Browsing by Subject "WARFARIN"

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  • Kinnunen, P. T. T.; Murtola, T. J.; Talala, K.; Taari, K.; Tammela, T. L. J.; Auvinen, A. (2019)
    PurposeAnticoagulants may reduce mortality of cancer patients, though the evidence remains controversial. We studied the association between different anticoagulants and cancer death.MethodsAll anticoagulant use during 1995-2015 was analyzed among 75,336 men in the Finnish Randomized Study of Screening for Prostate Cancer. Men with prevalent cancer were excluded. Multivariable Cox regression was performed to compare risk of death from any cancer and disease-specific death from 9 specific cancer types between (1) anticoagulant users overall and (2) warfarin users compared to anticoagulant non-users and (3) warfarin or (4) low-molecular-weight heparins (LMWH) compared to users of other anticoagulants. Medication use was analyzed as time-dependent variable to minimize immortal time bias. 1-, 2- and 3-year lag-time analyses were performed.ResultsDuring a median follow-up of 17.2years, a total of 27,233 men died of whom 8033 with cancer as the primary cause of death. In total, 32,628 men (43%) used anticoagulants. Any anticoagulant use was associated with an increased risk of cancer death (HR=2.50, 95% CI 2.37-2.64) compared to non-users. Risk was similar independent of the amount, duration, or intensity of use. The risk increase was observed both among warfarin and LMWH users, although not as strong in warfarin users. Additionally, cancer-specific risks of death were similar to overall cancer mortality in all anticoagulant categories.ConclusionOur study does not support reduced cancer mortality among anticoagulant users. Future studies on drug use and cancer mortality should be adjusted for anticoagulants as they are associated with significantly higher risk of cancer death.
  • Goto, Shinya; Merrill, Peter; Wallentin, Lars; Wojdyla, Daniel M.; Hanna, Michael; Avezum, Alvaro; Easton, J. Donald; Harjola, Veli-Pekka; Huber, Kurt; Lewis, Basil S.; Parkhomenko, Alexander; Zhu, Jun; Granger, Christopher B.; Lopes, Renato D.; Alexander, John H. (2018)
    Aims We investigated baseline characteristics, antithrombotic use, and clinical outcomes of patients with atrial fibrillation (AF) and a thrombo-embolic event in the Apixaban for Reduction in Stroke and Other Thromboembolic Events in Atrial Fibrillation (ARISTOTLE) study to better inform the care of these high-risk patients. Method and results Thrombo-embolic events were defined as stroke (ischaemic or unknown cause) or systemic embolism (SE). Clinical outcomes were estimated using the Kaplan-Meier method. All-cause mortality and International Society on Thrombosis and Haemostasis (ISTH) major bleeding after events were analysed using a Cox proportional hazards model with time-dependent covariates. Of 18 201 patients in ARISTOTLE, 365 experienced a thrombo-embolic event [337 strokes (ischaemic or unknown cause), 28 SE]; 46 (12.6%) of which were fatal. In the 30 days before and after a thrombo-embolic event, 11% and 37% of patients, respectively, were not taking an oral anticoagulant. During follow-up (median 1.8 years), 22 patients (7.1%/year) had a recurrent stroke, 97 (30.1%/year) died, and 10 (6.7%/year) had major bleeding. Compared with patients without a thrombo-embolic event, the short-and long-term adjusted hazards of death in patients with a thrombo-embolic event were high [30 days: HR 3.5, 95% CI 2.5-4.8; both P Conclusions Thrombo-embolic events were rare but associated with high short-and long-term morbidity and mortality. Substantial numbers of patients are not receiving oral anticoagulattherapy before and, despite this risk, after a first thrombo-embolic event.
  • Pokorney, Sean D.; Piccini, Jonathan P.; Stevens, Susanna R.; Patel, Manesh R.; Pieper, Karen S.; Halperin, Jonathan L.; Breithardt, Gunter; Singer, Daniel E.; Hankey, Graeme J.; Hacke, Werner; Becker, Richard C.; Berkowitz, Scott D.; Nessel, Christopher C.; Mahaffey, Kenneth W.; Fox, Keith A. A.; Califf, Robert M.; ROCKET AF Steering Comm; Kaste, Markku (2016)
    Background-Atrial fibrillation is associated with higher mortality. Identification of causes of death and contemporary risk factors for all-cause mortality may guide interventions. Methods and Results-In the Rivaroxaban Once Daily Oral Direct Factor Xa Inhibition Compared with Vitamin K Antagonism for Prevention of Stroke and Embolism Trial in Atrial Fibrillation (ROCKET AF) study, patients with nonvalvular atrial fibrillation were randomized to rivaroxaban or dose-adjusted warfarin. Cox proportional hazards regression with backward elimination identified factors at randomization that were independently associated with all-cause mortality in the 14 171 participants in the intention-to-treat population. The median age was 73 years, and the mean CHADS(2) score was 3.5. Over 1.9 years of median follow-up, 1214 (8.6%) patients died. Kaplan-Meier mortality rates were 4.2% at 1 year and 8.9% at 2 years. The majority of classified deaths (1081) were cardiovascular (72%), whereas only 6% were nonhemorrhagic stroke or systemic embolism. No significant difference in all-cause mortality was observed between the rivaroxaban and warfarin arms (P=0.15). Heart failure (hazard ratio 1.51, 95% CI 1.33-1.70, P= 75 years (hazard ratio 1.69, 95% CI 1.51-1.90, P Conclusions-In a large population of patients anticoagulated for nonvalvular atrial fibrillation, approximate to 7 in 10 deaths were cardiovascular, whereas
  • Paciaroni, Maurizio; Agnelli, Giancarlo; Falocci, Nicola; Tsivgoulis, Georgios; Vadikolias, Kostantinos; Liantinioti, Chrysoula; Chondrogianni, Maria; Bovi, Paolo; Carletti, Monica; Cappellari, Manuel; Zedde, Marialuisa; Ntaios, George; Karagkiozi, Efstathia; Athanasakis, George; Makaritsis, Kostantinos; Silvestrelli, Giorgio; Lanari, Alessia; Ciccone, Alfonso; Putaala, Jukka; Tomppo, Liisa; Tatlisumak, Turgut; Abdul-Rahim, Azmil H.; Lees, Kennedy R.; Alberti, Andrea; Venti, Michele; Acciarresi, Monica; D'Amore, Cataldo; Becattini, Cecilia; Mosconi, Maria Giulia; Cimini, Ludovica Anna; Soloperto, Rossana; Masotti, Luca; Vannucchi, Vieri; Lorenzini, Gianni; Tassi, Rossana; Guideri, Francesca; Acampa, Maurizio; Martini, Giuseppe; Sohn, Sung-Il; Marcheselli, Simona; Mumoli, Nicola; De Lodovici, Maria Luisa; Bono, Giorgio; Furie, Karen L.; Tadi, Prasanna; Yaghi, Shadi; Toni, Danilo; Letteri, Federica; Tassinari, Tiziana; Kargiotis, Odysseas; Lotti, Enrico Maria; Flomin, Yuriy; Mancuso, Michelangelo; Maccarrone, Miriam; Giannini, Nicola; Bandini, Fabio; Pezzini, Alessandro; Poli, Loris; Padovani, Alessandro; Scoditti, Umberto; Denti, Licia; Consoli, Domenico; Galati, Franco; Sacco, Simona; Carolei, Antonio; Tiseo, Cindy; Gourbali, Vanessa; Orlandi, Giovanni; Giuntini, Martina; Chiti, Alberto; Giorli, Elisa; Gialdini, Gino; Corea, Francesco; Ageno, Walter; Bellesini, Marta; Colombo, Giovanna; Monaco, Serena; Baronello, Mario Maimone; Karapanayiotides, Theodore; Caso, Valeria (2017)
    Background-The optimal timing to administer non-vitamin K oral anticoagulants (NOACs) in patients with acute ischemic stroke and atrial fibrillation is unclear. This prospective observational multicenter study evaluated the rates of early recurrence and major bleeding (within 90 days) and theirtiming in patients with acute ischemic stroke and atrial fibrillation who received NOACs for secondary prevention. Methods and Results-Recurrence was defined as the composite of ischemic stroke, transient ischemic attack, and symptomatic systemic embolism, and major bleeding was defined as symptomatic cerebral and major extracranial bleeding. For the analysis, 1127 patients were eligible: 381 (33.8%) were treated with dabigatran, 366 (32.5%) with rivaroxaban, and 380 (33.7%) with apixaban. Patients who received dabigatran were younger and had lower admission National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale score and less commonly had a CHA(2)DS(2)-VASc score >4 and less reduced renal function. Thirty-two patients (2.8%) had early recurrence, and 27 (2.4%) had major bleeding. The rates of early recurrence and major bleeding were, respectively, 1.8% and 0.5% in patients receiving dabigatran, 1.6% and 2.5% in those receiving rivaroxaban, and 4.0% and 2.9% in those receiving apixaban. Patients who initiated NOACs within 2 days after acute stroke had a composite rate of recurrence and major bleeding of 12.4%; composite rates were 2.1% for those who initiated NOACs between 3 and 14 days and 9.1% for those who initiated > 14 days after acute stroke. Conclusions-In patients with acute ischemic stroke and atrial fibrillation, treatment with NOACs was associated with a combined 5% rate of ischemic embolic recurrence and severe bleeding within 90 days.
  • Mustanoja, Satu; Metso, Tiina M.; Putaala, Jukka; Heikkinen, Noora; Haapaniemi, Elena; Salonen, Oili; Tatlisumak, Turgut (2015)
    BackgroundCervical artery dissection (CeAD) patients with or without stroke are frequently treated with either antiplatelet agents or vitamin K antagonists (VKAs), but few data are reported on the use of nonvitamin K oral anticoagulants (NOACs). MethodsBetween November 2011 and January 2014, we recorded data from patients with a stroke due to vertebral (VAD) or internal carotid artery dissection (ICAD). Patients using oral anticoagulants were included in the study and were divided into two treatment groups: patients using NOACs and those using VKAs. Excellent outcome was defined on modified Rankin Scale (mRS) 1 at 6months. ResultsOf 68 stroke patients (67% male; median age 45 [39-53]), six (8.8%; two with VAD and four with ICAD) were treated with NOACs: three with direct thrombin inhibitor dabigatran and three with direct factor Xa inhibitor rivaroxaban. National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale score at baseline was 4 (3-7) in the NOAC versus 2 (1-7) in the VKA groups. Complete recanalization at 6months was seen in most patients in the NOAC (n=5; 83%) and VKA (n=34; 55%) groups. All the patients using NOACs had mRS 1 at 6months and none had an intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). In the VKA group most patients (n=48; 77%) had mRS 1, one patient (1.7%) had an ICH and one died. ConclusionsIn this small, consecutive single-center patient sample treating ischemic stroke patients with CeAD with NOACs did not bring up safety concerns and resulted in similar, good outcomes compared to patients using VKAs.
  • Teppo, Konsta; Jaakkola, Jussi; Airaksinen, K. E. Juhani; Biancari, Fausto; Halminen, Olli; Putaala, Jukka; Mustonen, Pirjo; Haukka, Jari; Hartikainen, Juha; Luojus, Alex; Niemi, Mikko; Linna, Miika; Lehto, Mika (2022)
    Objective: Medication adherence is essential for effective stroke prevention in patients with atrial fibrillation (AF). We aimed to assess whether adherence to direct oral anticoagulants (DOACs) in AF patients is affected by the presence of mental health conditions (MHCs). Methods: The nationwide FinACAF cohort covered 74,222 AF patients from all levels of care receiving DOACs during 2011-2018 in Finland. Medication possession ratio (MPR) was used to quantify adherence. Patients with MPR >= 0.90 were defined adherent. MHCs of interest were depression, bipolar disorder, anxiety disorder and schizophrenia. Results: The patients' (mean age 75.4 +/- 9.5 years, 50.8% female) mean MPR was 0.84 (SD 0.22), and 59.5% had MPR >= 0.90. Compared to patients without MHC, the adjusted ORs (95% CI) for adherent DOAC use emerged slightly lower in patients with depression (0.92 (0.84-0.99)) and bipolar disorder (0.77 (0.61-0.97)) and unsignificant in patients with anxiety disorder (1.08 (0.96-1.21)) and schizophrenia (1.13 (0.90-1.43)). However, when only persistent DOAC therapy was analyzed, no MHC was associated with poor adherence, and instead anxiety disorder was associated with adherent DOAC use (1.18 (1.04-1.34)). Conclusion: Adherence to DOACs in AF patients in Finland was relatively high, and no meaningful differences between patients with and without MHCs were observed.
  • Teppo, Konsta; Jaakkola, Jussi; Airaksinen, K. E. Juhani; Biancari, Fausto; Halminen, Olli; Putaala, Jukka; Mustonen, Pirjo; Haukka, Jari; Hartikainen, Juha; Luojus, Alex; Niemi, Mikko; Linna, Miika; Lehto, Mika (2022)
    BACKGROUND: Mental health conditions (MHCs) are associated with poor outcomes in patients with atrial fibrillation. However, persistence of oral anticoagulation therapy in patients with atrial fibrillation and MHCs is unknown. We aimed to evaluate the effect of MHCs on the persistence of direct oral anticoagulant (DOAC) use in patients with atrial fibrillation based on a nationwide cohort. METHODS AND RESULTS: The nationwide registry-based FinACAF (Finnish Anticoagulation in Atrial Fibrillation) cohort included 67 503 patients with incident atrial fibrillation and indication for permanent oral anticoagulation (CHA(2)DS(2)-VASc score >1 in men and >2 in women) starting DOAC therapy between 2011 and 2018. MHCs of interest were depression, bipolar disorder, anxiety disorder, schizophrenia, and composite of any MHC. The main outcome was nonpersistence of DOAC use, defined as the first 120-day period without DOAC purchases after drug initiation. The mean age of the patients was 75.3 +/- 8.9 years, 53.6% were women, and the prevalence of any MHC was 17.8%. Persistence after 1 year from DOAC initiation was 79.3% in patients without MHCs and 77.2% in patients with any MHC, and after 2 years were 64.4% and 60.6%, respectively (P CONCLUSIONS: MHCs are associated with nonpersistence of DOAC use.
  • Tsivgoulis, Georgios; Wilson, Duncan; Katsanos, Aristeidis H.; Sargento-Freitas, Joao; Marques-Matos, Claudia; Azevedo, Elsa; Adachi, Tomohide; von der Brelie, Christian; Aizawa, Yoshifusa; Abe, Hiroshi; Tomita, Hirofumi; Okumura, Ken; Hagii, Joji; Seiffge, David J.; Lioutas, Vasileios-Arsenios; Traenka, Christopher; Varelas, Panayiotis; Basir, Ghazala; Krogias, Christos; Purrucker, Jan C.; Sharma, Vijay K.; Rizos, Timolaos; Mikulik, Robert; Sobowale, Oluwaseun A.; Barlinn, Kristian; Sallinen, Hanne; Goyal, Nitin; Yeh, Shin-Joe; Karapanayiotides, Theodore; Wu, Teddy Y.; Vadikolias, Konstantinos; Ferrigno, Marc; Hadjigeorgiou, Georgios; Houben, Rik; Giannopoulos, Sotirios; Schreuder, Floris H. B. M.; Chang, Jason J.; Perry, Luke A.; Mehdorn, Maximilian; Marto, Joao-Pedro; Pinho, Joao; Tanaka, Jun; Boulanger, Marion; Salman, Rustam Al-Shahi; Jaeger, Hans R.; Shakeshaft, Clare; Yakushiji, Yusuke; Choi, Philip M. C.; Staals, Julie; Cordonnier, Charlotte; Jeng, Jiann-Shing; Veltkamp, Roland; Dowlatshahi, Dar; Engelter, Stefan T.; Parry-Jones, Adrian R.; Meretoja, Atte; Mitsias, Panayiotis D.; Alexandrov, Andrei V.; Ambler, Gareth; Werring, David J. (2018)
    Objective Methods Whether intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) associated with non-vitamin K antagonist oral anticoagulants (NOAC-ICH) has a better outcome compared to ICH associated with vitamin K antagonists (VKA-ICH) is uncertain. We performed a systematic review and individual patient data meta-analysis of cohort studies comparing clinical and radiological outcomes between NOAC-ICH and VKA-ICH patients. The primary outcome measure was 30-day all-cause mortality. All outcomes were assessed in multivariate regression analyses adjusted for age, sex, ICH location, and intraventricular hemorrhage extension. Results Interpretation We included 7 eligible studies comprising 219 NOAC-ICH and 831 VKA-ICH patients (mean age = 77 years, 52.5% females). The 30-day mortality was similar between NOAC-ICH and VKA-ICH (24.3% vs 26.5%; hazard ratio = 0.94, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.67-1.31). However, in multivariate analyses adjusting for potential confounders, NOAC-ICH was associated with lower admission National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) score (linear regression coefficient = -2.83, 95% CI = -5.28 to -0.38), lower likelihood of severe stroke (NIHSS > 10 points) on admission (odds ratio [OR] = 0.50, 95% CI = 0.30-0.84), and smaller baseline hematoma volume (linear regression coefficient = -0.24, 95% CI = -0.47 to -0.16). The two groups did not differ in the likelihood of baseline hematoma volume <30cm(3) (OR = 1.14, 95% CI = 0.81-1.62), hematoma expansion (OR = 0.97, 95% CI = 0.63-1.48), in-hospital mortality (OR = 0.73, 95% CI = 0.49-1.11), functional status at discharge (common OR = 0.78, 95% CI = 0.57-1.07), or functional status at 3 months (common OR = 1.03, 95% CI = 0.75-1.43). Although functional outcome at discharge, 1 month, or 3 months was comparable after NOAC-ICH and VKA-ICH, patients with NOAC-ICH had smaller baseline hematoma volumes and less severe acute stroke syndromes. Ann Neurol 2018;84:702-712
  • Wilson, Duncan; Seiffge, David J.; Traenka, Christopher; Basir, Ghazala; Purrucker, Jan C.; Rizos, Timolaos; Sobowale, Oluwaseun A.; Sallinen, Hanne; Yeh, Shin-Joe; Wu, Teddy Y.; Ferrigno, Marc; Houben, Rik; Schreuder, Floris H. B. M.; Perry, Luke A.; Tanaka, Jun; Boulanger, Marion; Salman, Rustam Al-Shahi; Jaeger, Hans R.; Ambler, Gareth; Shakeshaft, Clare; Yakushiji, Yusuke; Choi, Philip M. C.; Staals, Julie; Cordonnier, Charlotte; Jeng, Jiann-Shing; Veltkamp, Roland; Dowlatshahi, Dar; Engelter, Stefan T.; Parry-Jones, Adrian R.; Meretoja, Atte; Werring, David J.; CROMIS-2 Collaborators (2017)
    Objective: In an international collaborative multicenter pooled analysis, we compared mortality, functional outcome, intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) volume, and hematoma expansion (HE) between non-vitamin K antagonist oral anticoagulation-related ICH (NOAC-ICH) and vitamin K antagonist-associated ICH (VKA-ICH). Methods: We compared all-cause mortality within 90 days for NOAC-ICH and VKA-ICH using a Cox proportional hazards model adjusted for age; sex; baseline Glasgow Coma Scale score, ICH location, and log volume; intraventricular hemorrhage volume; and intracranial surgery. We addressed heterogeneity using a shared frailty term. Good functional outcome was defined as discharge modified Rankin Scale score 33% or >6 mL from baseline within 72 hours. Results: We included 500 patients (97 NOAC-ICH and 403 VKA-ICH). Median baseline ICH volume was 14.4 mL (interquartile range [IQR] 3.6-38.4) for NOAC-ICH vs 10.6 mL (IQR 4.0-27.9) for VKA-ICH (p = 0.78). We did not find any difference between NOAC-ICH and VKA-ICH for all-cause mortality within 90 days (33% for NOAC-ICH vs 31% for VKA-ICH [p = 0.64]; adjusted Cox hazard ratio (for NOAC-ICH vs VKA-ICH) 0.93 [95% confidence interval (CI) 0.52-1.64] [p = 0.79]), the rate of HE (NOAC-ICH n = 29/48 [40%] vs VKA-ICH n = 93/140 [34%] [p = 0.45]), or functional outcome at hospital discharge (NOAC-ICH vs VKA-ICH odds ratio 0.47; 95% CI 0.18-1.19 [p = 0.11]). Conclusions: In our international collaborative multicenter pooled analysis, baseline ICH volume, hematoma expansion, 90-day mortality, and functional outcome were similar following NOAC-ICH and VKA-ICH.
  • Aarnio, Emma; Huupponen, Risto; Hämeen-Anttila, Katri; Merikoski, Merja; Puhakka, Jaana; Korhonen, Maarit J. (2019)
    Direct oral anticoagulants provide an alternative to vitamin K antagonists for the anticoagulation therapy in atrial fibrillation (AF). The availability of several treatment options with different attributes makes shared decision-making appropriate for the choice of anticoagulation therapy. The aim of this study was to understand how physicians choose an oral anticoagulant (OAC) for patients with AF and how physicians view patients' participation in this decision. Semi-structured interviews with 17 Finnish physicians (eight general practitioners and nine specialists) working in the public sector were conducted. An interview guide on experience, prescribing and opinions about oral anticoagulants was developed based on previous literature. The data were thematically analysed using deductive and inductive approaches. Based on the interviews, patient's opinion was the most influential factor in decision-making when there were no clinical factors limiting the choice between OACs. Of patient's preferences, the most important was the attitude towards co-payments of OACs. Patients' opinions on monitoring of treatment, dosing and antidote availability were also mentioned by the interviewees. The choice of an OAC in AF was patient-centred as all interviewees expressed that patient's opinion affects the choice.
  • EFSA Panel Dietetic Prod Nutr; Heinonen, Marina (2017)
    Following a request from the European Commission, the EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA) was asked to deliver an opinion on 'cranberry extract powder' as a novel food (NF)submitted pursuant to Regulation (EC) No 258/97 of the European Parliament and of the Council. The NF contains about 55-60% proanthocyanidins ( PACs). The Panel considers that the information provided on the composition, the specifications, batch-to-batch variability and stability of the NF is sufficient and does not raise safety concerns. Cranberry extract powder is produced from cranberry juice concentrate through an ethanolic extraction using an adsorptive resin column to retain the phenolic components. The Panel considers that the production process is sufficiently described and does not raise concerns about the safety of the novel food. The NF is intended to be added to beverages and yogurts to provide 80 mg PACs per serving. The target population is the adult general population. The mean and 95th percentile estimates for the all-user intakes from all proposed food-uses are 68 and 192 mg/day, respectively, for female adults, and 74 mg/day and 219 mg/day, respectively, for male adults. Taking into account the composition of the novel food and the intended use levels, the Panel considers that the consumption of the NF is not nutritionally disadvantageous. While no animal toxicological studies have been conducted on the NF, a number of human clinical studies have been conducted with cranberry products. Considering the composition, manufacturing process, intake, history of consumption of the source and human data, the Panel considers that the data provided do not give reasons for safety concerns. The Panel concludes that the cranberry extract powder is safe as a food ingredient at the proposed uses and use levels. (C) 2017 European Food Safety Authority. EFSA Journal published by John Wiley and Sons Ltd on behalf of European Food Safety Authority.
  • Lindsberg, Perttu J.; Toivonen, Lauri; Diener, Hans-Christoph (2014)
  • Lehto, Mika; Halminen, Olli; Mustonen, Pirjo; Putaala, Jukka; Linna, Miika; Kinnunen, Janne; Kouki, Elis; Niiranen, Jussi; Hartikainen, Juha; Haukka, Jari; Airaksinen, Kari Eino Juhani (2022)
    Atrial fibrillation (AF) is a major cause of ischemic stroke and the number of AF patients is increasing. Thus, up-to-date multifaceted data about the characteristics of AF patients, their treatments, and outcomes are urgently needed. The Finnish anticoagulation in atrial fibrillation (FinACAF) study has collected comprehensive data on all Finnish AF patients from 1st January 2004 to 31st December 2018. The aim of this paper is to describe the study rationale, the process of integrating data from the applied resources and to define the study cohort. Using national unique personal identification number, individual patient data is linked from nationwide health care registries (primary, secondary, and tertiary care), drug purchases, education, and socio-economic status as well as places of domicile, incomes, and taxes. Six regional laboratory databases (similar to 282,000, 77% of the patients) are also included. The study cohort comprises of a total of 411,000 patients. Since the introduction of the national primary care register in 2012, 9% of all AF patients were identified outside hospital care registers. The prevalence of AF in Finland-4.1% of whole population-is for the first time now established. The FinACAF study allows a unique possibility to investigate the epidemiology and socio-medico-economic impact of AF as well as the cost effectiveness of different AF management strategies in a completely unselected, nationwide population. This article provides the rationale and design of the study together with a summary of the characteristics of the cohort.
  • Ocak, Gurbey; Boenink, Rianne; Noordzij, Marlies; Bos, Willem Jan W.; Vikse, Bjorn E.; Cases, Aleix; Kerschbaum, Julia; Helve, Jaakko; Nordio, Maurizio; Arici, Mustafa; Mercadal, Lucile; Wanner, Christoph; Palsson, Runolfur; Hommel, Kristine; De Meester, Johan; Kostopoulou, Myrto; Santamaria, Rafael; Rodrigo, Emilio; Rydell, Helena; Bell, Samira; Massy, Ziad A.; Jager, Kitty J.; Kramer, Anneke (2022)
    IMPORTANCE During the past decades, improvements in the prevention and management of myocardial infarction, stroke, and pulmonary embolism have led to a decline in cardiovascular mortality in the general population. However, it is unknown whether patients receiving dialysis have also benefited from these improvements. OBJECTIVE To assess the mortality rates for myocardial infarction, stroke, and pulmonary embolism in a large cohort of European patients receiving dialysis compared with the general population. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS In this cohort study, adult patients who started dialysis between 1998 and 2015 from 11 European countries providing data to the European Renal Association Registry were and followed up for 3 years. Data were analyzed from September 2020 to February 2022. EXPOSURES Start of dialysis. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES The age- and sex-standardized mortality rate ratios (SMRs) with 95% CIs were calculated by dividing the mortality rates in patients receiving dialysis by the mortality rates in the general population for 3 equal periods (1998-2003, 2004-2009, and 2010-2015). RESULTS In total, 220 467 patients receiving dialysis were included in the study. Their median (IQR) age was 68.2 (56.5-76.4) years, and 82 068 patients (37.2%) were female. During follow-up, 83 912 patients died, of whom 7662 (9.1%) died because of myocardial infarction, 5030 (6.0%) died because of stroke, and 435 (0.5%) died because of pulmonary embolism. Between the periods 1998 to 2003 and 2010 to 2015, the SMR of myocardial infarction decreased from 8.1 (95% CI, 7.8-8.3) to 6.8 (95% CI, 6.5-7.1), the SMR of stroke decreased from 7.3 (95% CI, 7.0-7.6) to 5.8 (95% CI, 5.5-6.2), and the SMR of pulmonary embolism decreased from 8.7 (95% CI, 7.6-10.1) to 5.5 (95% CI, 4.5-6.6). CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE In this cohort study of patients receiving dialysis, mortality rates for myocardial infarction, stroke, and pulmonary embolism decreased more over time than in the general population.