Browsing by Subject "Vaccination"

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  • Eklund, Jonna (Helsingin yliopisto, 2019)
    Vaccine uptake has been low for some vaccines in the Pietarsaari region in Finland. Among health care workers vaccine uptake has been low for the influenza vaccine. This qualitative study intends to answer questions about what kind of attitudes and thoughts health care workers have towards vaccination and which factors affect the attitudes. This study consists of 23 semi-structured interviews and three focus-group interviews with health care workers in the Pietarsaari region. The interviews were conducted in June-July 2017 and were analyzed with qualitative content analysis. The general attitude towards vaccination is positive amongst the health care workers. Vaccines are seen as fundamental protection against diseases and are an important part of health prevention. Many informants trust the authorities and research conducted about vaccines. Yet some informants are hesitant about certain vaccines. Vaccines, which are called unnecessary or risky, varies between the informants. Reasons for refusing vaccines are preference of natural immunity, negative experiences of vaccination, for example adverse effects, or the attitude that ”we can ́t vaccinate against everything”. Furthermore, the concerns about vaccines have increased since 2009, when the swine flu vaccination was associated with severe adverse effects. Health care workers also oppose the compulsory vaccination of the influenza vaccine.
  • Lahdentausta, Laura; Kivimäki, Anne; Oksanen, Lotta; Tallgren, Marika; Oksanen, Sampo; Sanmark, Enni; Salminen, Aino; Geneid, Ahmed; Sairanen, Mikko; Paju, Susanna; Saksela, Kalle; Pussinen, Pirkko; Pietiäinen, Milla (2022)
    We examined the usefulness of dried spot blood and saliva samples in SARS-CoV-2 antibody analyses. We analyzed 1231 self-collected dried spot blood and saliva samples from healthcare workers. Participants filled in a questionnaire on their COVID-19 exposures, infections, and vaccinations. Anti-SARS-CoV-2 IgG, IgA, and IgM levels were determined from both samples using the GSP/DELFIA method. The level of exposure was the strongest determinant of all blood antibody classes and saliva IgG, increasing as follows: (1) no exposure (healthy, non-vaccinated), (2) exposed, (3) former COVID-19 infection, (4) one vaccination, (5) two vaccinations, and (6) vaccination and former infection. While the blood IgG assay had a 99.5% sensitivity and 75.3% specificity to distinguish participants with two vaccinations from all other types of exposure, the corresponding percentages for saliva IgG were 85.3% and 65.7%. Both blood and saliva IgG-seropositivity proportions followed similar trends to the exposures reported in the questionnaires. Self-collected dry blood and saliva spot samples combined with the GSP/DELFIA technique comprise a valuable tool to investigate an individual's immune response to SARS-CoV-2 exposure or vaccination. Saliva IgG has high potential to monitor vaccination response wane, since the sample is non-invasive and easy to collect.
  • Helanterä, I.; Janes, R.; Anttila, V-J (2018)
    Background: Influenza A(H1N1) causes serious complications in immunocompromised patients. The efficacy of seasonal vaccination in these patients has been questioned. Aim: To describe two outbreaks of influenza A(H1N1) in immunocompromised patients. Methods: Two outbreaks of influenza A(H1N1) occurred in our institution: on the kidney transplant ward in 2014 including patients early after kidney or simultaneous pancreas-kidney transplantation, and on the oncology ward in 2016 including patients receiving chemotherapy for malignant tumours. Factors leading to these outbreaks and the clinical efficacy of seasonal influenza vaccination were analysed. Findings: Altogether 86 patients were exposed to influenza A(H1N1) during the outbreaks, among whom the seasonal influenza vaccination status was unknown in 10. Only three out of 38 vaccinated patients were infected with influenza A(H1N1), compared with 20 out of 38 unvaccinated patients (P = 0.02). The death of one out of 38 vaccinated patients was associated with influenza, compared with seven out of 38 unvaccinated patients (P = 0.06). Shared factors behind the two outbreaks included outdated facilities not designed for the treatment of immunosuppressed patients. Vaccination coverage among patients was low, between 40% and 70% despite vaccination being offered to all patients free of charge. Vaccination coverage of healthcare workers on the transplant ward was low (46%), but, despite high coverage on the oncology ward (92%), the outbreak occurred. Conclusion: Seasonal influenza vaccination was clinically effective with both a reduced risk of influenza infection and a trend towards reduced mortality in these immunocompromised patients. Several possible causes were identified behind these two outbreaks, requiring continuous awareness in healthcare professionals to prevent further outbreaks. (C) 2017 The Healthcare Infection Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
  • Kaila, Marianne; Marjoniemi, Jasmine; Nokireki, Tiina (2019)
    Seventy-two canine serum samples were analyzed for post-vaccination serum titers of rabies antibodies. The samples were divided into two groups: Group 1 dogs (n = 36) were imported dogs from the Russian Federation (n = 31) or Romania (n = 5), with a mean serum antibody titer value of 1.54 IU/mL. Group 2 dogs (n = 36) were Finnish dogs vaccinated in Finland, with a mean titer of 4.19 IU/mL. Altogether, 14 (39%) dogs (CI 95% 23–56) were without detectable antibodies (≤ 0.1 IU/mL) in Group 1, whereas in Group 2, all dogs had an antibody titer greater than 0.1 IU/mL. A statistically significant difference was observed between these groups when comparing the proportions of dogs with antibody levels less than or exceeding 0.5 IU/mL. In Group 1, 19 out of the 36 dogs (CI 95% 36–70) had serum titer values 
  • Kaila, Marianne; Marjoniemi, Jasmine; Nokireki, Tiina (BioMed Central, 2019)
    Abstract Seventy-two canine serum samples were analyzed for post-vaccination serum titers of rabies antibodies. The samples were divided into two groups: Group 1 dogs (n = 36) were imported dogs from the Russian Federation (n = 31) or Romania (n = 5), with a mean serum antibody titer value of 1.54 IU/mL. Group 2 dogs (n = 36) were Finnish dogs vaccinated in Finland, with a mean titer of 4.19 IU/mL. Altogether, 14 (39%) dogs (CI 95% 23–56) were without detectable antibodies (≤ 0.1 IU/mL) in Group 1, whereas in Group 2, all dogs had an antibody titer greater than 0.1 IU/mL. A statistically significant difference was observed between these groups when comparing the proportions of dogs with antibody levels less than or exceeding 0.5 IU/mL. In Group 1, 19 out of the 36 dogs (CI 95% 36–70) had serum titer values < 0.5 IU/mL, while in Group 2, only 2 dogs had serum titer values < 0.5 IU/mL. Despite the small sample size, this raises concern over the imported dogs having insufficient antibody levels required for international travel and implies that these dogs had perhaps not been vaccinated, even though they had documentation of vaccination upon arrival.
  • Kaila, M.; Marjoniemi, I.; Nokireki, T. (2019)
    Acta Veterinaria Scandinavica 2019: Vol. 61, No. 15
    Seventy-two canine serum samples were analyzed for post-vaccination serum titers of rabies antibodies. The samples were divided into two groups: Group 1 dogs (n = 36) were imported dogs from the Russian Federation (n = 31) or Romania (n = 5), with a mean serum antibody titer value of 1.54 IU/mL. Group 2 dogs (n = 36) were Finnish dogs vaccinated in Finland, with a mean titer of 4.19 IU/mL. Altogether, 14 (39%) dogs (CI 95% 23–56) were without detectable antibodies (≤ 0.1 IU/mL) in Group 1, whereas in Group 2, all dogs had an antibody titer greater than 0.1 IU/mL. A statistically significant difference was observed between these groups when comparing the proportions of dogs with antibody levels less than or exceeding 0.5 IU/mL. In Group 1, 19 out of the 36 dogs (CI 95% 36–70) had serum titer values < 0.5 IU/mL, while in Group 2, only 2 dogs had serum titer values < 0.5 IU/mL. Despite the small sample size, this raises concern over the imported dogs having insufficient antibody levels required for international travel and implies that these dogs had perhaps not been vaccinated, even though they had documentation of vaccination upon arrival.
  • D'Amico, Carmine; Fontana, Flavia; Cheng, Ruoyu; Santos, Hélder A. (2021)
    The current situation, heavily influenced by the ongoing pandemic, puts vaccines back into the spotlight. However, the conventional and traditional vaccines present disadvantages, particularly related to immunogenicity, stability, and storage of the final product. Often, such products require the maintenance of a “cold chain,” impacting the costs, the availability, and the distribution of vaccines. Here, after a recall of the mode of action of vaccines and the types of vaccines currently available, we analyze the past, present, and future of vaccine formulation. The past focuses on conventional formulations, the present discusses the use of nanoparticles for vaccine delivery and as adjuvants, while the future presents microneedle patches as alternative formulation and administration route. Finally, we compare the advantages and disadvantages of injectable solutions, nanovaccines, and microneedles in terms of efficacy, stability, and patient-friendly design.
  • Peiponen, Kati Susanna; Tirkkonen, Birger Taneli; Junnila, Jouni Juho Tapio; Heinonen, Mari Leena (2018)
    Background: The intracellular bacterium Lawsonia intracellularis is an important pathogen in modern swine production. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of a live attenuated L. intracellularis vaccine (Enterisol-Ileitis (R)) on the health and production parameters of weaned and finishing pigs in a commercial Finnish 850-sow farm with diagnosed L. intracellularis infection. The herd was free from enzootic pneumonia, swine dysentery, progressive atrophic rhinitis, sarcoptic mange and salmonellosis. Four weekly groups of approximately 500 piglets were included in the study for a total of approximately 2000 piglets. Half of these piglets were vaccinated at 3 weeks of age and the other half served as controls. The study piglets were ear-tagged with individual numbers and colour-coded and were individually weighed at weaning (4 weeks), delivery to the finishing farm (12-14 weeks) and at slaughter. Mortality, symptoms of diseases and medications of the study piglets were registered in the nursery and finishing unit. Feed conversion rate was calculated for the finishing period and lean meat percentage was measured at slaughter. Results: Vaccinated piglets had a higher live weight than unvaccinated piglets at delivery to the finishing unit (+ 1.18 kg, P = 0.002) and at slaughter (+ 3.57 kg, P <0.001). The daily weight gain of vaccinated piglets was better than unvaccinated piglets in the nursery (+ 14.8 g/d, P = 0.013) and in the finishing unit (+ 30.9 g/d, P <0.001). Vaccination had no effect on feed conversion rate or lean meat percentage (P = 0.102). Altogether, 3.9 and 4.6% of the pigs were medicated for different reasons in the vaccinated and control groups, respectively. The return on investment for the vaccination was calculated to be 0.41. Conclusions: Immunisation of piglets with a live attenuated L. intracellularis vaccine resulted in higher meat yield in pig production via significantly higher live weight and average daily weight gain in a Finnish specific pathogen-free setting.
  • Peiponen, Kati S; Tirkkonen, Birger T; Junnila, Jouni J T; Heinonen, Mari L (BioMed Central, 2018)
    Abstract Background The intracellular bacterium Lawsonia intracellularis is an important pathogen in modern swine production. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of a live attenuated L. intracellularis vaccine (Enterisol Ileitis®) on the health and production parameters of weaned and finishing pigs in a commercial Finnish 850-sow farm with diagnosed L. intracellularis infection. The herd was free from enzootic pneumonia, swine dysentery, progressive atrophic rhinitis, sarcoptic mange and salmonellosis. Four weekly groups of approximately 500 piglets were included in the study for a total of approximately 2000 piglets. Half of these piglets were vaccinated at 3 weeks of age and the other half served as controls. The study piglets were ear-tagged with individual numbers and colour-coded and were individually weighed at weaning (4 weeks), delivery to the finishing farm (12–14 weeks) and at slaughter. Mortality, symptoms of diseases and medications of the study piglets were registered in the nursery and finishing unit. Feed conversion rate was calculated for the finishing period and lean meat percentage was measured at slaughter. Results Vaccinated piglets had a higher live weight than unvaccinated piglets at delivery to the finishing unit (+ 1.18 kg, P = 0.002) and at slaughter (+ 3.57 kg, P < 0.001). The daily weight gain of vaccinated piglets was better than unvaccinated piglets in the nursery (+ 14.8 g/d, P = 0.013) and in the finishing unit (+ 30.9 g/d, P < 0.001). Vaccination had no effect on feed conversion rate or lean meat percentage (P = 0.102). Altogether, 3.9 and 4.6% of the pigs were medicated for different reasons in the vaccinated and control groups, respectively. The return on investment for the vaccination was calculated to be 0.41. Conclusions Immunisation of piglets with a live attenuated L. intracellularis vaccine resulted in higher meat yield in pig production via significantly higher live weight and average daily weight gain in a Finnish specific pathogen-free setting.
  • Nokireki, Tiina; Jakava-Viljanen, Miia; Virtala, Anna-Maija; Sihvonen, Liisa (2017)
    Background: Rabies is preventable by pre-and/or post-exposure prophylaxis consisting of series of rabies vaccinations and in some cases the use of immunoglobulins. The success of vaccination can be estimated either by measuring virus neutralising antibodies or by challenge experiment. Vaccines based on rabies virus offer cross-protection against other lyssaviruses closely related to rabies virus. The aim was to assess the success of rabies vaccination measured by the antibody response in dogs (n = 10,071) and cats (n = 722), as well as to investigate the factors influencing the response to vaccination when animals failed to reach a rabies antibody titre of = 0.5 IU/ml. Another aim was to assess the level of protection afforded by a commercial veterinary rabies vaccine against intracerebral challenge in mice with European bat lyssavirus type 2 (EBLV-2) and classical rabies virus (RABV), and to compare this with the protection offered by a vaccine for humans. Results: A significantly higher proportion of dogs (10.7%, 95% confidence interval CI 10.1-11.3) than cats (3.5%; 95% CI 2.3-5.0) had a vaccination antibody titre of <0.5 IU/ml. In dogs, vaccination with certain vaccines, vaccination over 6 months prior the time of antibody determination and vaccination of dogs with a size of > 60 cm or larger resulted in a higher risk of failing to reach an antibody level of at least 0.5 IU/ml. When challenged with EBLV-2 and RABV, 80 and 100% of mice vaccinated with the veterinary rabies vaccine survived, respectively. When mice were vaccinated with the human rabies vaccine and challenged with EBLV-2, 75-80% survived, depending on the booster. All vaccinated mice developed sufficient to high titres of virus-neutralising antibodies (VNA) against RABV 21-22 days post-vaccination, ranging from 0.5 to 128 IU/ml. However, there was significant difference between antibody titres after vaccinating once in comparison to vaccinating twice (P <0.05). Conclusions: There was a significant difference between dogs and cats in their ability to reach a post vaccination antibody titre of = 0.5 IU/ml. Mice vaccinated with RABV-based rabies vaccines were partly cross-protected against EBLV-2, but there was no clear correlation between VNA titres and cross-protection against EBLV-2. Measurement of the RABV VNA titre can only be seen as a partial tool to estimate the cross-protection against other lyssaviruses. Booster vaccination is recommended for dogs and cats if exposed to infected bats.
  • Nokireki, Tiina; Jakava-Viljanen, Miia; Virtala, Anna-Maija; Sihvonen, Liisa (BioMed Central, 2017)
    Abstract Background Rabies is preventable by pre- and/or post-exposure prophylaxis consisting of series of rabies vaccinations and in some cases the use of immunoglobulins. The success of vaccination can be estimated either by measuring virus neutralising antibodies or by challenge experiment. Vaccines based on rabies virus offer cross-protection against other lyssaviruses closely related to rabies virus. The aim was to assess the success of rabies vaccination measured by the antibody response in dogs (n = 10,071) and cats (n = 722), as well as to investigate the factors influencing the response to vaccination when animals failed to reach a rabies antibody titre of ≥ 0.5 IU/ml. Another aim was to assess the level of protection afforded by a commercial veterinary rabies vaccine against intracerebral challenge in mice with European bat lyssavirus type 2 (EBLV-2) and classical rabies virus (RABV), and to compare this with the protection offered by a vaccine for humans. Results A significantly higher proportion of dogs (10.7%, 95% confidence interval CI 10.1–11.3) than cats (3.5%; 95% CI 2.3–5.0) had a vaccination antibody titre of < 0.5 IU/ml. In dogs, vaccination with certain vaccines, vaccination over 6 months prior the time of antibody determination and vaccination of dogs with a size of > 60 cm or larger resulted in a higher risk of failing to reach an antibody level of at least 0.5 IU/ml. When challenged with EBLV-2 and RABV, 80 and 100% of mice vaccinated with the veterinary rabies vaccine survived, respectively. When mice were vaccinated with the human rabies vaccine and challenged with EBLV-2, 75–80% survived, depending on the booster. All vaccinated mice developed sufficient to high titres of virus-neutralising antibodies (VNA) against RABV 21–22 days post-vaccination, ranging from 0.5 to 128 IU/ml. However, there was significant difference between antibody titres after vaccinating once in comparison to vaccinating twice (P < 0.05). Conclusions There was a significant difference between dogs and cats in their ability to reach a post vaccination antibody titre of ≥ 0.5 IU/ml. Mice vaccinated with RABV-based rabies vaccines were partly cross-protected against EBLV-2, but there was no clear correlation between VNA titres and cross-protection against EBLV-2. Measurement of the RABV VNA titre can only be seen as a partial tool to estimate the cross-protection against other lyssaviruses. Booster vaccination is recommended for dogs and cats if exposed to infected bats.
  • Nokkireki, T.; Jakava-Viljanen, M.; Virtala, A.-M.; Sihvonen, L. (2017)
    Background: Rabies is preventable by pre- and/or post-exposure prophylaxis consisting of series of rabies vaccinations and in some cases the use of immunoglobulins. The success of vaccination can be estimated either by measuring virus neutralising antibodies or by challenge experiment. Vaccines based on rabies virus offer cross-protection against other lyssaviruses closely related to rabies virus. The aim was to assess the success of rabies vaccination measured by the antibody response in dogs (n = 10,071) and cats (n = 722), as well as to investigate the factors influencing the response to vaccination when animals failed to reach a rabies antibody titre of ≥ 0.5 IU/ml. Another aim was to assess the level of protection afforded by a commercial veterinary rabies vaccine against intracerebral challenge in mice with European bat lyssavirus type 2 (EBLV-2) and classical rabies virus (RABV), and to compare this with the protection offered by a vaccine for humans. Results: A significantly higher proportion of dogs (10.7%, 95% confidence interval CI 10.1–11.3) than cats (3.5%; 95% CI 2.3–5.0) had a vaccination antibody titre of < 0.5 IU/ml. In dogs, vaccination with certain vaccines, vaccination over 6 months prior the time of antibody determination and vaccination of dogs with a size of > 60 cm or larger resulted in a higher risk of failing to reach an antibody level of at least 0.5 IU/ml. When challenged with EBLV-2 and RABV, 80 and 100% of mice vaccinated with the veterinary rabies vaccine survived, respectively. When mice were vaccinated with the human rabies vaccine and challenged with EBLV-2, 75–80% survived, depending on the booster. All vaccinated mice developed sufficient to high titres of virus-neutralising antibodies (VNA) against RABV 21–22 days post-vaccination, ranging from 0.5 to 128 IU/ml. However, there was significant difference between antibody titres after vaccinating once in comparison to vaccinating twice (P < 0.05). Conclusions: There was a significant difference between dogs and cats in their ability to reach a post vaccination antibody titre of ≥ 0.5 IU/ml. Mice vaccinated with RABV-based rabies vaccines were partly cross-protected against EBLV-2, but there was no clear correlation between VNA titres and cross-protection against EBLV-2. Measurement of the RABV VNA titre can only be seen as a partial tool to estimate the cross-protection against other lyssaviruses. Booster vaccination is recommended for dogs and cats if exposed to infected bats.
  • Peltola, Heikki; Kyrönseppä, Hannu (2017)
  • Myllylahti, Lasse; Pitkänen, Hanna; Magnani, Harry; Lassila, Riitta (2022)
    Background Vaccine-induced immune thrombocytopenia and thrombosis (VITT) is triggered by nCOV-19 adenovirus-vectored vaccines against SARS-CoV2. Pathogenesis has been mainly related to platelet activation via PF4-reactive antibodies that activate platelets and may cross-react with heparin. Data concerning optimal anticoagulation are anecdotal, and so far, there are scattered reports of danaparoid use in VITT management. Danaparoid has good efficacy and safety in treatment of heparin-induced thrombocytopenia. We report here our experience of the administration and monitoring danaparoid in VITT. Methods We diagnosed a series of six hospitalized cases of VITT, based on the international diagnostic guidance. All VITT-related data were from the local electronic medical and laboratory record system and were analyzed with IBM SPSS Statistics. Results Predominately women in their late 40's developed VITT on average 24 days (range 9-59) after the first ChAdOx1 dose. Clinical presentation included single or multiple venous and/or arterial thrombosis, moderate thrombocytopenia and high D-dimer levels. After detecting PF4 antibodies subcutaneous danaparoid was our first-line antithrombotic treatment with an average duration of three weeks. The median plasma anti-FXa activity was in the lower part of the therapeutic range and during the first week of danaparoid administration clinical symptoms, platelet counts, and fibrin turnover resolved or significantly improved. The average duration of hospital admission was 10 days [2-18]. One patient died but the other five patients recovered completely. Conclusions The clinical outcomes of our small cohort align with the earlier published reports, and support danaparoid as a rational option for the initial anticoagulation of VITT patients.
  • Pitkäpaasi, Marjaana; Kanerva, Mari; Lehtinen, Jaana-Marija (2018)
    LÄHTÖKOHDAT Helsingin ja Uudenmaan sairaanhoitopiirin alueen terveyskeskussairaaloissa selvitettiin syksyllä 2015 vallitsevuus- eli prevalenssitutkimuksella hoitoon liittyvien infektioiden määrä sekä menetelmän soveltuvuus uuden tartuntatautilain mukaiseen infektioiden seurantaan. MENETELMÄT Sairaaloiden infektiontorjuntatiimit keräsivät tiedot yhdessä osastojen henkilökunnan kanssa. Hoitoon liittyvien infektioiden lisäksi kerättiin tiedot eristysten tarpeesta sekä katetrien ja mikrobilääkkeiden käytöstä. TULOKSET Tutkimukseen osallistui 22 sairaalaa 16 kunnasta. Potilaista 11 %:lla (95 %:n LV 10–13 %) oli ¬vähintään yksi hoitoon liittyvä infektio. Tutkimushetkellä 29 %:lla (95 %:n LV 26–33 %) potilaista oli käytössä vähintään yksi mikrobilääke. Potilaista 14 %:lla oli virtsatiekatetri. PÄÄTELMÄT Prevalenssitutkimus sopii hyvin hoitoon liittyvien infektioiden seurantaan, varsinkin kun se toistetaan määrävälein.
  • Kotaniemi-Talonen, Laura; Jakobsson, Maija; Virtanen, Anni; Nieminen, Pekka (2019)
  • Joura, Elmar A.; Kyrgiou, Maria; Bosch, Francisco X.; Kesic, Vesna; Nieminen, Pekka; Redman, Charles W. E.; Gultekin, Murat (2019)
    Vaccines against human papillomavirus (HPV) are available in Europe since 2006. They have been highly effective in preventing infection and disease caused by the vaccine types. Clinical efficacy data are available for cervical, vulvovaginal and anal precancer and invasive cervical cancer. Disease reduction is best with early vaccination and a coverage of more than 70%. Gender-neutral vaccination provides direct protection for all men and improves the coverage. A good coverage is followed by herd protection of the unvaccinated men and women. School-based programs appear to be most effective; under the age of 15 years, two doses with an interval of 6-12 months are sufficient. From the age of 15 years, the standard regimen with three doses is recommended. A broad catch-up program for young adult women and men improves the effectiveness. The vaccines are also effective in sexually active women and men with previous but cleared infections. Vaccination in addition to local treatment of HPV-related disease appears to reduce recurrent or subsequent HPV-related disease. Combination of HPV vaccination and screening with HPV testing is the most effective approach to prevention of cervical cancer. The screening intervals may increase in the vaccinated cohorts. The upper age limit for vaccination remains to be evaluated, is country specific and depends on cost-effectiveness. The European Society of Gynaecologic Oncology and the European Federation for Colposcopy strongly support gender-neutral vaccination programs for children and young adolescents, with a catch-up program for young adults. (C) 2019 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
  • Koivisto, Karoliina; Puhakka, Laura; Lappalainen, Maija; Blomqvist, Soile; Saxen, Harri; Nieminen, Tea (2017)
    Healthcare workers (HCWs) pose a risk to themselves and their patients if not protected against vaccine preventable diseases. Alarmingly, lacking immunity has been reported in several studies. We assessed the immunity against vaccine-preventable diseases in 157 pediatric HCWs in Helsinki Children's Hospital. The HCWs enrolled answered a questionnaire and gave a serum sample. Antibodies were measured with EIA against MMR-diseases, tetanus and diphtheria toxins, Hepatitis B (HBV), Hepatitis A (HAV), varicella zoster and pertussis toxin. Neutralizing antibodies against poliovirus 1, 2 and 3 were measured. All of the HCWs had antibodies against tetanus and 89.8% against diphtheria. All had measurable levels of polio antibodies to all three polioviruses. 41% had suboptimal levels of antibodies against at least one of the antigens tested: MMR-viruses, diphtheria, HBV or polio. Measles, mumps and rubella antibodies were detectable in 81.5%, 89.2% and 93%, respectively. Only one HCW had no varicella-antibodies. Hepatitis B surface antibodies (HBsAb) were detected in 89.8% of the nurses. 67.5% had HAV-antibodies. A poor correlation between detected antibody levels and reported vaccination history was noticed, indicating a need for a universal record system for registering the vaccines given to each individual. (C) 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
  • Thibau, Arno; Dichter, Alexander A.; Vaca, Diana J.; Linke, Dirk; Goldman, Adrian; Kempf, Volkhard A. J. (2020)
    The current problem of increasing antibiotic resistance and the resurgence of numerous infections indicate the need for novel vaccination strategies more than ever. In vaccine development, the search for and the selection of adequate vaccine antigens is the first important step. In recent years, bacterial outer membrane proteins have become of major interest, as they are the main proteins interacting with the extracellular environment. Trimeric autotransporter adhesins (TAAs) are important virulence factors in many Gram-negative bacteria, are localised on the bacterial surface, and mediate the first adherence to host cells in the course of infection. One example is the Neisseria adhesin A (NadA), which is currently used as a subunit in a licensed vaccine against Neisseria meningitidis. Other TAAs that seem promising vaccine candidates are the Acinetobacter trimeric autotransporter (Ata), the Haemophilus influenzae adhesin (Hia), and TAAs of the genus Bartonella. Here, we review the suitability of various TAAs as vaccine candidates.