Browsing by Subject "VOLUNTEERS"

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  • Salminen, Jarno; van Gils, Mark; Paloheimo, Markku; Yli-Hankala, Arvi (2016)
    Neuromuscular blockade is usually monitored using train-of-four (TOF) stimulation pattern. A TOF ratio of higher than 90 % is recommended to reduce the risk of adverse effects after anaesthesia. TOF ratio 90 % is used in clinical practice with all different neuromuscular monitors. Kinemyography (KMG) is one commercialized method to obtain numerical TOF values. We compared the KMG data obtained with Datex M-NMT MechanoSensor (TM) module, to the EMG data collected with Datex ElectroSensor (TM), during clinical anaesthesia. Ipsilateral comparisons of the sensors were performed in 20 female patients during clinical procedures in propofol-remifentanil anaesthesia. After initial bolus dose of rocuronium (0.6 mg/kg), the spontaneous recovery of TOF ratio and T1 % were monitored. KMG gave higher TOF values than EMG. The difference was significant at KMG TOF values of 40 % or higher. After anaesthetic induction, but before administration of rocuronium, both TOF sensor values drifted from the TOF value of 1.0, showing either significant spontaneous fade (T1 > T4) or tendency of reverse fade (T1 <T4). KMG overestimates the recovery from neuromuscular blockade when compared with EMG. KMG and EMG cannot be used interchangeably, and TOF ratio 90 % cannot be considered as adequate level of recovery with all monitoring devices.
  • Lääveri, Tinja; Vlot, Jessica A.; van Dam, Alje P.; Häkkinen, Hanni K.; Sonder, Gerard J. B.; Visser, Leo G.; Kantele, Anu (2018)
    Background: One third of travellers to low- and middle-income regions of the tropics and subtropics become colonized by extended-spectrum beta-lactamase-producing Enterobacteriaceae (ESBL-PE). The risk varies by destination and, for each traveller, may be substantially further increased by travellers' diarrhoea (TD) and antibiotic use. Despite the risk of TD in Africa, ESBL-PE acquisition rates in all studies are lower there than in Asia. Africa has become increasingly popular as a destination for international travellers, yet minimal data are available from the continent's subregions and countries. Methods: We analysed subregion- and country-specific data on carriage and risk factors for ESBL-PE colonization pooled from three prospective studies conducted between 2009 and 2013 among Finnish and Dutch travellers. The data were subjected to multivariable analysis of risk factors. In addition, we compared our data to two recent large investigations reporting data by subregion and country. Results: Our joint analysis comprised data on 396 travellers. The ESBL-PE colonization rate was highest in Northern Africa, followed by Middle and Eastern Africa, and lowest in Southern and Western Africa. Of individual countries with more than 15 visitors, the highest rates were seen for Egypt (12/17; 70.6%), Ghana (6/23; 26.1%), and Tanzania (14/81; 17.3%); the rates among travellers to Egypt were comparable to those reported in South and Southeast Asia. In a pooled multivariable analysis, travel destination, age, overnight hospitalisation abroad, TD, and use of fluoroquinolones were independently associated with increased ESBL-PE colonization rates. Conlusions: Even in areas with relatively low risk of colonization, antimicrobials clearly predispose to colonization with ESBL-PE. Travellers to Africa should be cautioned against unnecessary use of antibiotics.
  • Haikarainen, Jussi; Vahteristo, Mikko; Lahelma, Satu; Vartiainen, Ville; Malmberg, Leo Pekka (2020)
    Background: Use of drug delivery devices between nebulizers, dry powder inhalers (DPIs), or metered dose inhalers (MDIs), for treating patients with asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), is based on patients' capability of coordinating the inhalation maneuver and achieving sufficient airflow. There are limited data available with regard to how patients meet the requirements of successful inhalation performance, and how the concept of inspiratory lungpower could be applied. The aim of this work was to study the patient inspiratory airflow profile performance in large data sets. We analyzed how the Kamin-Haidl inhalation criteria were met by patients with DPIs such as Easyhaler for combination therapy (EH-combi), Easyhaler for monotherapy (EH-mono), Diskus, and Turbuhaler (TH), and applied peak lungpower instead of peak inspiratory flow rate as an indicator of patient performance. Materials and Methods: Data sets gathered in two previous studies for DPIs, that is, EH-combi, EH-mono, Diskus, and TH, were used to analyze how inspiratory lungpower representing inspiratory muscle power, flow acceleration, and volume after peak met the inhalation criteria. The measured patient airflow profiles through inhalers were assessed for patients with asthma or COPD. Results: Based on the Kamin-Haidl inhalation criteria, successful inhalation requirements were met with EH-combi in 96.1% and with EH-mono in 92.6% of patients. The success rates were 89.5% and 84.6% with Diskus and TH, respectively, (p <0.0001 between devices). In patients with asthma or COPD, the mean lungpower was 7.51 and 6.15 W for EH-combi, 8.79 and 6.88 W for EH-mono, 7.18 and 4.36 W for Diskus, and 9.65 and 6.86 W for TH, respectively, when patients followed the manufacturer's written instructions. Conclusions: Lungpower applied to the Kamin-Haidl inhalation criteria concept could be an applicable method for reviewing patient performance for different DPIs despite DPIs' characteristic differences in airflow resistance. In light of these results, DPIs provide a feasible treatment option for a large majority of respiratory patients.
  • Ketola, Raimo A.; Ojanperä, Ilkka (2019)
    Concentration distributions for 183 drugs and metabolites frequently found in post-mortem (PM) femoral venous blood were statistically characterized based on an extensive database of 122 234 autopsy cases investigated during an 18-year period in a centralized laboratory. The cases represented all causes of death, with fatal drug poisonings accounting for 8%. The proportion of males was 74% with a median age of 58 years compared with 26% females with a median age of 64 years. In 36% of these cases, blood alcohol concentration was higher than or equal to 0.2 parts per thousand, the median being 1.6 parts per thousand. The mean, median, and upper percentile (90th, 95th, 97.5th) drug concentrations were established, as the median PM concentrations give an idea of the "normal" PM concentration level, and the upper percentile concentrations indicate possible overdose levels. A correspondence was found between subsets of the present and the previously published PM drug concentrations from another laboratory that grouped cases according to the cause of death. Our results add to the knowledge for evidence-based interpretation of drug-related deaths.