of the Common Era, resembling the great Fimbulvinter in Norse mythology, hit these people during the 6th century AD. This study establishes chronological, dietary, and livelihood synthesis on this population based on stable carbon and nitrogen isotopic and radiocarbon analyses on human remains, supported by multidisciplinary evidence. Extraordinarily broad stable isotopic distribution is observed, indicating three subgroups with distinct dietary habits spanning four centuries. This emphasizes the versatile livelihoods practiced at this boundary of marine, freshwater, and terrestrial ecosystems. While the impact of the prolonged cold darkness of the 6th century was devastating for European communities relying on cultivation, the broad range of livelihoods provided resilience for the Levanluhta people to overcome the abrupt climatic decline.
  • Gennaretti, Fabio; Boucher, Etienne; Nicault, Antoine; Gea-Izquierdo, Guillermo; Arseneault, Dominique; Berninger, Frank; Savard, Martine M.; Begin, Christian; Guiot, Joel (2018)
    The Tambora eruption (1815 AD) was one of the major eruptions of the last two millennia and has no equivalents over the last two centuries. Here, we collected an extensive network of early meteorological time series, climate simulation data and numerous, well-replicated proxy records from Eastern Canada to analyze the strength and the persistence of the Tambora impact on the regional climate and forest processes. Our results show that the Tambora impacts on the terrestrial biosphere were stronger than previously thought, and not only affected tree growth and carbon uptake for a longer period than registered in the regional climate, but also determined forest demography and structure. Increased tree mortality, four times higher than the background level, indicates that the Tambora climatic impact propagated to influence the structure of the North American taiga for several decades. We also show that the Tambora signal is more persistent in observed data (temperature, river ice dynamics, forest growth, tree mortality) than in simulated ones (climate and forest-growth simulations), indicating that our understanding of the mechanisms amplifying volcanic perturbations on climates and ecosystems is still limited, notably in the North American taiga.