Browsing by Subject "Violence"

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  • Mogk, Hannu; Röning, Tiina; Reiman-Möttönen, Päivi; Isojärvi, Jaana; Mäkinen, Eeva (2016)
    Kouluym­pä­ris­tössä toteu­tetut inter­ventiot näyt­tivät onnis­tuvan tavoit­teissaan pa­remmin kuin lai­tos- tai ­po­lik­lii­niset inter­ventiot, mut­ta ai­neistot ja tu­lokset vaihte­levat.
  • Gatej, Alexandra-Raluca; Lamers, Audri; van Domburgh, Lieke; Crone, Matty; Ogden, Terje; Rijo, Daniel; Aronen, Eeva; Barroso, Ricardo; Boomsma, Dorret I.; Vermeiren, Robert (2019)
    Background: Severe behavioural problems (SBPs(1)) in childhood are highly prevalent, impair functioning, and predict negative outcomes later in life. Over the last decade, clinical practice guidelines for SBPs have been developed across Europe to facilitate the translation of scientific evidence into clinical practice. This study outlines the results of an investigation into academic experts' perspectives on the current prevalence, implementation, and utility of clinical guidelines for SBPs in children aged 6-12 across Europe. Methods: An online semi-structured questionnaire was completed by 28 psychiatry and psychology experts from 23 countries. Results: Experts indicated that approximately two thirds of the included European countries use at least an unofficial clinical document such as textbooks, while nearly half possess official guidelines for SBPs. Experts believed that, although useful for practice, guidelines' benefits would be maximised if they included more specific recommendations and were implemented more conscientiously. Similarly, experts suggested that unofficial clinical documents offer a wide range of treatment options to individualise treatment from. However, they stressed the need for more consistent, evidence-based clinical practices, by means of developing national and European clinical guidelines for SBPs. Conclusions: This study offers a preliminary insight into the current successes and challenges perceived by experts around Europe associated with guidelines and documents for SBPs, acting as a stepping stone for future systematic, in-depth investigations of guidelines. Additionally, it establishes experts' consensus for the need to develop official guidelines better tailored to clinical practice, creating a momentum for a transition towards European clinical guidelines for this population. (c) 2019 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/).
  • Arola, Riikka; Antila, Henna; Riipinen, Pirkko; Hakko, Helina; Riala, Kaisa; Kantojarvi, Liisa (2016)
    Various psychiatric problems in adolescence and early adulthood have been shown to associate with criminal behaviour. In this study the association of personality disorders (PDs) with criminal behaviour was examined in adolescents treated in psychiatric hospitals. The study sample consisted of 508 adolescents (age 13-17) admitted to acute psychiatric impatient care between April 2001 and March 2006. Crime data was obtained from the Finnish Legal Register Centre on September 2013. The Schedule for Affective Disorder and Schizophrenia for School-Age Children Present and Lifetime (K-SADS-PL) was used to assess psychiatric diagnoses in adolescence. The information on PDs in early adulthood was based on follow-up information on psychiatric treatments in either out-or inpatient settings until the end of 2012, and was extracted from the National Care Register for Health Care provided by the Finnish National Institute for Health and Welfare. A total of 22 (39%) of the 57 subjects with PD had committed a crime. In women, the likelihood for violent criminality was significantly increased in those with Borderline PD (OR 6.09, CI 1.24-29.84, p = 0.009) and was also associated with conduct disorder (OR 4.26, CI 1.38-13.19, p = 0.012), child welfare placement (OR 11.82, CI 3.61-38.76, p <0.001) and parent's substance use disorder (OR 7.74, CI 2.30-26.10, p = 0.001). In men, no association was observed between PD and any kind of criminal behaviour. Significant predictors for violent criminality in males were conduct disorder (OR 4.05, CI 1.75-9.38, p = 0.001), substance use disorder (OR 2.51, CI 1.22-5.17, p = 0.012) and special services at school (OR 2.58, CI 1.16-5.76, p = 0.021). Females with Borderline PD showed an increased risk for violent offending. This suggests Borderline PD as a potential explanatory factor for violent assaults by females and highlights the importance of recognizing the risk for violence in young women with a Borderline PD. (C) 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
  • Kondakov, Alexander (Charles Scribner's Sons, 2019)
    The imprisonment of men in the Russian republic of Chechnya for alleged homosexuality.
  • Rantakokko, Kirsimarja (Helsingin yliopisto, 2018)
    Seksuaalirikosten uhrit kohtaavat seksuaalisen väkivallan lisäksi muutakin fyysistä väkivaltaa. Uhrin tutkimuksen osana tehdään fyysinen tutkimus, minkä tarkoituksena on, paitsi selvittää tarvitseeko uhri hoitoa, kerätä tietoa mahdollisista väkivallan merkeistä tulevaa oikeusprosessia varten. Tässä tutkielmassa käytettiin materiaalina Helsingin yliopiston oikeuslääkäriasemalla tutkittujen seksuaalirikosten uhrien lääkärin lausunnoista kerättyjä tietoja vuosilta 1954, 1964, 1974, 1984, 1994, 2002 ja 2012. Tarkastelimme väkivallan merkkien määrää uhreissa, riskitekijöitä, jotka vaikuttavat siihen saako uhri väkivallan merkkejä tai tuleeko tämä kuristetuksi, ja kuinka raa’alta heihin kohdistunut väkivalta vaikutti. Ulkoisten vamman merkkien perusteella väkivallan raakuuden arviointia varten kehitimme Violence Severity Scoren (VSS), jonka käyttöä pilotoimme tässä tutkielmassa. Yli puolilla uhreista oli todettavissa ei lainkaan tai hyvin vähän väkivallan merkkejä (VSS 0-5). Vakavaa väkivaltaa kohdanneiden osuus uhreista vaihteli vuosittain 1-15% välillä. Vamman merkeistä yleisin vammatyyppi oli mustelma, kaikkein harvinaisimpia olivat vakavammat merkit kuten murtumat. Yhteensä noin puolet vammojen merkeistä sijaitsi raajojen alueella ja neljäsosa taas erityisen vaarallisella alueella: päässä, kaulalla ja suussa. Aikuiset olivat suuremmassa riskissä saada väkivallan merkkejä ja joutua kuristetuksi kuin lapset. Tuntemattomien raiskaamat uhrit olivat suuremmassa riskissä joutua kuristetuksi kuin tuttujen raiskaamat. Osuus uhreista, joilla oli todettavissa fyysisten väkivallan merkkejä, aluksi kasvoi ollen korkeimmillaan 1984 ja 1994. 2000-luvulla väkivallan merkkejä saaneiden osuus jälleen pieneni. VSS:n avulla tarkastellen näimme samanlaisen kehityksen väkivallan raakuudessa. Kun asiaa tarkasteli pelkillä aikuisilla uhreilla, nähtiin, että vuonna 1954 väkivallan raakuus per uhri on ollut korkeimmillaan ja tämän jälkeen laskenut koko ajan kohti nykypäivää, lukuun ottamatta vuotta 1984, joka erottui poikkeuksellisen väkivaltaisena.
  • Partanen, Jenna; Keski-Rahkonen, Anna (2021)
    Nuori urheilija tasapainoilee opintojen ja urheilun välillä. Stressi, suorituspaineet, paine erikoistua varhain yhteen lajiin, loukkaantumiset ja epäonnistumiset voivat uhata nuoren urheilijan henkistä hyvinvointia, mikä voi pahimmillaan johtaa uupumiseen ja masennukseen. Suhteellinen energiavaje, syömishäiriöt ja väkivalta ovat urheilijan hyvinvoinnin uhkia. Lääkäri voi auttaa ongelmien tunnistamisessa ja selvittelyssä. Vanhemmilla, valmentajilla ja urheilujärjestelmällä on tärkeä tehtävä nuoren urheilijan henkisen ¬hyvinvoinnin tukijoina.
  • Venäläinen, Satu Maarit (2020)
    Discussions about men’s victimization by their female intimate partners have gained increased visibility in the last two decades. These discussions put victim positions on offer for men that stand in stark contrast to more widespread associations between masculinity and perpetration of violence. This article examines how these contradictory positionings play out and are discursively negotiated in Finnish online discussions of female-inflicted intimate partner violence (IPV). Two recurring types of positioning of men were identified in the analysis: neglected victims and naturally superior perpetrators. The analysis illustrates how gendered differences between men and women in relation to violence are both reiterated and denied in the processes of enacting, balancing, and rhetorically employing these positionings. Thereby, light is shed on the multiplicity of complex and fluid ways in which masculinities are constructed and customized in the context of meaning-making surrounding the issue of IPV.
  • Pöysä, Annika (Helsingin yliopisto, 2017)
    This Master's Thesis concerns the British middle-class soldiers' psychological experience as volunteers in Kitchener's army during the Great War. The purpose of this study is to discover how the war affected the soldiers, and why they reacted to it the way they did. It approaches this question by focusing on four aspects of the war from the soldier's perspective, namely: the military organization, his brothers in arms, the act of killing, and the threat of dying. The motivation behind this study was to better understand the experience of these soldiers after they voluntarily joined the world’s first industrial war. Kitchener's army was an army of civilian soldiers, drafted to fill in the ranks of the British army, so that it could properly take part in the war. Through using both relevant historical literature and psychological research as aid, the study uses primary sources in the form of letters and diaries from the trenches to understand and draw conclusions of the experiences personally recounted by the soldiers. The methods with which the study was conducted was through the close-reading of the sources combined with the reading and reviewing of relevant research literature to draw appropriate conclusions. The theoretical framework and subsequent analysis of the sources thus relies heavily on psychological concepts. The concept of masculinity in the contemporary middle-class culture was used to contextualize the soldiers’ experience in their historical timeframe and social niche. Meanwhile, the key psychological terms used in this study in reference to group behavior and stress responses are concepts recognized on the field of psychological research either as defense or coping mechanisms. Where defense mechanisms are commonly understood as unconscious and automatic reactions of the mind to potentially stressful information, coping mechanisms are at least partially consciously driven and maintained by the person themselves to help them refrain from having to face and process the information which they know to be painful. The conclusions of this study imply that the soldier’s social background influenced their war experience both before and after joining the war, giving them a frame of reference for both their set of values and their code of conduct which they drew upon as they adjusted to the life in the trenches. What this study’s results also imply is that while the soldiers had distinctly individual experiences of their own, they were characterized by a set of culturally and psychologically guided features, which hold within themselves a level of predictability. These conclusions suggest that though each experience of soldiers in war is unique, there are broader patterns of behavior within the context of modern warfare, which if understood, could better help predict and understand the behavior of soldiers in comparable circumstances.
  • Lantta, Tella; Anttila, Minna; Kontio, Raija; Adams, Clive E.; Valimaki, Maritta (2016)
    Background: Patient violence against nurses in their work environments is a widespread global concern, particularly in the field of mental health care. A high prevalence of violent events impacts the well-being of nurses and may also impair overall ward climate. However, it has been proposed that nurses' use limited techniques to prevent patient violence, and, therefore, more comprehensive methods for dealing with patient violence are needed. There is still restricted understanding of the ward climate during the occurrence of a violent event as well as how these incidents could be more effectively prevented. This study aimed to explore nurses' experiences of violent events in psychiatric wards, give insight into ward climates and examine suggestions for violence prevention. Methods: This study employed a descriptive, exploratory design including focus groups (n = 5) and open-ended questions. The participants were registered and enrolled nurses (n = 22) working on three closed psychiatric inpatient wards in one Finnish hospital district. Focus groups were tape-recorded, transcribed and analyzed with inductive content analysis. Results: Nurses' experiences of violent events included a variety of warning signs and high-risk situations which helped them to predict forthcoming violence. Patient-instigated violent events were described as complicated situations involving both nurses and patients. When the wards were overloaded with work or emotions, or if nurses had become cynical from dealing with such events, well-being of nurses was impaired and nursing care was complicated. Suggestions for violence prevention were identified, and included, for example, more skilled interaction between nurses and patients and an increase in contact between nurses and patients on the ward. Conclusions: This study revealed the complexity of violent events on psychiatric wards as well as the implications of these events on clinical practice development and training, administration and policy. A routine process is needed through which nurses' experiences and ideas concerning prevention of violent events are acknowledged.
  • Xu, Tianwei; Hanson, Linda L. Magnusson; Lange, Theis; Starkopf, Liis; Westerlund, Hugo; Madsen, Ida E. H.; Rugulies, Reiner; Pentti, Jaana; Stenholm, Sari; Vahtera, Jussi; Hansen, Ase M.; Kivimaki, Mika; Rod, Naja H. (2018)
    The aim of this multicohort study was to examine whether employees exposed to social stressors at work, such as workplace bullying and violence, have an increased risk of type 2 diabetes. The study included 45,905 men and women (40-65 years of age and free of diabetes at baseline) from four studies in Sweden, Denmark and Finland. Workplace bullying and violence were self-reported at baseline. Incident diabetes was ascertained through national health and medication records and death registers. Marginal structural Cox models adjusted for age, sex, country of birth, marital status and educational level were used for the analyses. Nine per cent of the population reported being bullied at work and 12% were exposed to workplace violence or threats of violence. Bullied participants had a 1.46 (95% CI 1.23, 1.74) times higher risk of developing diabetes compared with non-bullied participants. Exposure to violence or threats of violence was also associated with a higher risk of diabetes (HR 1.26 [95% CI 1.02, 1.56]). The risk estimates attenuated slightly when taking BMI into account, especially for bullying. The results were similar for men and women, and were consistent across cohorts. We found a higher risk of incident type 2 diabetes among employees exposed to bullying or violence in the workplace. Further research is needed to determine whether policies to reduce bullying and violence at work may reduce the incidence of type 2 diabetes in working populations. Research on the mechanisms is also highly warranted.
  • Xu, Tianwei; Magnusson Hanson, Linda L.; Lange, Theis; Starkopf, Liis; Westerlund, Hugo; Madsen, Ida E. H.; Rugulies, Reiner; Pentti, Jaana; Stenholm, Sari; Vahtera, Jussi; Hansen, Ase M.; Virtanen, Marianna; Kivimäki, Mika; Rod, Naja H. (2019)
    Aims To assess the associations between bullying and violence at work and cardiovascular disease (CVD). Methods and results Participants were 79201 working men and women, aged 18-65years and free of CVD and were sourced from three cohort studies from Sweden and Denmark. Exposure to workplace bullying and violence was measured at baseline using self-reports. Participants were linked to nationwide health and death registers to ascertain incident CVD, including coronary heart disease and cerebrovascular disease. Study-specific results were estimated by marginal structural Cox regression and were combined using fixed-effect meta-analysis. Nine percent reported being bullied at work and 13% recorded exposure to workplace violence during the past year. We recorded 3229 incident CVD cases with a mean follow-up of 12.4years (765 in the first 4years). After adjustment for age, sex, country of birth, marital status, and educational level, being bullied at work vs. not was associated with a hazard ratio (HR) of 1.59 [95% confidence interval (CI) 1.28-1.98] for CVD. Experiencing workplace violence vs. not was associated with a HR of 1.25 (95% CI 1.12-1.40) for CVD. The population attributable risk was 5.0% for workplace bullying and 3.1% for workplace violence. The excess risk remained similar in analyses with different follow-up lengths, cardiovascular risk stratifications, and after additional adjustments. Dose-response relations were observed for both workplace bullying and violence (P-trend <0.001). There was only negligible heterogeneity in study-specific estimates. Conclusion Bullying and violence are common at workplaces and those exposed to these stressors are at higher risk of CVD.