Browsing by Subject "Virulence"

Sort by: Order: Results:

Now showing items 1-7 of 7
  • Kasperkiewicz, Katarzyna; Swierzko, Anna S.; Michalski, Mateusz; Eppa, Lukasz; Skurnik, Mikael; Zuber, Zbigniew; Cedzynski, Maciej (2022)
    Yersinia enterocolitica O:3 (YeO3) is considered to be associated with reactive arthritis (ReA), and its lipopolysaccharide (LPS) has been detected in synovial fluids from patients. Interestingly, YeO3 wild-type LPS was processed by host cells, resulting in truncated LPS molecules presenting the core region. Previously, we reported the immunogenicity but not adjuvanticity of YeO3 LPSs of wild (S) type, Ra, Rd, or Re chemotypes in mice. Here, we demonstrate the presence of YeO3 LPS chemotype-specific antibodies in all analyzed synovial fluids (SF) from patients with juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA). Interestingly, the high titer of antibodies specific for the Kdo-lipid A region was found in most tested SF. In contrast, only a few were positive for antibodies recognizing O-specific polysaccharides. Western blot analysis revealed the presence of antibodies reacting with fast-migrating LPS fractions and enterobacterial common antigen (ECA) in synovial fluid samples. Our data also suggest the importance of LPS-associated ECA for the antigenicity of endotoxin. Furthermore, we confirmed in vitro that Yersinia LPS processing leads to the exposure of its core region and enhanced potency of complement lectin pathway activation.
  • Boldin, Barbara; Kisdi, Eva (2016)
    Evolutionary suicide is a riveting phenomenon in which adaptive evolution drives a viable population to extinction. Gyllenberg and Parvinen (Bull Math Biol 63(5):981-993, 2001) showed that, in a wide class of deterministic population models, a discontinuous transition to extinction is a necessary condition for evolutionary suicide. An implicit assumption of their proof is that the invasion fitness of a rare strategy is well-defined also in the extinction state of the population. Epidemic models with frequency-dependent incidence, which are often used to model the spread of sexually transmitted infections or the dynamics of infectious diseases within herds, violate this assumption. In these models, evolutionary suicide can occur through a non-catastrophic bifurcation whereby pathogen adaptation leads to a continuous decline of host (and consequently pathogen) population size to zero. Evolutionary suicide of pathogens with frequency-dependent transmission can occur in two ways, with pathogen strains evolving either higher or lower virulence.
  • Thibau, Arno; Dichter, Alexander A.; Vaca, Diana J.; Linke, Dirk; Goldman, Adrian; Kempf, Volkhard A. J. (2020)
    The current problem of increasing antibiotic resistance and the resurgence of numerous infections indicate the need for novel vaccination strategies more than ever. In vaccine development, the search for and the selection of adequate vaccine antigens is the first important step. In recent years, bacterial outer membrane proteins have become of major interest, as they are the main proteins interacting with the extracellular environment. Trimeric autotransporter adhesins (TAAs) are important virulence factors in many Gram-negative bacteria, are localised on the bacterial surface, and mediate the first adherence to host cells in the course of infection. One example is the Neisseria adhesin A (NadA), which is currently used as a subunit in a licensed vaccine against Neisseria meningitidis. Other TAAs that seem promising vaccine candidates are the Acinetobacter trimeric autotransporter (Ata), the Haemophilus influenzae adhesin (Hia), and TAAs of the genus Bartonella. Here, we review the suitability of various TAAs as vaccine candidates.
  • Mustonen, Jukka; Strandin, Tomas; Mäkelä, Satu; Vaheri, Antti (2020)
    Myyräkuume on Puumala-viruksen (PUUV) aiheuttama zoonoosi. Tärkeitä tekijöitä ihmisen immuuni-vasteessa virukselle ovat ainakin neutrofiiliset granulosyytit ja sytotoksiset tappaja-T-solut, joiden suhteettoman voimakas aktivaatio saattaa johtaa endoteelivaurioon. Lisääntynyt kapillaarivuoto, fibrinolyysi ja komplementin aktivaatio kuuluvat taudin patogeneesiin. Akuutin munuaisvaurion vaikeutta ennustaa hyvin taudin alkuvaiheessa otetun virtsan seulontatestin tulos. Trombosytopenian synnyssä keskeistä ovat trombosyyttien ja endoteelisolujen interaktio. Ohimenevät EKG-muutokset sekä bradykardia ovat tavallisia löydöksiä. Kroonisten hormonivajausten kehittyminen on mahdollista. Spesifistä hoitoa ei ole olemassa, mutta bradykiniinireseptorin estäjä ikatibantti saattaa olla tehokas lääke hyvin vaikeasti sairaiden potilaiden hoitona.
  • Prokopyeva, E. A.; Romanovskaya, A. A.; Sharshov, K. A.; Zaykovskaya, A. V.; Alekseev, A. Yu.; Shestopalov, A. M. (2017)
    Here we compare the results of pathological and virological examinations of mice experimentally infected with either wild-type or mouse-adapted pandemic A(H1N1) pdm09 viruses and highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) virus A(H5N1). Mice were sacrificed on days 1, 3, 6, and 10 post infection or whenever morbidity was severe enough to justify euthanasia. Morbidity rates were calculated on the basis of clinical signs (weight loss, poor hair coat, hunched posture and paresis); virus-induced disease was characterised by the histopathology of lung; virus dissemination was determined by virus isolation on organ samples of lung, brain, liver, kidney and spleen. All mice infected with mouse-adapted A(H1N1) pdm09 died in the course of the experiment, whereas 20% of animals survived the infection with A(H5N1). Echinocyte formation changed the rheological properties of blood in animals infected with either mouse-adapted A(H1N1) pdm09 or A(H5N1). To sum up, the adaptation of pandemic A(H1N1) pdm09 virus can confer an enhanced virulence similar to or even exceeding that of HPAI A(H5N1) virus.
  • Bozcal, Elif; Eldem, Vahap; Aydemir, Sohret; Skurnik, Mikael (2018)
    Background. Extraintestinal pathogenic Escherichia coli (ExPEC) is an important bacterium and responsible for many bloodstream infections, including urinary tract infections and even fatal bacteremia. The aim of this research was to investigate whether ExPEC strains isolated from Turkish blood cultures have a relationship between 16S rRNA based phylogenetic clusters and antibiotic resistance profiles, virulence factors or clonal lineages. Methods. Phenotypically identified ExPEC blood culture isolates (n = 104) were included in this study. The 16S rRNA partial sequence analysis was performed for genotypic identification of ExPEC isolates. Antibiotic susceptibility and Extended Spectrum beta-Lactamase testing of isolates were performed. Phylogenetic classification (A, B1, B2 and D), Multi Locus Sequence Typing analysis and virulence-associated genes were investigated. Results. Based on 16S rRNA partial sequence analysis, 97 out of 104 (93.26%) ExPEC isolates were confirmed as E. coli. Ampicillin (74.22%) and cefuroxime axetil (65.97%) resistances had the highest frequencies among the ExPEC isolates. In terms of phylogenetic classification of ExPEC, D (38.14%, 37/97) was the most prevalent group after A (29.89%, 29/97), B2 (20.61%, 20/97), and B1 (11.34%, 11/97). The sequence types of the 20 ExPEC isolates belonging to the B2 phylogenetic group were analyzed by Multi Locus Sequence Typing. Ten isolates out of 20 (50.0%) were identified as ST131. The other STs were ST95 (n=1), ST14 (n=1), ST10 (n=1), ST69 (n=1), ST1722 (n=2), ST141 (n=1), ST88 (n=1), ST80 (n=1), and ST998 (n=1). Of the ST131 strains, six (60%, 6/10) represented serogroup O25. The most common virulence factor genes were serum resistance factor gene, traT (55.7%) aerobactin siderophore receptor and yersiniabactin encoding genes iutA (45.3%) and fyuA (50.5%), respectively. In addition, PAI (41.2%), iroN (23.7%), hlyA (15.4%), kpsII (13.4%), ompT (13.4%), papG (12.4%), iss (9.3%), cnf1 (7.2%), ibeA (2.06%), and sfaS (2.06%) genes were present in the ExPEC isolates. Conclusion. The 16S rRNA-based phylogenetic relationship tree analysis showed that a large cluster was present among 97 ExPEC isolates along with related reference strains. There were 21 main clusters with 32 closely related subclusters. Based on our findings, different clonal lineages of ExPEC can display different antibiotic susceptibilities and virulence properties. We also concluded that virulence factors were not distributed depending on phylogenetic groups (A, B1, B2, and D). The ExPEC isolates belonging to the same phylogenetic group and sequence type could display different resistance and virulence characteristics.