Browsing by Subject "Viscum album"

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  • Varga, Ildiko; Poczai, Peter; Tiborcz, Viktor; Aranyi, Nikolett Reka; Baltazar, Tivadar; Bartha, Denes; Pejchal, Milos; Hyvoenen, Jaakko (2014)
  • Varga, Ildiko; Keresztes, Balázs; Poczai, Péter (2012)
    The European mistletoe (Viscum album) is an evergreen, perennial, epiphytic, hemiparasitic shrub, which is widely distributed in Europe. Its occurrence induces extremely sensitive health of host trees further contributing to the phenomenon of forest decline spiral. Besides mechanical pruning a hyperparasitic fungus (Phaeobotryosphaeria visci) could be a successful candidate to develop an effective biocontrol agent against V. album. We were extensively aware of the insect community of European mistletoe in light of finding another potential agent. We collected and identified 22 insect species (4 Sternorrhyncha, 5 Heteroptera, 5 Coleoptera, 5 Hymenoptera, 2 Lepidoptera, 1 Diptera) from which eight are specialists restricted only to European mistletoe (Cacopsylla visci, Carulaspis visci, Hypseloecus visci, Pinalitus viscicola, Ixapion variegatum, Liparthrum bartschti, Synanthedon loranthi, Celypha woodiana). Species associations with this plant are reported here for the first time for two Heteroptera (Campyloneura virgula, Pentatoma rufipes), one Coleoptera (Sericoderus lateralis), one ant species (Lasius brunnes) as well as for an aphid belonging to the Aphis fabae sensu stricto group, respectively. Species assotiation with this plant is reported for the first time in Hungary for the Leptophloeus hypobori species. Based on our observations and literature review only the mass occurrence of different pests would have the potential to effectively control this hemiparasite. From the pests of the green plant parts the mistletoe associated psyllid (Cacopsylla visi), mistletoe scale (Carulaspis visci) and the mistletoe bug, Hypseloecus visci, while from the pests of the woody parts a clearwing moth, Synanthedon loranthi and a bark beetle, Liparthrum bartschti look perspective in light if biological control.
  • Poczai, Peter; Varga, Ildiko; Hyvonen, Jaakko (2015)
    We investigated patterns of nucleotide polymorphism in the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region for Sphaeropsis visci, a hyperparasitic fungus that causes the leaf spot disease of the hemiparasite European mistletoe (Viscum album). Samples of S. visci were obtained from Hungary covering all major infected forest areas. For obtaining PCR products we used a fast and efficient direct PCR approach based on a high fidelity DNA polymerase. A total of 140 ITS sequences were subjected to an array of complementary sequence analyses, which included analyses of secondary structure stability, nucleotide polymorphism patterns, GC content, and presence of conserved motifs. Analysed sequences exhibited features of functional rRNAs. Overall, polymorphism was observed within less conserved motifs, such as loops and bulges, or, alternatively, as non-canonical G–U pairs within conserved regions of double stranded helices. The secondary structure of ITS2 provides new opportunities for obtaining further valuable information, which could be used in phylogenetic analyses, or at population level as demonstrated in our study. This is due to additional information provided by secondary structures and their models. The combined score matrix was used with the methods implemented in the programme 4SALE. Besides the pseudoprotein coding method of 4SALE, the molecular morphometric character coding also has potential for gaining further information for phylogenetic analyses based on the geometric features of the sub-structural elements of the ITS2 RNA transcript