Browsing by Subject "WASTE-WATER TREATMENT"

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  • Atashgahi, Siavash; Shetty, Sudarshan A.; Smidt, Hauke; de Vos, Willem M. (2018)
    Humans and their associated microbiomes are exposed to numerous xenobiotics through drugs, dietary components, personal care products as well as environmental chemicals. Most of the reciprocal interactions between the microbiota and xenobiotics, such as halogenated compounds, occur within the human gut harboring diverse and dense microbial communities. Here, we provide an overview of the flux of halogenated compounds in the environment, and diverse exposure routes of human microbiota to these compounds. Subsequently, we review the impact of halogenated compounds in perturbing the structure and function of gut microbiota and host cells. In turn, cultivation-dependent and metagenomic surveys of dehalogenating genes revealed the potential of the gut microbiota to chemically alter halogenated xenobiotics and impact their fate. Finally, we provide an outlook for future research to draw attention and attract interest to study the bidirectional impact of halogenated and other xenobiotic compounds and the gut microbiota.
  • Esterhuizen, Maranda; Behman Sani, Shirin; Wang, Lin; Kim, Young Jun; Pflugmacher, Stephan (2021)
    Untreated pharmaceutical pollution and their possibly toxic metabolites, resulting from overloaded wastewater treatment processes, end up in aquatic environments and are hazardous to the ecosystem homeostasis. Biological wastewater remediation could supplement traditional methods and overcome the release of these biologically active compounds in the environment. Mycoremediation is especially promising due to the unspecific nature of fungi to decompose compounds through exoenzymes and the uptake of compounds as nutrients. In the present study, we improved on the previous advances made using the fungus Mucor hiemalis to remediate one of the most commonly occurring pharmaceuticals, acetaminophen (APAP), at higher concentrations. The limitation of nitrogen, adjustment of pH, and comparison to, as well as co-cultivation with the white-rot fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium, were tested. Nitrogen limitation did not significantly improve the APAP remediation efficiency of M. hiemalis. Maintaining the pH of the media improved the remediation restraint of 24 h previously observed. The APAP remediation efficiency of P. chrysosporium was far superior to that of M. hiemalis, and co-cultivation of the two resulted in a decreased remediation efficiency compared to P. chrysosporium in single.
  • Ortúzar, Maite; Esterhuizen, Maranda; Olicón-Hernández, Darío Rafael; González-López, Jesús; Aranda, Elisabet (2022)
    The presence of emerging contaminants in the environment, such as pharmaceuticals, is a growing global concern. The excessive use of medication globally, together with the recalcitrance of pharmaceuticals in traditional wastewater treatment systems, has caused these compounds to present a severe environmental problem. In recent years, the increase in their availability, access and use of drugs has caused concentrations in water bodies to rise substantially. Considered as emerging contaminants, pharmaceuticals represent a challenge in the field of environmental remediation; therefore, alternative add-on systems for traditional wastewater treatment plants are continuously being developed to mitigate their impact and reduce their effects on the environment and human health. In this review, we describe the current status and impact of pharmaceutical compounds as emerging contaminants, focusing on their presence in water bodies, and analyzing the development of bioremediation systems, especially mycoremediation, for the removal of these pharmaceutical compounds with a special focus on fungal technologies.