Browsing by Subject "Vicia faba"

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  • Honkala, Juho (Helsingfors universitet, 2014)
    Biochar has been proposed to a promising future product as a carbon sink in carbon sequestration and as a soil conditioner. The aim of this master thesis is to clarify, how biochar affects on the crop formation and yield of faba bean Vicia faba in Southern-Finland. The research includes 3 growing seasons (2010-2012), but the biochar was spred in spring 2010. The study was carried out at the fields of the Viikki research farm, owned by the University Of Helsinki. The study was a split plot experiment, in which as the main plot factor was biochar rate (0, 5, 10 t ha?1). As the sub-plot factor was used fertilizing rate (12, 26 and 40 kg ha?1). To analyzing the yield components, the crop mass samples from the vegetation of every experimental plot were taken. The samples were taken at the end of crop maturation, at the development stage of > 85 (BBCH). Then the samples were dried. The yield components from the samples were separated, such as vegetative (leaves, stalks) and generative parts (pods). After that these parts were weighed. Pods were also calculated and seeds were separated from the pods, and then they were weighed. From obtained data, it was then possible to calculate the key number of yield com-ponents. And finally, the statistical analysis were done with these data. Biochar reduced the plant density at dry growing seasons 2010-2011. But at the same time it enhanced the number of pods per plant and number of seeds per pod. At moist year 2012 there were no significant differences in these components. Biochar didn’t affect significantly on the seed yield of faba bean. Fertilizing didn’t affect significantly on any yield component. Biochar and fertilizing affected significantly together only on 1 000 seeds weight on the year 2010. The lack of statistically significant affects was possibly due to the high fertility of the experimental field. There was evidence that biochar may enhance yield formation of faba bean through the ability of plants to compensate the decreased plant density during dry years. In this situation, a plant in-creases the other yield components. Due to biochar, the tolerance of plants to drought stress can become better. As a conclusion, biochar can be remarkable soil conditioner in the future, in particular during dry growing seasons. However, in fertile soils of Southern-Finland, there are no expected big yield increases in the first three years.
  • Skovbjerg, Cathrine Kiel; Knudsen, Jens Nørgaard; Füchtbauer, Winnie; Stougaard, Jens; Stoddard, Frederick L.; Janss, Luc; Andersen, Stig Uggerhøj (2020)
    Abstract Faba bean is a legume crop with high protein content and considerable potential for wider cultivation in cool climates. However, it has a reputation for having unstable yield with large interannual variability, mostly attributed to yearly variation in rainfall. In this study, 17 commercial cultivars of faba bean were evaluated for seed yield, yield stability and the relationship between seed yield and protein content at four locations in Denmark and Finland during 2016?2018. We found that location and year effects accounted for 89% of the total seed yield variation. Cultivar ? environment (GxE) interactions were small (2.4%) and did not cause reranking of cultivars across environments. Yield stability contributed little to the mean yield of the cultivars, as high-yielding cultivars consistently outperformed the lower yielding genotypes, even under the most adverse conditions. Similarly, GxE effects on protein content were limited, and we found an overall negative correlation of ?0.61 between seed yield and protein content for the cultivars and environments studied. These data may be helpful for selecting cultivars for field use or for use in breeding programmes, considering that future faba bean pricing could depend on both protein quantity and concentration.
  • Khazaei, Hamid; Wach, Damian; Pecio, Alicja; Vandenberg, Albert; Stoddard, Frederick L. (2019)
    Increasing productivity through improvement of photosynthesis in faba bean breeding programmes requires understanding of the genetic control of photosynthesis-related traits. Hence, we investigated the gene action of leaf area, gas exchange traits, canopy temperature, chlorophyll content, chlorophyll fluorescence parameters and biomass. We chose inbred lines derived from cultivars 'Aurora' (Sweden) and 'Melodie' (France) along with an Andean accession, ILB 938, crossed them (Aurora/2 x Melodie/2, ILB 938/2 x Aurora/2 and Melodie/2 x ILB 938/2), and prepared the six standard generations for quantitative analysis (P-1, P-2, F-1, F-2, B-1, and B-2). Gene action was complex for each trait, involving additive and dominance gene actions and interactions. Additive gene action was important for SPAD, photosynthetic rate, stomatal conductance and F-v/F-m. Dominance effect was important for biomass production. It is suggested that breeders selecting for productivity can maximize genetic gain by selecting early generations for canopy temperature, SPAD and F-v/F-m, then later generations for biomass. The information on genetics of various contributing traits of photosynthesis will assist plant breeders in choosing an appropriate breeding strategy for enhancing productivity in faba bean.
  • Röman, Linda (Helsingin yliopisto, 2020)
    Intercropping is an old agricultural practise to produce food and could be an interesting option to be utilized today. Use of legumes in mixtures can be a way to produce food more sustainably and minimize negative environmental impacts of current food production. Cultivation area of legumes have declined over recent years, due instability in yields and problems with pests and diseases. Intercropped systems can optimize use of land recourses and reduce issues with pest and disease. Furthermore, legumes could provide a more sustainable source for nitrogen than fossil fuels and more options for both feed and food production, especially for organic farming. Intercropping could also benefit diversity and add more options in crop rotations. In this field experiment intercropping with different mixtures of legumes and other non-legume crops were studied. This experiment by Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences was a part of the project Legumes for the agriculture of tomorrow (LEGATO). Project purpose was to promote and find solutions for increased and sustainable production of grain legumes in Europe. The main objectives of this thesis were to compare different crop mixtures and find benefits with intercropping, this thesis focused on peas and faba bean. Does intercropping add yield potential and can it have benefits for yield stability or pest damage. Results showed that intercropping did not benefit pea yields, but instead barley yields. Faba bean Gloria did benefit from intercropping, as did cereals. Yields indicate that more could be produced on the same area of land. Pest damage by pea moth (Cydia nigricana) had some statistical differences between treatments, but there were no similar effects on damage on faba bean by Broad bean weevil (Bruchus rufimanus).
  • Ulvinen, Petra (Helsingin yliopisto, 2022)
    Plant-based proteins are gaining increasing interest among the scientists and consumers due to accelerating health and environmental awareness. Fermentation is a traditional method for improving the shelf-life, nutritional profile and sensory attributes of food. The aim of the Master’s thesis was to investigate the impact of semi-solid fermentation with Pleurotus ostreatus mycelium on faba bean (Vicia faba) and oat (Avena sativa) protein. 16 amino acids were analyzed by UHPLC-PDA -method, and the nutritional value of protein was estimated by calculating Amino Acid Score (AAS) for essential amino acids. The results indicate that the presence of fungus decreased the total protein content of faba bean from 33 % to 27 % while the protein content of other samples remained stable. Significant changes were observed in the amino acid compositions, but the changes were not consistent. Only the content of alanine and valine increased in all three fermented samples. AAS -method showed an increase in the content of some limiting amino acids. Overall, the fermentation with Pleurotus ostreatus seemed to have a slightly positive or neutral impact on the essential amino acid composition of faba bean and oat protein.
  • Granqvist, Kai (Helsingin yliopisto, 2019)
    Vesistöjen rehevöityminen on globaali ongelma, jolta Suomi ei ole säästynyt. Itämeren kohdalla ongelma on ilmeinen ja myös julkisuudessa laajasti käsitelty asia. Vesistöjen rehevöitymisen merkittäväksi syyksi tunnistetaan yleisesti maatalouden aiheuttamat ravinnepäästöt, erityisesti typpi ja fosfori. Suomi on muiden Itämeren valuma-alueen valtioiden kanssa solminut HELCOM-sopimuksen, jossa sovitaan Itämeren ravinnepäästöjä vähentävistä toimista. Eräs ravinnepäästöjen vähentämiseen pyrkivä toimenpide on ravinteiden kierrätys. Ravinteiden kierrätyksen tehostaminen on myös ollut pääministeri Juha Sipilän hallituskaudella eräs kärkihankkeiden teemoista. Tämä tutkielma on osa hallituksen Kiertotalouden läpimurto - puhtaat ratkaisut käyttöön-kärkihanketta ja siihen kuuluvaa HYKERRYS – Hyvän Sadon kierrätyslannoitus- hanketta. Ravinteiden kierrätyksen tehostaminen mahdollistaa uudistuotettujen kasvinravinteiden käytön vähentämisen, joka siten vähentää myös lannoitetuotteiden valmistuksesta aiheutuvia ympäristöongelmia kuten ravinne– ja hiilidioksidipäästöjä. Kierrätyslannoitteiden suosio on kuitenkin perinteisesti tuotettuihin lannoitteisiin nähden vähäistä, sillä esimerkiksi typpilannoitteiden osalta kierrätyslannoitteilla on kotimaassa vain noin 1,75 % markkinaosuus mikäli karjanlantaa ei huomioida. Tämän tutkielman tarkoitus on lisätä tietoutta kierrätyslannoitteista ja niiden soveltuvuudesta korvata perinteisiä väkilannoitteita kotimaisessa kontekstissa. Tutkimuksessa selvitettiin osittain satunnaistettujen täydellisten lohkojen järjestelyn avulla, miten kierrätyslannoitteet vertautuvat nollakontrolliin ja tavanomaiseen väkilannoitteeseen a) sadon, b) satokomponenttien ja c) taloudellisuuden suhteen härkäpavulla (Vicia faba cv. ’Louhi’). Kokeessa oli mukana neljä eri kierrätyslannoitevalmistajaa kahdeksalla eri lannoitekäsittelyllä, yksi väkilannoitevalmiste, kolme eri typpiporrasta sekä nollakontrolli, jota ei lannoitettu lainkaan. Lannoitevalmisteiden lannoitesisällöt erosivat toisistaan siten, että kierrätyslannoitteiden ravinnepitoisuudet olivat pääosin väkilannoiteverrokkiin nähden vähäravinteisempia. Kierrätyslannoitekäsittelyjen hehtaarilannoitusmäärät vaihtelivat 50 kg/ha ja 6560 kg/ha välillä, kun viljelysuositusten mukaista tavanomaista mineraalilannoitetta käytettiin 364 kg/ha. Koekenttänä toimi peltolohko Haltialan tilalla Helsingissä. Koe järjestettiin hankkeen käynnistymistä seuraavana vuonna, kasvukaudella 2017. Koevuotta edelsi tavanomaisesti lannoitettu ohra. Viljellystä näyteaineistosta otettiin oleelliset tunnusluvut sekä kuivapainot satokomponentteja sekä sadon määritystä varten. Tämän jälkeen aineistosta saatu numeerinen data käsiteltiin Microsoft Excel-taulukkokirjalla sekä IBM SPSS-tilastointiohjelmalla käyttäen merkitsevänä rajana p=0.05. Taloudellinen kannattavuus laskettiin vertailemalla kierrätyslannoitekäsittelyjen ja nollakontrollin hankinta- sekä levityskustannusten rajakustannuksia saatuun sadonlisään nähden. Härkäpapuaineistosta ei löytynyt merkitseviä eroja eri käsittelyjen kesken sadon tai satokomponenttien suhteen. Edes nollakontrolli ei erottunut aineistosta tilastollisesti merkitsevästi. Koska merkitseviä eroja ei löytynyt, ei taloudellisen mielekkyyden vertailu sinänsä ole tarpeellista. Erojen löytymättömyys saattaa johtua esimerkiksi uuden lajikkeen ominaisuuksista tai peltolohkon aiemman viljelyn kerryttämästä ravinnepitoisuudesta maaperässä. Kokeen ulottaminen monivuotiseksi voisi tuoda eroavaisuuksia sadon tekijöihin ja on siten suositeltava jatkotutkimusehdotus.
  • Muktadir, Md Abdul; Adhikari, Kedar Nath; Merchant, Andrew; Belachew, Kiflemariam; Vandenberg, Albert; Stoddard, Fred; Khazaei, Hamid (2020)
    Grain legumes are commonly used for food and feed all over the world and are the main source of protein for over a billion people worldwide, but their production is at risk from climate change. Water deficit and heat stress both significantly reduce the yield of grain legumes, and the faba bean is considered particularly susceptible. The genetic improvement of faba bean for drought adaptation (water deficit tolerance) by conventional methods and molecular breeding is time-consuming and laborious, since it depends mainly on selection and adaptation in multiple sites. The lack of high-throughput screening methodology and low heritability of advantageous traits under environmental stress challenge breeding progress. Alternatively, selection based on secondary characters in a controlled environment followed by field trials is successful in some crops, including faba beans. In general, measured features related to drought adaptation are shoot and root morphology, stomatal characteristics, osmotic adjustment and the efficiency of water use. Here, we focus on the current knowledge of biochemical and physiological markers for legume improvement that can be incorporated into faba bean breeding programs for drought adaptation.
  • Khazaei, Hamid; O'Sullivan, Donal M.; Stoddard, Frederick L.; Adhikari, Kedar N.; Paull, Jeffrey G.; Schulman, Alan H.; Andersen, Stig U.; Vandenberg, Albert (2021)
    Abstract Faba bean (Vicia faba L.), a member of the Fabaceae family, is one of the important food legumes cultivated in cool temperate regions. It holds great importance for human consumption and livestock feed because of its high protein content, dietary fibre, and nutritional value. Major faba bean breeding challenges include its mixed breeding system, unknown wild progenitor, and genome size of ~13 Gb, which is the largest among diploid field crops. The key breeding objectives in faba bean include improved resistance to biotic and abiotic stress and enhanced seed quality traits. Regarding quality traits, major progress on reduction of vicine-convicine and seed coat tannins, the main anti-nutritional factors limiting faba bean seed usage, have been recently achieved through gene discovery. Genomic resources are relatively less advanced compared with other grain legume species, but significant improvements are underway due to a recent increase in research activities. A number of bi-parental populations have been constructed and mapped for targeted traits in the last decade. Faba bean now benefits from saturated synteny-based genetic maps, along with next-generation sequencing and high-throughput genotyping technologies that are paving the way for marker-assisted selection. Developing a reference genome, and ultimately a pan-genome, will provide a foundational resource for molecular breeding. In this review, we cover the recent development and deployment of genomic tools for faba bean breeding.
  • Palermo, Ronald (Helsingin yliopisto, 2021)
    Soil acidity limits the growth and development of crops. Yield of plants decreases due to not only low pH conditions in acid soils but also dissolution of detrimental elements affecting the availability of essential nutrients. Aluminum toxicity have been one major cause of decline in yield due to the stunting of the primary root and inhibition of lateral root formation. Plants have ways to mitigate aluminum toxicity which includes Al exclusion mechanisms as a first defense to external Al ions and Al detoxifying mechanisms where Al ions are transported and sequestered inside the plant cells. Vicia faba, commonly known as faba or broad bean is one of the oldest crops grown for being a cheap but excellent foundation of protein in human diets, a good fodder and a forage crop for animals, and one of the most powerful nitrogen fixers. The crop is well adapted to low temperatures but moderately susceptible to hostile subsoils and has very low exchangeable Aluminum tolerance. Responsive varieties were previously identified but mechanisms to counteract with the conditions are still to be realized hence the study aimed to understanding the molecular mechanisms of rootzone aluminum toxicity tolerance in faba bean which was realized by using RNA-Seq technique to analyze the transcriptome of roots of faba bean exposed to acidic and aluminum stressed environment and by then, Al responsive genes were identified. The administration of stress was done in a aquaponics set-up. Results revealed that although gene directly interacting with Al was not identified, faba bean have a variety of well-adapted mechanisms to encounter with the Al stressed condition and mitigate the adverse effects to the plant growth and development which includes (1)transporter activity, (2)signaling(ROS), and (3)ubiquitination. The findings will provide valuable information for designing future crop breeding programs.
  • Vottonen, Laura (Helsingin yliopisto, 2018)
    Faba bean (Vicia faba L.) also known as broad bean is an ancient pulse, grown since Neolithic times. It is an excellent source of protein, energy and fibre to humans and animals. Recently in Finland, faba bean has featured heavily in meat replacements, meant for vegan consumers. Faba bean can also be grown further north, than soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr.), making it a possible domestic plant protein source for Finns. The problem with faba bean is that the beans contain various anti-nutritional compounds. The major ones are vicine and convicine (v-c), located in the cotyledons of the beans, which means that dehulling the seeds does not remove them. V-c can cause favism in humans with G6PD gene mutation this is a disease where red blood cells are destroyed, in worst cases resulting in blood transfusions and death. V-c is also an anti-feedant to livestock and can among other things cause increase in mortality in poultry. Normal v-c content of faba bean is around 1%. There are low v-c faba beans that contain only 5-15% of the original v-c. Markers for this trait have been found, but gene controlling for this trait is not known yet. The synthesis pathway of the v-c is not known. There is a new hypothesis by Dr Fernando Geu Flores of The University of Copenhagen, where the v-c synthesis is an off shoot of another biosynthetic pathway. An experiment was done where RNA of two populations (one low v-c and other high) were compared to each other. The samples were taken during the seed filling period, which is thought to be when v-c is synthesized. Kernel, testa, pod and leaf tissues were collected and RNA of those extracted. Only kernel and testa samples were sequenced. This thesis focuses on the testa results. Results showed differences between the populations. Considering the new hypothesis, the results showed some differences in the beginning of the suspected pathway, with the high v-c population having a 4.97 fold increase compared to the low v-c population. Other differences were also noted, which may cast light on other steps in the pathway.