Browsing by Subject "WAIST CIRCUMFERENCE"

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  • Tuomela, Jenni; Kaprio, Jaakko; Sipilä, Pyry N.; Silventoinen, Karri; Wang, Xin; Ollikainen, Miina; Piirtola, Maarit (2019)
    Objective: To determine the accuracy of self-reported height, weight, body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC) compared to the measured values, and to assess the similarity between self-reported and measured values within dizygotic (DZ) and monozygotic (MZ) twin pairs. Methods: The data on self-reported and measured height, weight and WC values as well as measured hip circumference (HC) were collected from 444 twin individuals (53-67 years old, 60% women). Accuracies between self-reported and measured values were assessed by Pearson's correlation coefficients, Cohen's kappa coefficients and Bland-Altman 95% limits of agreement. Intra-class correlation was used in within-pair analyses. Results: The correlations between self-reported and measured values were high for all variables (r = 0.86-0.98), although the agreement assessed by Bland-Altman 95% limits had relatively wide variation. The degree of overestimating height was similar in both sexes, whereas women tended to underestimate and men overestimate their weight. Cohen's kappa coefficients between self-reported and measured BMI categories were high: 0.71 in men and 0.70 in women. Further, the mean self-reported WC was less than the mean measured WC (difference in men 2.5 cm and women 2.6 cm). The within-pair correlations indicated a tendency of MZ co-twins to report anthropometric measures more similarly than DZ co-twins. Conclusions: Self-reported anthropometric measures are reasonably accurate indicators for obesity in large cohort studies. However, the possibility of more similar reporting among MZ pairs should be taken into account in twin studies exploring the heritability of different phenotypes. (C) 2019 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd on behalf of Asia Oceania Association for the Study of Obesity.
  • Kanerva, Noora; Harald, Kennet; Männistö, Satu; Kaartinen, Niina E.; Maukonen, Mirkka; Haukkala, Ari; Jousilahti, Pekka (2018)
    Studies indicate that the healthy Nordic diet may improve heart health, but its relation to weight change is less clear. We studied the association between the adherence to the healthy Nordic diet and long-term changes in weight, BMI and waist circumference. Furthermore, the agreement between self-reported and measured body anthropometrics was examined. The population-based DIetary, Lifestyle and Genetic Determinants of Obesity and Metabolic syndrome Study in 2007 included 5024 Finns aged 25-75 years. The follow-up was conducted in 2014 (n 3735). One-third of the participants were invited to a health examination. The rest were sent measuring tape and written instructions along with questionnaires. The Baltic Sea Diet Score (BSDS) was used to measure adherence to the healthy Nordic diet. Association of the baseline BSDS and changes in BSDS during the follow-up with changes in body anthropometrics were examined using linear regression analysis. The agreement between self-reported and nurse-measured anthropometrics was determined with Bland-Altman analysis. Intra-class correlation coefficients between self-reported and nurse-measured anthropometrics exceeded 0.95. The baseline BSDS associated with lower weight (beta = -0.056, P = 0.043) and BMI (beta = -0.021, P=0.031) over the follow-up. This association was especially evident among those who had increased their BSDS. In conclusion, both high initial and improved adherence to the healthy Nordic diet may promote long-term weight maintenance. The self-reported/measured anthropometrics were shown to have high agreement with nurse-measured values which adds the credibility of our results.
  • Al-Ahmadi, Jawaher; Enani, Sumia; Bahijri, Suhad; Al-Raddadi, Rajaa; Jambi, Hanan; Eldakhakhny, Basmah; Borai, Anwar; Ajabnoor, Ghada; Tuomilehto, Jaakko (2022)
    Context: Waist circumference (WC) is used in screening for metabolic syndrome (MetS) based on its association with cardiometabolic risk.This might apply differently in ethnically different populations. Associations with other measures are also unclear. Objective: This work aimed to investigate the association between neck circumference (NC), WC, WC:hip circumference, WC:height (VVC:Ht), NC:Ht, fat percentage, body mass index (BMI), conicity index, abdominal volume index, and weight-adjusted waist index with nonanthropometric components of MetS in nondiabetic Saudi adults. Methods: This cross-sectional study took place in public health centers in Jeddah, comprising 1365 Saudi adults (772 men and 593 women) aged 18 years or older not previously diagnosed with diabetes. Main outcome measures included the presence of 2 or more nonanthropometric components of the MetS were used to define clinical metabolic abnormality (CMA). The predictive ability of studied anthropometric indices for CMA was determined using the area under receiver operating characteristics (AUC) curve and binary logistic regression. Results: A total of 157 men and 83 women had CMA. NC and NC:Ht had the highest predictive ability for CMA in men (odds ratio [OR](NC) = 1.79, P < .001 and ORNC:Ht = 1.68, P < .001; AUC(NC) = 0.69 [95% CI, 0.64-0.74] and ALS, = 0.69 [95% CI, 0.64-0.73]). In women, WC had the highest predictive ability ORWC = 1.81, P< .001; AUC(WC) = 0.75 [95% CI, 0.69-0.80]). Conclusion: Upper-body anthropometric indicators that were associated with subcutaneous fat had the highest predictive ability for CMA in men whereas abdominal obesity indictors had the best predictive ability in women, suggesting that fat distribution might contribute to CMA in a sex-specific manner.
  • Premenopausal Breast Canc Collabor (2018)
    IMPORTANCE The association between increasing body mass index (BMI; calculated as wei ght in kilograms divided by height in meters squared) and risk of breast cancer is unique in cancer epidemiology in that a crossover effect exists, with risk reduction before and risk increase after menopause. The inverse association with premenopausal breast cancer risk is poorly characterized but might be important in the understanding of breast cancer causation. OBJECTIVE To investigate the association of BMI with premenopausal breast cancer risk, in particular by age at BMI, attained age, risk factors for breast cancer, and tumor characteristics. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS This multicenter analysis used pooled individual-level data from 758 592 premenopausal women from 19 prospective cohorts to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) of premenopausal breast cancer in association with BMI from ages 18 through 54 years using Cox proportional hazards regression analysis. Median follow-up was 9.3 years (interquartile range, 4.9-13.5 years) per participant, with 13 082 incident cases of breast cancer. Participants were recruited from January 1,1963, through December 31, 2013, and data were analyzed from September 1.2013, through December 31, 2017. EXPOSURES Body mass index at ages 18 to 24, 25 to 34,35 to 44, and 45 to 54 years. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES Invasive or in situ premenopausal breast cancer. RESULTS Among the 758 592 premenopausal women (median age, 40.6 years; interquartile range, 35.2-45.5 years) included in the analysis, inverse linear associations of BMI with breast cancer risk were found that were stronger for BMI at ages 18 to 24 years (HR per 5 kg/m(2) [5.0-U] difference, 0.77; 95% CI, 0.73-0.80) than for BMI at ages 45 to 54 years (HR per 5.0-U difference, 0.88; 95% CI, 0.86-0.91). The inverse associations were observed even among nonoverweight women. There was a 4.2-fold risk gradient between the highest and lowest BMI categories (BMI >= 35.0 vs CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE The results of this study suggest that increased adiposity is associated with a reduced risk of premenopausal breast cancer at a greater magnitude than previously shown and across the entire distribution of BMI. The strongest associations of risk were observed for BMI in early adulthood. Understanding the biological mechanisms underlying these associations could have important preventive potential.
  • Blomqvist, Kim H.; Lundbom, Jesper; Lundbom, Nina; Sepponen, Raimo E. (2011)
  • Linna, Milla S.; Kaprio, Jaakko; Raevuori, Anu; Sihvola, Elina; Keski-Rahkonen, Anna; Rissanen, Aila (2013)
  • Kaartinen, Niina E.; Knekt, Paul; Kanerva, Noora Karoliina; Valsta, Liisa M.; Eriksson, Johan Gunnar; Rissanen, Harri; Jaaskelainen, Tuija; Männistö, Satu (2016)
    Background: The relationship between carbohydrate intake, dietary glycaemic index (GI) and load (GL), and obesity remains unsolved. Sugar intake and obesity represent a timely topic, but studies on sugar subcategories are scarce. We aimed to study whether total carbohydrate, sucrose, lactose, fibre, dietary GI, and GL are associated with obesity in 25-79-year-old Finns. Methods: Our pooled analysis included three cross-sectional population-based studies: the DILGOM Study (n = 4842), the Helsinki Birth Cohort Study (n =1979), and the Health 2000 Survey (n = 5521). Diet was assessed by a validated food-frequency questionnaire, and anthropometric measurements were collected by standardised protocols. Pooled odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated using logistic regression analysis. Results: In the model, which included sex, age, education, smoking, physical activity, and energy intake, the likelihood of being obese (body mass index >= 30 kg/m(2)) appeared lower in the highest quartiles of total carbohydrate (OR 0.65; 95% CI 0.57-0.74; P for trend <0.0001), sucrose (OR 0.53; 95% CI 0.47-0.61; P <0.0001), and dietary GL (OR 0.64; 95% CI 0.56-0.73; P <0.0001) compared to the lowest quartiles. In contrast, dietary GI did not associate with obesity. Fibre intake associated inversely with abdominal obesity (OR 0.80; 95% CI 0.71-0.90; P <0.001). The inverse sucrose obesity relationship appeared stronger in high fruit consumers compared to low fruit consumers (P for interaction 0.02). Conclusions: Although most of the studied carbohydrate exposures were associated with a diminished likelihood of being obese, prospective studies are needed to assess temporal relations to support causal inference.
  • Fan, Yuxin; Li, Weiqin; Liu, Huikun; Wang, Leishen; Zhang, Shuang; Liu, Hongyan; Leng, Junhong; Shen, Yun; Tuomilehto, Jaakko; Yu, Zhijie; Yang, Xilin; Liu, Ming; Hu, Gang (2019)
    Objective: To evaluate the independent or combined effects of gestational diabetes (GDM) and pre-pregnancy and postpartum BMI on the odds of postpartum diabetes and hyperglycemia. Methods: The study samples included 1263 women with prior GDM and 705 women without GDM. Postpartum 1-7 years diabetes was diagnosed by the standard oral glucose tolerance test. Results: The multivariable-adjusted odds ratios among women with prior GDM, compared with those without it, were 7.52 for diabetes and 2.27 for hyperglycemia. The multivariable-adjusted odds ratios at different postpartum BMI levels (= 28 kg/m(2)) were 1.00, 2.80, and 8.08 for diabetes (P-trend <0.001), and 1.00, 2.10, and 4.42 for hyperglycemia (P-trend <0.001), respectively. Women with high body fat (>= 31.9%) or abdominal obesity (>= 85 cm) had a 2.7-6.9-fold higher odds ratio for diabetes or hyperglycemia. Women with both obesity and prior GDM had the highest risk of diabetes or hyperglycemia compared with non-obese women without GDM. Non-obese women with prior GDM had the same risk of diabetes and hyperglycemia as non-GDM women with obesity. When using Cox regression models, the results were very close to those using logistic regression models. Conclusions: Maternal prior GDM and pre-pregnancy or postpartum obesity contribute equally to postpartum diabetes and hyperglycemia risk. (C) 2019 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
  • Engberg, Elina; Figueiredo, Rejane A. O.; Rounge, Trine B.; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Viljakainen, Heli (2019)
    This cross-sectional study examined the associations of recreational screen time (viewing TV programs on any screen-based device and computer use, performed while sitting) with body mass index (BMI) categories and waist-to-height ratio (WHtR) tertiles in 10,228 children (mean age 11.1 years, SD 0.8). We categorized the children into Light, Medium and Heavy TV viewers and computer users, and into Low, Medium and High exercise groups. Compared with Light TV viewers, Medium (OR: 1.30, 95% CI: 1.11-1.52, when adjusted for age, sex, language, sleep duration and exercise) and Heavy (OR: 1.57, 95% CI: 1.34-1.83)TV viewers had a higher risk of being overweight. Similarly, Heavy computer users had a higher risk of being overweight (OR: 1.42, 95% CI: 1.21-1.67). We observed interactions between exercise and TV viewing (p = 0.012) or computer use (p = 0.010). However, Heavy TV viewers had a higher risk of being overweight in all exercise groups. The associations of TV viewing and computer use were similar with BMI and WHtR. To conclude, heavy sedentary screen time is associated with overweight and central adiposity in children. Moreover, heavy TV viewers have a higher risk for overweight and central adiposity, regardless of weekly exercise duration.
  • Rokholm, Benjamin; Silventoinen, Karri; Angquist, Lars; Skytthe, Axel; Kyvik, Kirsten Ohm; Sorensen, Thorkild I. A. (2011)
  • Lissner, Lauren; Visscher, Tommy L. S.; Rissanen, Aila; Heitmann, Berit L.; European Assoc Study Obesity (2013)
  • Song, Xin; Tabak, Adam G.; Zethelius, Bjoern; Yudkin, John S.; Soederberg, Stefan; Laatikainen, Tiina; Stehouwer, Coen D. A.; Dankner, Rachel; Jousilahti, Pekka; Onat, Altan; Nilsson, Peter M.; Satman, Ilhan; Vaccaro, Olga; Tuomilehto, Jaakko; Qiao, Qing; DECODE Study Grp (2014)
  • Iso-Markku, Paula; Waller, Katja; Kujala, Urho M.; Kaprio, Jaakko (2015)
    Introduction. Physical activity is associated with a decreased occurrence of dementia. In twins, we investigated the effect of persistent physical activity in adulthood on mortality due to dementia. Materials and methods. Physical activity was queried in 1975 and 1981 from the members of the older Finnish Twin Cohort (n = 2 1,791), who were aged 24-60 years at the end of 1981. The subjects were divided into three categories according to the persistence of their vigorous physical activity. Dementia deaths were followed up to the end of 2011. Results. During the 29-year follow-up, 353 subjects died of dementia. In individual-based analyses the age-and sex-adjusted hazard ratio (HR) was 0.65 (95% CI 0.43-0.98) for subjects partaking in vigorous physical activities in both 1975 and 1981 compared to those who were inactive in both years. No significant change was observed after adjusting for potential confounding factors. The corresponding HR for within-pair comparisons of the less active twin versus the more active co-twin was 0.48 (95% CI 0.17-1.32). The results for analyses of the volume of physical activity were inconclusive. Conclusions. Persistent vigorous leisure-time physical activity protects from dementia, and the effect appears to remain after taking into account childhood environment.
  • Kilpelaeinen, Tuomas O.; Qi, Lu; Brage, Soren; Sharp, Stephen J.; Sonestedt, Emily; Demerath, Ellen; Ahmad, Tariq; Mora, Samia; Kaakinen, Marika; Sandholt, Camilla Helene; Holzapfel, Christina; Autenrieth, Christine S.; Hyppoenen, Elina; Cauchi, Stephane; He, Meian; Kutalik, Zoltan; Kumari, Meena; Stancakova, Alena; Meidtner, Karina; Balkau, Beverley; Tan, Jonathan T.; Mangino, Massimo; Timpson, Nicholas J.; Song, Yiqing; Zillikens, M. Carola; Jablonski, Kathleen A.; Garcia, Melissa E.; Johansson, Stefan; Bragg-Gresham, Jennifer L.; Wu, Ying; van Vliet-Ostaptchouk, Jana V.; Onland-Moret, N. Charlotte; Zimmermann, Esther; Rivera, Natalia V.; Tanaka, Toshiko; Stringham, Heather M.; Silbernagel, Guenther; Kanoni, Stavroula; Feitosa, Mary F.; Snitker, Soren; Ruiz, Jonatan R.; Metter, Jeffery; Martinez Larrad, Maria Teresa; Atalay, Mustafa; Hakanen, Maarit; Amin, Najaf; Cavalcanti-Proenca, Christine; Grontved, Anders; Hallmans, Goran; Jansson, John-Olov; Kuusisto, Johanna; Kahonen, Mika; Lutsey, Pamela L.; Nolan, John J.; Palla, Luigi; Pedersen, Oluf; Perusse, Louis; Renstrom, Frida; Scott, Robert A.; Shungin, Dmitry; Sovio, Ulla; Tammelin, Tuija H.; Ronnemaa, Tapani; Lakka, Timo A.; Uusitupa, Matti; Serrano Rios, Manuel; Ferrucci, Luigi; Bouchard, Claude; Meirhaeghe, Aline; Fu, Mao; Walker, Mark; Borecki, Ingrid B.; Dedoussis, George V.; Fritsche, Andreas; Ohlsson, Claes; Boehnke, Michael; Bandinelli, Stefania; van Duijn, Cornelia M.; Ebrahim, Shah; Lawlor, Debbie A.; Gudnason, Vilmundur; Harris, Tamara B.; Sorensen, Thorkild I. A.; Mohlke, Karen L.; Hofman, Albert; Uitterlinden, Andre G.; Tuomilehto, Jaakko; Lehtimaki, Terho; Raitakari, Olli; Isomaa, Bo; Njolstad, Pal R.; Florez, Jose C.; Liu, Simin; Ness, Andy; Spector, Timothy D.; Tai, E. Shyong; Froguel, Philippe; Boeing, Heiner; Laakso, Markku; Marmot, Michael; Bergmann, Sven; Power, Chris; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Chasman, Daniel; Ridker, Paul; Hansen, Torben; Monda, Keri L.; Illig, Thomas; Jarvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Wareham, Nicholas J.; Hu, Frank B.; Groop, Leif C.; Orho-Melander, Marju; Ekelund, Ulf; Franks, Paul W.; Loos, Ruth J. F. (2011)
    BACKGROUND: The FTO gene harbors the strongest known susceptibility locus for obesity. While many individual studies have suggested that physical activity (PA) may attenuate the effect of FTO on obesity risk, other studies have not been able to confirm this interaction. To confirm or refute unambiguously whether PA attenuates the association of FTO with obesity risk, we meta-analyzed data from 45 studies of adults (n = 218,166) and nine studies of children and adolescents (n = 19,268). METHODS AND FINDINGS: All studies identified to have data on the FTO rs9939609 variant (or any proxy [r(2)>0.8]) and PA were invited to participate, regardless of ethnicity or age of the participants. PA was standardized by categorizing it into a dichotomous variable (physically inactive versus active) in each study. Overall, 25% of adults and 13% of children were categorized as inactive. Interaction analyses were performed within each study by including the FTO×PA interaction term in an additive model, adjusting for age and sex. Subsequently, random effects meta-analysis was used to pool the interaction terms. In adults, the minor (A-) allele of rs9939609 increased the odds of obesity by 1.23-fold/allele (95% CI 1.20-1.26), but PA attenuated this effect (p(interaction)  = 0.001). More specifically, the minor allele of rs9939609 increased the odds of obesity less in the physically active group (odds ratio  = 1.22/allele, 95% CI 1.19-1.25) than in the inactive group (odds ratio  = 1.30/allele, 95% CI 1.24-1.36). No such interaction was found in children and adolescents. CONCLUSIONS: The association of the FTO risk allele with the odds of obesity is attenuated by 27% in physically active adults, highlighting the importance of PA in particular in those genetically predisposed to obesity.
  • Sarkkola, Catharina; Viljakainen, Jannina; Figueiredo, Rejane Augusta de Oliveira; Saari, Antti; Lommi, Sohvi; Engberg, Elina; Viljakainen, Heli (2022)
    Introduction: The global epidemic of obesity concerns children, and monitoring the prevalence is of highest priority. Body mass index (BMI) with age- and sex-specific cutoff values determines weight status in children, although multiple reference systems exist. Our aim was to compare the prevalence for thinness, normal weight, overweight, and obesity in Finnish school-aged children according to national and international reference values, as well as to determine which cutoff values for overweight agree with the criteria for central obesity. Methods: This study includes 10,646 children aged 9-12 years from the Finnish Health in Teens cohort. Height, weight, and waist circumference were measured in 2011-2014. BMI (weight [kg]/height [m](2)) and the waist-to-height ratio (WHtR; waist [cm]/height [cm]) were calculated. The WHtR cutoff of >0.5 indicated central obesity. We compared the sex-specific prevalence of thinness, overweight, and obesity using the International Obesity Task Force (IOTF), World Health Organization (WHO) and Finnish (FIN) BMI-for-age reference values, as well as these three against central obesity based on the WHtR. Results: The prevalence of thinness, overweight, and obesity were 11.0%, 12.7%, and 2.6%, respectively, using IOTF; 2.6%, 15.9%, and 5.2% using WHO; and 5.1%, 11.4%, and 2.2% using FIN. Overweight and obesity were more common in boys than girls using WHO and FIN, while thinness was more common in girls using IOTF and FIN. IOTF versus WHO exhibited moderate agreement (kappa = 0.59), which improved for IOTF versus FIN (kappa = 0.74). Of those classified as overweight by WHO, 37% and 47% were regarded as normal weight according to IOTF and FIN, respectively. The prevalence of central obesity was 8.7%, and it was more common in boys than girls. WHO provided the highest sensitivity: 95% of individuals with central obesity were classified with overweight or obesity. Using FIN provided the highest specificity (93%). Conclusion: Our findings show that WHO overestimates the prevalence of overweight and obesity, while IOTF overrates thinness. Thus, comparing prevalence rates between studies requires caution. The novelty of this study is the comparison of the cutoff values for overweight with central obesity. The choice of reference system affects the generalizability of the research results. (C) 2021 The Author(s) Published by S. Karger AG, Basel
  • CHD Exome Consortium; Cohorts For Heart Aging Res Genomi; EPIC-CVD Consortium; ExomeBP Consortium; Global Lipids Genetic Consortium; GoT2D Genes Consortium; InterAct; ReproGen Consortium; T2G Genes Consortium; MAGIC Investigators; Justice, Anne E.; Karaderi, Tugce; Highland, Heather M.; Jousilahti, Pekka; Lindström, Jaana; Männistö, Satu; Perola, Markus; Tuomilehto, Jaakko (2019)
    Body-fat distribution is a risk factor for adverse cardiovascular health consequences. We analyzed the association of body-fat distribution, assessed by waist-to-hip ratio adjusted for body mass index, with 228,985 predicted coding and splice site variants available on exome arrays in up to 344,369 individuals from five major ancestries (discovery) and 132,177 European-ancestry individuals (validation). We identified 15 common (minor allele frequency, MAF >= 5%) and nine low-frequency or rare (MAF <5%) coding novel variants. Pathway/gene set enrichment analyses identified lipid particle, adiponectin, abnormal white adipose tissue physiology and bone development and morphology as important contributors to fat distribution, while cross-trait associations highlight cardiometabolic traits. In functional follow-up analyses, specifically in Drosophila RNAi-knockdowns, we observed a significant increase in the total body triglyceride levels for two genes (DNAH10 and PLXND1). We implicate novel genes in fat distribution, stressing the importance of interrogating low-frequency and protein-coding variants.
  • Lommi, Sohvi; Engberg, Elina; Tuorila, Hely; Kolho, Kaija-Leena; Viljakainen, Heli (2021)
    The transition from childhood to adolescence is a sensitive period, triggering changes in health- and weight-related behaviours including eating habits which likely vary between girls and boys. We aimed to characterise the changes in the frequency of consumption of select sugary foods and drinks ('sweet treats') among 4237 Finnish girls and boys during a 2-year follow-up period. Additionally, we examined four subgroups: children whose weight or waist normalised as well as children whose weight or waist circumference increased during follow-up. An FFQ was completed at 11 center dot 1 (sd 0 center dot 9) and again at 13 center dot 4 (sd 1 center dot 1) years of age. A sum variable sweet treat index (STI, range 0-84) captured the weekly consumption frequencies of sweet treats. From baseline to follow-up, the mean STI decreased among girls from 7 center dot 1 (95 % CI 6 center dot 9, 7 center dot 3) to 6 center dot 0 (95 % CI 5 center dot 9, 6 center dot 2) (P < 0 center dot 001) and boys from 8 center dot 5 (95 % CI 8 center dot 3, 8 center dot 8) to 7 center dot 8 (95 % CI 7 center dot 6, 7 center dot 8) (P < 0 center dot 001), although both sexes increased their chocolate/sweets consumption: girls from 1 center dot 3 (95 % CI 1 center dot 3, 1 center dot 4) to 1 center dot 6 (95 % CI 1 center dot 5, 1 center dot 6) (P < 0 center dot 001) and boys from 1 center dot 4 (95 % CI 1 center dot 3, 1 center dot 4) to 1 center dot 6 (95 % CI 1 center dot 6, 1 center dot 7) (P < 0 center dot 001), and boys increased their soft drink consumption from 1 center dot 4 (95 % CI 1 center dot 3, 1 center dot 4) to 1 center dot 5 (95 % CI 1 center dot 4, 1 center dot 5) (P = 0 center dot 020). We found similar decreases in both the weight and waist subgroups. To conclude, the total frequency of consumption of sweet treats decreased during early adolescence. A similar trend across subgroups suggests that the frequency of consumption of sweet treats is unrelated to becoming overweight.