Browsing by Subject "WASTE-WATER"

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  • Tiedje, James M.; Wang , Fang; Manaia, Celia M.; Virta, Marko; Sheng, Hongjie; Ma, Liping; Zhang , Tong; Topp, Edward (2019)
    Antibiotic resistance and its environmental component are gaining more attention as part of combating the growing healthcare crisis. The One Health framework, promulgated by many global health agencies, recognizes that antimicrobial resistance is a truly inter-domain problem in which human health, animal agriculture, and the environment are the core and interrelated components. This prospectus presents the status and issues relevant to the environmental component of antibiotic resistance, namely, the needs for advancing surveillance methodology: the environmental reservoirs and sources of resistance, namely, urban wastewater treatment plants, aquaculture production systems, soil receiving manure and biosolid, and the atmosphere which includes longer range dispersal. Recently, much work has been done describing antibiotic resistance genes in various environments; now quantitative, mechanistic, and hypothesis-driven studies are needed to identify practices that reduce real risks and maintain the effectiveness of our current antibiotics as long as possible. Advanced deployable detection methods for antibiotic resistance in diverse environmental samples are needed in order to provide the surveillance information to identify risks and define barriers that can reduce risks. Also needed are practices that reduce antibiotic use and thereby reduce selection for resistance, as well as practices that limit the dispersal of or destroy antibiotic-resistant bacteria or their resistance genes that are feasible for these varied environmental domains.
  • Topp, Edward; Larsson, D. G. Joakim; Miller, Daniel N.; Van den Eede, Chris; Virta, Marko P. J. (2018)
    A roundtable discussion held at the fourth International Symposium on the Environmental Dimension of Antibiotic Resistance (EDAR4) considered key issues concerning the impact on the environment of antibiotic use in agriculture and aquaculture, and emissions from antibiotic manufacturing. The critical control points for reducing emissions of antibiotics from agriculture are antibiotic stewardship and the pre-treatment of manure and sludge to abate antibiotic-resistant bacteria. Antibiotics are sometimes added to fish and shellfish production sites via the feed, representing a direct route of contamination of the aquatic environment. Vaccination reduces the need for antibiotic use in high value (e.g. salmon) production systems. Consumer and regulatory pressure will over time contribute to reducing the emission of very high concentrations of antibiotics from manufacturing. Research priorities include the development of technologies, practices and incentives that will allow effective reduction in antibiotic use, together with evidence-based standards for antibiotic residues in effluents. All relevant stakeholders need to be aware of the threat of antimicrobial resistance and apply best practice in agriculture, aquaculture and pharmaceutical manufacturing in order to mitigate antibiotic resistance development. Research and policy development on antimicrobial resistance mitigation must be cognizant of the varied challenges facing high and low income countries.
  • Balleste, Elisenda; Blanch, Anicet R.; Mendez, Javier; Sala-Comorera, Laura; Maunula, Leena; Monteiro, Silvia; Farnleitner, Andreas H.; Tiehm, Andreas; Jofre, Joan; Garcia-Aljaro, Cristina (2021)
    The detection of fecal viral pathogens in water is hampered by their great variety and complex analysis. As traditional bacterial indicators are poor viral indicators, there is a need for alternative methods, such as the use of somatic coliphages, which have been included in water safety regulations in recent years. Some researchers have also recommended the use of reference viral pathogens such as noroviruses or other enteric viruses to improve the prediction of fecal viral pollution of human origin. In this work, phages previously tested in microbial source tracking studies were compared with norovirus and adenovirus for their suitability as indicators of human fecal viruses. The phages, namely those infecting human-associated Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron strain GA17 (GA17PH) and porcine-associated Bacteroides strain PG76 (PGPH), and the human-associated crAssphage marker (crAssPH), were evaluated in sewage samples and fecal mixtures obtained from different animals in five European countries, along with norovirus GI + GII (NoV) and human adenovirus (HAdV). GA17PH had an overall sensitivity of >= 83% and the highest specificity (>88%) for human pollution source detection. crAssPH showed the highest sensitivity (100%) and specificity (100%) in northern European countries but a much lower specificity in Spain and Portugal (10 and 30%, respectively), being detected in animal wastewater samples with a high concentration of fecal indicators. The correlations between GA17PH, crAssPH, or the sum of both (BACPH) and HAdV or NoV were higher than between the two human viruses, indicating that bacteriophages are feasible indicators of human viral pathogens of fecal origin and constitute a promising, easy to use and affordable alternative to human viruses for routine water safety monitoring.
  • Virtanen, Tiina; Parkkila, Petteri; Koivuniemi, Artturi; Lahti, Jussi; Viitala, Tapani; Kallioinen, Mari; Mänttäri, Mika; Bunker, Alex (2018)
    Adsorptive fouling, by phenolic compounds, is a serious issue regarding the development and use of membrane based filtration technologies for water purification and wastewater treatment. We have developed a novel, combined, protocol of Raman spectroscopy and surface plasmon resonance (SPR) experiments, along with molecular dynamics (MD) simulation, to study the interaction of vanillin, a model phenolic compound, with the polyethersulfone (PES) surface of a membrane. The adsorption of vanillin to the PES surface was found to be highly pH dependent; the source of this was determined, by MD simulation, to be the stronger interaction with the protonated form of vanillin, predominant at low pH. Vanillin interacts with the PES surface, both through entropy driven, hydrophobic, interactions and, for the case of the protonated form, H-bonding of the hydroxyl group with the sulphur oxygens of the PES molecules. In addition to general insight into the fouling process that can be used to develop new methods to inhibit adsorptive fouling, our results also elucidate the specific interaction of the PES membrane with vanillin that can be used in the development of anti-fouling coatings, based on the structure of vanillin.
  • Tossavainen, Marika; Katyal, Neha; Silja, Kostia; Valkonen, Kalle; Sharma, Anil K.; Sharma, Suvigya; Ojala, Anne; Romantschuk, Martin (2018)
    Microalgae are a sustainable alternative for production of valuable omega -3 fatty acids (FAs), but high production costs limit commercialization. Utilization of waste as a nutrient source increases the economics of the cultivation process. Additionally, using mixed algal cultures instead of monocultures makes the cultivation process more flexible and can increase biomass and lipid production. Here, the growth and lipid production of microalgae Euglena gracilis, Selenastrum sp. and, Chlorella sorokiniana were studied in mono- and mixed cultures in small and pilot scale experiments in biowaste leachate. In pilot scale, also nutrient reduction and the number of bacteria were analyzed. Biomass production in the most productive mixed cultures was similar, but not higher than in most productive monocultures. The lipid production was highest in the small-scale monoculture of Selenastrum (10.4% DW) and in the pilot scale culture of Selenastrum with E. gracilis (11.1% DW). The content of alpha-linolenic acid (ALA) increased and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) remained stable during the cultivation period in all pilot scale cultures. However, increases in biomass and lipid production toward the end of the cultivation resulted in higher EPA and DHA yields in the well growing monoculture of E. gracilis and in the mixed culture of E. gracilis with Selenastrum. Co-cultivation of E. gracilis and Selenastrum also had a positive influence on nutrient uptake and resistance against bacteria. This type of mixed culture may be a good option for commercialization. However, as shown here, minor changes in cultivation conditions can rapidly result in dominance of a subdominant strain, and thus the stability of strain performance and production of desired FAs needs further investigation.
  • Larsson, D. G. Joakim; Andremont, Antoine; Bengtsson-Palme, Johan; Brandt, Kristian Koefoed; Husman, Ana Maria de Roda; Fagerstedt, Patriq; Fick, Jerker; Flach, Carl-Fredrik; Gaze, William H.; Kuroda, Makoto; Kvint, Kristian; Laxminarayan, Ramanan; Manaia, Celia M.; Nielsen, Kaare Magne; Plant, Laura; Ploy, Marie-Cecile; Segovia, Carlos; Simonet, Pascal; Smalla, Kornelia; Snape, Jason; Topp, Edward; van Hengel, Arjon J.; Verner-Jeffreys, David W.; Virta, Marko P. J.; Wellington, Elizabeth M.; Wernersson, Ann-Sofie (2018)
    There is growing understanding that the environment plays an important role both in the transmission of antibiotic resistant pathogens and in their evolution. Accordingly, researchers and stakeholders world-wide seek to further explore the mechanisms and drivers involved, quantify risks and identify suitable interventions. There is a clear value in establishing research needs and coordinating efforts within and across nations in order to best tackle this global challenge. At an international workshop in late September 2017, scientists from 14 countries with expertise on the environmental dimensions of antibiotic resistance gathered to define critical knowledge gaps. Four key areas were identified where research is urgently needed: 1) the relative contributions of different sources of antibiotics and antibiotic resistant bacteria into the environment; 2) the role of the environment, and particularly anthropogenic inputs, in the evolution of resistance; 3) the overall human and animal health impacts caused by exposure to environmental resistant bacteria; and 4) the efficacy and feasibility of different technological, social, economic and behavioral interventions to mitigate environmental antibiotic resistance.(1)
  • Deb, Anjan; Gurung, Khum; Rumky, Jannatul; Sillanpää, Mika; Kallioinen, Mari (2022)
    Membrane fouling in a membrane bioreactor (MBR) is highly influenced by the characteristics of the influent, the mixed liquor microbial community and the operational parameters, all of which are environment specific. Therefore, we studied the dynamics of microbial community during the treatment of real municipal wastewater in a pilotscale anoxic-oxic (A/O) MBR equipped with a gravity-driven membrane filtration system. The MBR was operated at three different solid retention times (SRTs): 25, 40 and 10 days for a total period of 180 days in Nordic environmental conditions. Analysis of microbial community dynamics revealed a high diversity of microbial species at SRT of 40 days, whereas SRT of 25 days was superior with microbial richness. Production of soluble microbial products (SMP) and extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) was found to be intensely connected with the SRT and food to microorganism (F/M) ratio. Relatively longer operational period with the lowest rate of membrane fouling was observed at SRT of 25 days, which was resulted from the superior microbial community, lowest production of SMP and loosely bound EPS as well as the lower filtration resistance of larger sludge flocs. Abundance of quorum quenching (QQ) bacteria and granular floc forming bacterial genera at SRT of 25 days provided relatively lower membrane fouling tendency and larger floc formation, respectively. On the other hand, substantial amount of various surface colonizing and EPS producing bacteria was found at SRT of 10 days, which promoted more rapid membrane fouling compared with the fouling rate seen at other tested SRTs. To sum up, this research provides a realistic insight into the impact of SRT on microbial community dynamics and resulting characteristics of mixed liquor, floc size distribution and membrane fouling for improved MBR operation. (c) 2021 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. This is an open access article under the CC BY license (
  • Karkman, Antti; Parnanen, Katariina; Larsson, D. G. Joakim (2019)
    Discharge of treated sewage leads to release of antibiotic resistant bacteria, resistance genes and antibiotic residues to the environment. However, it is unclear whether increased abundance of antibiotic resistance genes in sewage and sewage-impacted environments is due to on-site selection pressure by residual antibiotics, or is simply a result of fecal contamination with resistant bacteria. Here we analyze relative resistance gene abundance and accompanying extent of fecal pollution in publicly available metagenomic data, using crAssphage sequences as a marker of human fecal contamination (crAssphage is a bacteriophage that is exceptionally abundant in, and specific to, human feces). We find that the presence of resistance genes can largely be explained by fecal pollution, with no clear signs of selection in the environment, with the exception of environments polluted by very high levels of anti-biotics from manufacturing, where selection is evident. Our results demonstrate the necessity to take into account fecal pollution levels to avoid making erroneous assumptions regarding environmental selection of antibiotic resistance.
  • Kauppinen, A.; Al-Hello, H.; Zacheus, O.; Kilponen, J.; Maunula, L.; Huusko, S.; Lappalainen, M.; Miettinen, I.; Blomqvist, S.; Rimhanen-Finne, R. (2017)
  • Lan, Hangzhen; Salmi, Leo D.; Rönkkö, Tuukka; Parshintsev, Jevgeni; Jussila, Matti; Hartonen, Kari; Kemell, Marianna; Riekkola, Marja-Liisa (2018)
    New chemical vapor reaction (CVR) and atomic layer deposition (ALD)-conversion methods were utilized for preparation of metal organic frameworks (MOFs) coatings of solid phase microextraction (SPME) Arrow for the first time. With simple, easy and convenient one-step reaction or conversion, four MOF coatings were made by suspend ALD iron oxide (Fe2O3) film or aluminum oxide (Al2O3) film above terephthalic acid (H2BDC) or trimesic acid (H3BTC) vapor. UIO-66 coating was made by zirconium (Zr)-BDC film in acetic acid vapor. As the first documented instance of all-gas phase synthesis of SPME Arrow coatings, preparation parameters including CVR/conversion time and temperature, acetic acid volume, and metal oxide film/metal-ligand films thickness were investigated. The optimal coatings exhibited crystalline structures, excellent uniformity, satisfactory thickness (2-7.5 μm), and high robustness (>80 times usage). To study the practical usefulness of the coatings for the extraction, several analytes with different chemical properties were tested. The Fe-BDC coating was found to be the most selective and sensitive for the determination of benzene ring contained compounds due to its highly hydrophobic surface and unsaturated metal site. UIO-66 coating was best for small polar, aromatic, and long chain polar compounds owing to its high porosity. The usefulness of new coatings were evaluated for gas chromatography-mass spectrometer (GC-MS) determination of several analytes, present in wastewater samples at three levels of concentration, and satisfactory results were achieved.
  • Li, Xinpei; Lan, Hangzhen; Hartonen, Kari; Jussila, Matti; Wang, Xinghua; Riekkola, Marja-Liisa (2020)
    Today, wide variety of adsorbents have been developed for sample pretreatment to concentrate and separate harmful substances. However, only a few solid phase microextraction Arrow adsorbents are commercially available. In this study, we developed a new solid phase microextraction Arrow coating, in which nanosheets layered double hydroxides and poly(vinylpyrrolidone) were utilized as the extraction phase and poly(vinyl chloride) as the adhesive. This new coating entailed higher extraction capacity for several volatile organic compounds (allyl methyl sulfide, methyl propyl sulfide, 3-pentanone, 2-butanone, and methyl isobutyl ketone) compared to the commercial Carboxen 1000/polydimethylsiloxane coating. Fabrication parameters for the coating were optimized and extraction and desorption conditions were investigated. The validation of the new solid phase microextraction Arrow coating was accomplished using water sample spiked with volatile organic compounds. Under the optimal conditions, the limits of quantification for the five volatile organic compounds by the new solid phase microextraction Arrow coating and developed gas chromatography with mass spectrometry method were in the range of 0.2-4.6 ng/mL. The proposed method was briefly applied for enrichment of volatile organic compounds in sludge.
  • Jalava, Katri; Rintala, Hanna; Ollgren, Jukka; Maunula, Leena; Gomez-Alvarez, Vicente; Revez, Joana; Palander, Marja; Antikainen, Jenni; Kauppinen, Ari; Räsänen, Pia; Siponen, Sallamaari; Nyholm, Outi; Kyyhkynen, Aino; Hakkarainen, Sirpa; Merentie, Juhani; Pärnänen, Martti; Loginov, Raisa; Ryu, Hodon; Kuusi, Markku; Siitonen, Anja; Miettinen, Ilkka; Domingo, Jorge W. Santo; Hänninen, Marja-Liisa; Pitkänen, Tarja (2014)
  • Lan, Hangzhen; Ruiz-Jimenez, Jose; Leleev, Yevgeny; Demaria, Giorgia; Jussila, Matti; Hartonen, Kari; Riekkola, Marja-Liisa (2021)
    Our second generation air sampling drone system, allowing the simultaneous use of four solid phase microextraction (SPME) Arrow and four in-tube extraction (ITEX) units, was employed for collection of atmospheric air samples at different spatial and temporal dimensions. SPME Arrow coated with two types of materials and ITEX with 10% polyacrylonitrile as sorbent were used to give a more comprehensive chemical characterization of the collected air samples. Before field sampling, miniaturized samplers went through quality control and assurance in terms of reproducibility (RSD = 10 min), breakthrough volume (1.8 L) and storage time (up to 48 h). 128 air samples were collected under optimal sampling conditions from July to September 2019 at the SMEAR II station and Qvidja farm, Finland. 347 VOCs were identified in the air samples either on-site or in the laboratory by thermal desorption gas chromatography - mass spectrometry, and they were quantified/semiquantified using Partial Least Squares Regression models. Individual models were developed for the different coatings and packing materials using gas phase standards obtained by an automatic permeation system. Average gas phase VOC concentrations ranged from 0.1 (toluene, the SMEAR II station) to 680 ng L-1 (acetone, Qvidja farm). Average VOC concentrations in aerosols ranged from 0.1 (1,4-cyclohexadiene, the SMEAR II station) to 2287 ng L-1 (megastigma-4,6,8-triene, Qvidja farm). Clear differences in results were seen for samples collected at the SMEAR II station and Qvidja farm, between VOC compositions in gas phase and aerosols, and between the sampling site and height.
  • Lan, Hangzhen; Zhang, Wenzhong; Smått, Jan-Henrik; Koivula, Risto; Hartonen, Kari; Riekkola, Marja-Liisa (2019)
    Mesoporous silica-coated solid phase microextraction (SPME) Arrow systems were developed for capturing of low-molecular-weight aliphatic amines (LMWAAs) from complicated sample matrices. Specifically, silicas of type MCM-41, SBA-15 and KIT-6 were chosen as substrates to afford size-exclusion selectivity. They possess ordered multidimensional pore-channel structures and mesopore sizes between 3.8 and 8.2 nm. Their surface acidity was enhanced by grafting them with a layer of titanium hydrogenphosphate (-TP). This enhanced the chemical selectivity for basic LMWAAs. The siliceous coatings increased the extraction of ethylamine, diethylamine (DEA) and triethylamine (TEA) by factors of 18.6–102.5, 4.8–10.8 and 2.6–4.0, respectively, when compared to the commercial SPME Arrow with polydimethylsiloxane/divinylbenzene coating. Among them, the MCM-41 and MCM-41-TP coated SPME Arrows demonstrated exceptional selectivity towards LMWAAs that were quantified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The total peak area ratios of LMWAAs/ten competing compounds were 25.4 and 36.3, respectively. The extraction equilibrium was reached within 20–30 min. The MCM-41 and MCM-41-TP derived SPME Arrows gave very similar results (18.4 ± 2.1–376 ± 12 ng g−1 to DEA and TEA) when applied to urban mushroom samples. SPME Arrow with MCM-41 coatings followed by GC-MS was applied also to the analysis of atmospheric air and urine samples resulting in high selectivity due to the size and mesoporous structure of the functionalized silica, and its chemical interactions with the LMWAAs.
  • Muziasari, Windi Indra; Managaki, Satoshi; Pärnänen, Katariina Mariia Margareeta; Karkman, Antti; Lyra, Christina; Tamminen, Manu; Suzuki, Satoru; Virta, Marko (2014)
  • Rytkönen, Annastiina; Tiwari, Ananda; Hokajärvi, Anna Maria; Uusheimo, Sari; Vepsäläinen, Asko; Tulonen, Tiina; Pitkänen, Tarja (2021)
    For microbial source tracking (MST), the 16S ribosomal RNA genes (rDNA) of host-specific bacteria and mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) of animal species, known to cause fecal contamination of water, have been commonly used as molecular targets. However, low levels of contamination might remain undetected by using these DNA-based qPCR assays. The high copy numbers of ribosomal RNA (rRNA) could offer a solution for such applications of MST. This study compared the performance of eight MST assays: GenBac3 (general Bacteroidales), HF183 (human), BacCan (dog), Rum-2-Bac (ruminant), Pig-2-Bac (swine), Gull4 (gull), GFD, and Av4143 (birds) between rRNA-based and rDNA-based approaches. Three mtDNA-based approaches were tested: DogND5, SheepCytB, and HorseCytB. A total of 151 animal fecal samples and eight municipal sewage samples from four regions of Finland were collected for the marker evaluation. The usability of these markers was tested by using a total of 95 surface water samples with an unknown pollution load. Overall, the performance (specificity, sensitivity, and accuracy) of mtDNA-based assays was excellent (95-100%), but these markers were very seldom detected from the tested surface water samples. The rRNA template increased the sensitivity of assays in comparison to the rDNA template. All rRNA-based assays (except Av4143) had more than 80% sensitivity. In contrast, only half (HF183, Rum-2-Bac, Pig-2-Bac, and Gull4) of rDNA-based assays reached this value. For markers targeted to bird feces, the use of the rRNA-based assay increased or at least did not change the performance. Regarding specificity, all the assays had >95% specificity with a DNA template, except the BacCan assay (71%). While using the RNA template for the assays, HF183 and BacCan exhibited only a low level of specificity (54 and 55%, respectively). Further, the HF183 assay amplified from multiple non-targeted animal fecal samples with the RNA template and the marker showed cross-amplification with the DNA template as well. This study recommends using the rRNA-based approach for MST assays targeting bird fecal contamination. In the case of mammal-specific MST assays, the use of the rRNA template increases the sensitivity but may reduce the specificity and accuracy of the assay. The finding of increased sensitivity calls for a further need to develop better rRNA-based approaches to reach the required assay performance.