Browsing by Subject "WATER-QUALITY"

Sort by: Order: Results:

Now showing items 1-20 of 20
  • Laurila-Pant, Mirka; Mäntyniemi, Samu; Östman, Örjan; Olsson , Jens; Uusitalo, Laura; Lehikoinen, Annukka (2021)
    Ecological indicator approaches typically compare the prevailing state of an ecosystem component to a reference state reflecting good environmental conditions, i.e. the desirable state. However, defining the reference state is challenging due to a wide range of uncertainties related to natural variability and measurement error in data, as well as ecological understanding. This study propose a novel probabilistic approach combining historical monitoring data and ecological understanding to estimate the uncertainty associated with the boundary value of an ecological indicator between good and poor environmental states. Bayesian inference is used to estimate the epistemic uncertainty about the true state of an indicator variable during an historical reference period. This approach replaces the traditional boundary value with probability distribution, indicating the uncertainty about the boundary between environmental states providing a transparent safety margin associated with the risk of misclassification of the indicator's state. The approach is demonstrated by applying it to a time-series of an ecological status indicator, 'Abundance of coastal key fish species', included in HELCOM's Baltic Sea regional status assessment. We suggest that acknowledgement of the uncertainty behind the final classification leads to more transparent and better-informed decision-making processes.
  • Kiuru, Petri; Ojala, Anne; Mammarella, Ivan; Heiskanen, Jouni; Erkkila, Kukka-Maaria; Miettinen, Heli; Vesala, Timo; Huttula, Timo (2019)
    Freshwater lakes are important in carbon cycling, especially in the boreal zone where many lakes are supersaturated with the greenhouse gas carbon dioxide (CO2) and emit it to the atmosphere, thus ventilating carbon originally fixed by the terrestrial system. The exchange of CO2 between water and the atmosphere is commonly estimated using simple wind-based parameterizations or models of gas transfer velocity (k). More complex surface renewal models, however, have been shown to yield more correct estimates of k in comparison with direct CO2 flux measurements. We incorporated four gas exchange models with different complexity into a vertical process-based physico-biochemical lake model, MyLake C, and assessed the performance and applicability of the alternative lake model versions to simulate air-water CO2 fluxes over a small boreal lake. None of the incorporated gas exchange models significantly outperformed the other models in the simulations in comparison to the measured near-surface CO2 concentrations or respective air-water CO2 fluxes calculated directly with the gas exchange models using measurement data as input. The use of more complex gas exchange models in the simulation, on the contrary, led to difficulties in obtaining a sufficient gain of CO2 in the water column and thus resulted in lower CO2 fluxes and water column CO2 concentrations compared to the respective measurement-based values. The inclusion of sophisticated and more correct models for air-water CO2 exchange in process-based lake models is crucial in efforts to properly assess lacustrine carbon budgets through model simulations in both single lakes and on a larger scale. However, finding higher estimates for both the internal and external sources of inorganic carbon in boreal lakes is important if improved knowledge of the magnitude of CO2 evasion from lakes is included in future studies on lake carbon budgets.
  • Kaikkonen, Laura; Parviainen, Tuuli; Rahikainen, Mika; Uusitalo, Laura; Lehikoinen, Annukka (2021)
    Human activities both depend upon and have consequences on the environment. Environmental risk assessment (ERA) is a process of estimating the probability and consequences of the adverse effects of human activities and other stressors on the environment. Bayesian networks (BNs) can synthesize different types of knowledge and explicitly account for the probabilities of different scenarios, therefore offering a useful tool for ERA. Their use in formal ERA practice has not been evaluated, however, despite their increasing popularity in environmental modeling. This paper reviews the use of BNs in ERA based on peer‐reviewed publications. Following a systematic mapping protocol, we identified studies in which BNs have been used in an environmental risk context and evaluated the scope, technical aspects, and use of the models and their results. The review shows that BNs have been applied in ERA, particularly in recent years, and that there is room to develop both the model implementation and participatory modeling practices. Based on this review and the authors’ experience, we outline general guidelines and development ideas for using BNs in ERA. Integr Environ Assess Manag 2021;17:62–78. © 2020 The Authors. Integrated Environmental Assessment and Management published by Wiley Periodicals LLC on behalf of Society of Environmental Toxicology & Chemistry (SETAC)
  • Oinonen, Soile; Hyytiäinen, Kari; Ahlvik, Lassi; Laamanen, Maria; Lehtoranta, Virpi; Salojarvi, Joona; Virtanen, Jarno (2016)
    This paper puts forward a framework for probabilistic and holistic cost-effectiveness analysis to provide support in selecting the least-cost set of measures to reach a multidimensional environmental objective. Following the principles of ecosystem-based management, the framework includes a flexible methodology for deriving and populating criteria for effectiveness and costs and analyzing complex ecological-economic trade-offs under uncertainty. The framework is applied in the development of the Finnish Programme of Measures (PoM) for reaching the targets of the EU Marine Strategy Framework Directive (MSFD). The numerical results demonstrate that substantial cost savings can be realized from careful consideration of the costs and multiple effects of management measures. If adopted, the proposed PoM would yield improvements in the state of the Baltic Sea, but the overall objective of the MSFD would not be reached by the target year of 2020; for various environmental and administrative reasons, it would take longer for most measures to take full effect.
  • Allen, John A.; Setälä, Heikki; Kotze, David Johan (2020)
    Urban residents and their pets utilize urban greenspaces daily. As urban dog ownership rates increase globally, urban greenspaces are under mounting pressure even as the benefits and services they provide become more important. The urine of dogs is high in nitrogen (N) and may represent a significant portion of the annual urban N load. We examined the spatial distribution and impact of N deposition from dog urine on soils in three urban greenspace typologies in Finland: Parks, Tree Alleys, and Remnant Forests. We analyzed soil from around trees, lampposts and lawn areas near walking paths, and compared these to soils from lawn areas 8 m away from pathways. Soil nitrate, ammonium, total N concentrations, and electrical conductivity were significantly higher and soil pH significantly lower near path-side trees and poles relative to the 8 m lawn plots. Also, stable isotope analysis indicates that the primary source of path-side N are distinct from those of the 8 m lawn plots, supporting our hypothesis that dogs are a significant source of N in urban greenspaces, but that this deposition occurs in a restricted zone associated with walking paths. Additionally, we found that Remnant Forests were the least impacted of the three typologies analyzed. We recommend that landscape planners acknowledge this impact, and design parks to reduce or isolate this source of N from the wider environment.
  • Graco-Roza, Caio; Santos, Juliana B. O.; Huszar, Vera L. M.; Domingos, Patricia; Soininen, Janne; Marinho, Marcelo Manzi (2020)
    Environmental heterogeneity (EH) in space and time promotes niche-partition, which leads to high variation in biological communities, such as in algae. In streams, EH is highly related to the intensity of the water flow and may lead to community variation mainly during the low flow conditions. Despite the wide knowledge on the responses of phytoplankton communities to EH in lentic and semi-lentic systems, studies of riverine phytoplankton community variation are still scarce. Here, we first investigated the relationship between phytoplankton community variation and EH in different courses of the river and between seasons. We expected that under low or intermediate flow conditions, there is a positive correlation between community variation and EH. Alternatively, we did not expect any relationship between EH and community variation under high flow condition because stronger downstream transport would mask environmental filtering. We sampled nine sites monthly (May 2012 to April 2013) in a tropical river of Brazilian Southeast. We calculated EH from abiotic data whereas for community variation, here community distinctiveness (CD), we used Sorensen (CDSor) and Bray-Curtis (CDBray) dissimilarities. Differences in EH, CDSor and CDBray were tested at between-season and among-course levels. We found lower distinctiveness during the dry season when EH was the highest. Contrastingly, phytoplankton CD was the highest even when EH was low during the wet season. We found that this pattern raised from the increasing in individuals dispersal during the wet season, promoting mass effects. Finally, our results thus reject the first hypothesis and show a negative relationship between EH and distinctiveness. However, results support our alternative hypothesis and show that during the wet season, distinctiveness is not driven by EH. These results provide new insights into how EH drives community variation, being useful for both basic research about riverine algal communities and biomonitoring programs using phytoplankton communities as bioindicators. (C). 2019 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
  • Kiuru, Petri; Ojala, Anne; Mammarella, Ivan; Heiskanen, Jouni; Kämäräinen, Matti; Vesala, Timo; Huttula, Timo (2018)
    Climate change may have notable impacts on carbon cycling in freshwater ecosystems, especially in the boreal zone. Higher atmospheric temperature and changes in annual discharge patterns and carbon loading from the catchment affect the thermal and biogeochemical conditions in a lake. We developed an extension of a one-dimensional process-based lake model MyLake for simulating carbon dioxide (CO2 ) dynamics of a boreal lake. We calibrated the model for Lake Kuivajarvi, a small humic boreal lake, for the years 2013-2014, using the extensive data available on carbon inflow and concentrations of water column CO2 and dissolved organic carbon. The lake is a constant source of CO2 to the atmosphere in the present climate. We studied the potential effects of climate change-induced warming on lake CO2 concentration and air-water flux using downscaled air temperature data from three recent-generation global climate models with two alternative representative concentration pathway forcing scenarios. Literature estimates were used for climate change impacts on the lake inflow. The scenario simulations showed a 20-35% increase in the CO2 flux from the lake to the atmosphere in the scenario period 2070-2099 compared to the control period 1980-2009. In addition, we estimated possible implications of different changes in terrestrial inorganic and organic carbon loadings to the lake. The scenarios with plausible increases of 10% and 20% in CO2 and dissolved organic carbon loadings, respectively, produced increases of 2.1-2.5% and 2.2-2.3% in the annual CO2 flux.
  • Tammeorg, Olga; Haldna, Marina; Noges, Peeter; Appleby, Peter; Mols, Tonu; Niemisto, Juha; Tammeorg, Priit; Horppila, Jukka (2018)
    Phosphorus retention (TPacc) is one of the major water quality regulators in lakes. The current study aimed at ascertaining the specific lake characteristics regulating TPacc. Moreover, we were interested whether NAO (North Atlantic Oscillation), a proxy of climatic forcing, can explain variability in TPacc, additionally to that ascribed to lake characteristics. Sediment cores were obtained from 21 Finnish lakes, subject to radiometric dating and measurements of TP concentrations. Principal components (PCs) were generated using lake characteristics that are usually included into the modelling of TPacc (e.g. lake area, lake depth, catchment area, P inflow) but also the parameters that the classical models usually missed (e.g. anoxic factor). We used significant principal components (PCs), specific combinations of lake characteristics and monthly NAO values as predictors of TPacc. Lake characteristics explained the bulk of TPacc variability. The most influential factors (positive drivers) behind TPacc included PC1 (representing mainly deep lakes), PC2 (small lakes with high levels of anoxia and water column stability), PC3 (productive lakes with large catchment area and short water residence time), PC4 (lakes with high water column stability, low anoxic factor and relatively high sediment focusing) and PC5 (lakes with high levels of P inflow, anoxia and long water residence time). Additionally, we found a potential negative effect of NAO in October on the annual TPacc. This NAO was significantly positively related to temperatures in surface and near-bottom water layer (also their difference) in autumn, suggesting the possible implications for the internal P dynamics. Increased mineralization of organic matter is the most likely explanation for the reduced TPacc associated with NAO-driven water temperature increase. The analysis presented here contributes to the knowledge of the factors controlling P retention. Moreover, this spatially and temporally comprehensive sediment data can potentially be a valuable source for modelling climate change implications.
  • Bartosova, Alena; Capell, René; Olesen, Jørgen E.; Jabloun, Mohamed; Refsgaard, Jens Christian; Donnelly, Chantal; Hyytiäinen, Kari; Pihlainen, Sampo; Zandersen, Marianne; Arheimer, Berit (2019)
    The Baltic Sea is suffering from eutrophication caused by nutrient discharges from land to sea, and these loads might change in a changing climate. We show that the impact from climate change by mid-century is probably less than the direct impact of changing socioeconomic factors such as land use, agricultural practices, atmospheric deposition, and wastewater emissions. We compare results from dynamic modelling of nutrient loads to the Baltic Sea under projections of climate change and scenarios for shared socioeconomic pathways. Average nutrient loads are projected to increase by 8% and 14% for nitrogen and phosphorus, respectively, in response to climate change scenarios. In contrast, changes in the socioeconomic drivers can lead to a decrease of 13% and 6% or an increase of 11% and 9% in nitrogen and phosphorus loads, respectively, depending on the pathway. This indicates that policy decisions still play a major role in climate adaptation and in managing eutrophication in the Baltic Sea region.
  • Popin, Rafael Vicentini; Delbaje, Endrews; de Abreu, Vinicius Augusto Carvalho; Rigonato, Janaina; Dorr, Felipe Augusto; Pinto, Ernani; Sivonen, Kaarina; Fiore, Marli Fatima (2020)
    The bloom-forming cyanobacterium Nodularia spumigena CENA596 encodes the biosynthetic gene clusters (BGCs) of the known natural products nodularins, spumigins, anabaenopeptins/namalides, aeruginosins, mycosporin-like amino acids, and scytonemin, along with the terpenoid geosmin. Targeted metabolomics confirmed the production of these metabolic compounds, except for the alkaloid scytonemin. Genome mining of N. spumigena CENA596 and its three closely related Nodularia strains-two planktonic strains from the Baltic Sea and one benthic strain from Japanese marine sediment-revealed that the number of BGCs in planktonic strains was higher than in benthic one. Geosmin-a volatile compound with unpleasant taste and odor-was unique to the Brazilian strain CENA596. Automatic annotation of the genomes using subsystems technology revealed a related number of coding sequences and functional roles. Orthologs from the Nodularia genomes are involved in the primary and secondary metabolisms. Phylogenomic analysis of N. spumigena CENA596 based on 120 conserved protein sequences positioned this strain close to the Baltic Nodularia. Phylogeny of the 16S rRNA genes separated the Brazilian CENA596 strain from those of the Baltic Sea, despite their high sequence identities (99% identity, 100% coverage). The comparative analysis among planktic Nodularia strains showed that their genomes were considerably similar despite their geographically distant origin.
  • Tammeorg, Olga; Nürnberg, Gertrud; Niemistö, Juha; Haldna, Marina; Horppila, Jukka (2020)
    Shallow lake sediments may be anoxic despite overlying aerated water. In the current study, we aimed to ascertain the contribution of shallow areas to internal phosphorus (P) loading due to sediment anoxia in stratifying lakes. Moreover, we analyzed relationships of the key water quality variables with internal P loading due to sediment anoxia originating solely from stratifying areas (IPobs) and that accounting also for the shallow areas (IPpred) for a set of Finnish lakes, including intentionally aerated and non-aerated lakes. Finally, using a broader set of lakes worldwide, we established a specific combination of lake characteristics that predict sediment P release due to sediment anoxia and linked it to the practices of aeration. Our results showed that shallow lake areas (a difference between IPpred and IPobs) contributed about half of the total P flux due to sediment anoxia. While all of the studied water quality variables related significantly to IPpred, only the concentration of total phosphorus (TP) in the near-bottom water layer related significantly to IPobs. This indicates the key importance of P release of shallow areas for water quality. The concentrations of TP in the surface water layer and chlorophyll a were significantly dependent on IPpred irrespectively of the treatment (aerated lakes or not). P supply from shallow areas may affect aeration effectiveness in stratifying lakes. IPpred was found to be dependent on the specific combination of lake characteristics (including mean and maximum depth, lake and catchment area, external P loading) PC3, driven mainly by external P loading. Hence, external load reduction should be considered as the first priority in lake water quality management. By linking the dependence of IPpred on PC3 to aeration practices, we determined the conditions that promise increased effectiveness of aeration treatments.
  • Karcher, Denis B.; Roth, Florian; Carvalho, Susana; El-Khaled, Yusuf C.; Tilstra, Arjen; Kürten, Benjamin; Struck, Ulrich; Jones, Burton H.; Wild, Christian (2020)
    While various sources increasingly release nutrients to the Red Sea, knowledge about their effects on benthic coral reef communities is scarce. Here, we provide the first comparative assessment of the response of all major benthic groups (hard and soft corals, turf algae and reef sands-together accounting for 80% of the benthic reef community) to in-situ eutrophication in a central Red Sea coral reef. For 8 weeks, dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN) concentrations were experimentally increased 3-fold above environmental background concentrations around natural benthic reef communities using a slow release fertilizer with 15% total nitrogen (N) content. We investigated which major functional groups took up the available N, and how this changed organic carbon (C-org) and N contents using elemental and stable isotope measurements. Findings revealed that hard corals (in their tissue), soft corals and turf algae incorporated fertilizer N as indicated by significant increases in delta N-15 by 8%, 27% and 28%, respectively. Among the investigated groups, C-org content significantly increased in sediments (+24%) and in turf algae (+33%). Altogether, this suggests that among the benthic organisms only turf algae were limited by N availability and thus benefited most from N addition. Thereby, based on higher C-org content, turf algae potentially gained competitive advantage over, for example, hard corals. Local management should, thus, particularly address DIN eutrophication by coastal development and consider the role of turf algae as potential bioindicator for eutrophication.
  • GBD 2017 Diarrhoeal Dis; Troeger, Christopher E.; Khalil, Ibrahim A.; Meretoja, Tuomo J. (2020)
    Background Many countries have shown marked declines in diarrhoea! disease mortality among children younger than 5 years. With this analysis, we provide updated results on diarrhoeal disease mortality among children younger than 5 years from the Global Burden of Diseases, Injuries, and Risk Factors Study 2017 (GBD 2017) and use the study's comparative risk assessment to quantify trends and effects of risk factors, interventions, and broader sociodemographic development on mortality changes in 195 countries and territories from 1990 to 2017. Methods This analysis for GBD 2017 had three main components. Diarrhoea mortality was modelled using vital registration data, demographic surveillance data, and verbal autopsy data in a predictive, Bayesian, ensemble modelling tool; and the attribution of risk factors and interventions for diarrhoea were modelled in a counterfactual framework that combines modelled population-level prevalence of the exposure to each risk or intervention with the relative risk of diarrhoea given exposure to that factor. We assessed the relative and absolute change in diarrhoea mortality rate between 1990 and 2017, and used the change in risk factor exposure and sociodemographic status to explain differences in the trends of diarrhoea mortality among children younger than 5 years. Findings Diarrhoea was responsible for an estimated 533 768 deaths (95% uncertainty interval 477 162-593 145) among children younger than 5 years globally in 2017, a rate of 78.4 deaths (70.1-87.1) per 100 000 children. The diarrhoea mortality rate ranged between countries by over 685 deaths per 100 000 children. Diarrhoea mortality per 100 000 globally decreased by 69.6% (63.1-74.6) between 1990 and 2017. Among the risk factors considered in this study, those responsible for the largest declines in the diarrhoea mortality rate were reduction in exposure to unsafe sanitation (13.3% decrease, 11.2-15.5), childhood wasting (9.9% decrease, 9.6-10.2), and low use of oral rehydration solution (6.9% decrease, 4-8-8-4). Interpretation Diarrhoea mortality has declined substantially since 1990, although there are variations by country. Improvements in sociodemographic indicators might explain some of these trends, but changes in exposure to risk factors-particularly unsafe sanitation, childhood growth failure, and low use of oral rehydration solution-appear to be related to the relative and absolute rates of decline in diarrhoea mortality. Although the most effective interventions might vary by country or region, identifying and scaling up the interventions aimed at preventing and protecting against diarrhoea that have already reduced diarrhoea mortality could further avert many thousands of deaths due to this illness. Copyright (C) 2019 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd.
  • Lisboa, Filipe; Brotas, Vanda; Santos, Filipe; Kuikka, Sakari; Kaikkonen, Laura; Maeda, Eduardo (2020)
    Monitoring lakes in high-latitude areas can provide a better understanding of freshwater systems sensitivity and accrete knowledge on climate change impacts. Phytoplankton are sensitive to various conditions: warmer temperatures, earlier ice-melt and changing nutrient sources. While satellite imagery can monitor phytoplankton biomass using chlorophyll a (Chl) as a proxy over large areas, detection of Chl in small lakes is hindered by the low spatial resolution of conventional ocean color satellites. The short time-series of the newest generation of space-borne sensors (e.g., Sentinel-2) is a bottleneck for assessing long-term trends. Although previous studies have evaluated the use of high-resolution sensors for assessing lakes' Chl, it is still unclear how the spatial and temporal variability of Chl concentration affect the performance of satellite estimates. We discuss the suitability of Landsat (LT) 30 m resolution imagery to assess lakes' Chl concentrations under varying trophic conditions, across extensive high-latitude areas in Finland. We use in situ data obtained from field campaigns in 19 lakes and generate remote sensing estimates of Chl, taking advantage of the long-time span of the LT-5 and LT-7 archives, from 1984 to 2017. Our results show that linear models based on LT data can explain approximately 50% of the Chl interannual variability. However, we demonstrate that the accuracy of the estimates is dependent on the lake's trophic state, with models performing in average twice as better in lakes with higher Chl concentration (>20 mu g/L) in comparison with less eutrophic lakes. Finally, we demonstrate that linear models based on LT data can achieve high accuracy (R-2= 0.9;p-value <0.05) in determining lakes' mean Chl concentration, allowing the mapping of the trophic state of lakes across large regions. Given the long time-series and high spatial resolution, LT-based estimates of Chl provide a tool for assessing the impacts of environmental change.
  • Stockwell, Jason D.; Doubek, Jonathan P.; Adrian, Rita; Anneville, Orlane; Carey, Cayelan C.; Carvalho, Laurence; Domis, Lisette de Senerpont; Dur, Gaël; Frassl, Marieke A.; Grossart, Hans-Peter; Ibelings, Bas W.; Lajeunesse, Marc J.; Lewandowska, Aleksandra; Llames, María E.; Matsuzaki, Shin-Ichiro S.; Nodine, Emily R.; Noges, Peeter; Patil, Vijay P.; Pomati, Francesco; Rinke, Karsten; Rudstam, Lars G.; Rusak, James A.; Salmaso, Nico; Seltmann, Christian T.; Straile, Dietmar; Thackeray, Stephen J.; Thiery, Wim; Urrutia-Cordero, Pablo; Venail, Patrick; Verburg, Piet; Woolway, R. Iestyn; Zohary, Tamar; Andersen, Mikkel R.; Bhattacharya, Ruchi; Hejzlar, Josef; Janatian, Nasime; Kpodonu, Alfred T. N. K.; Williamson, Tanner J.; Wilson, Harriet L. (2020)
    In many regions across the globe, extreme weather events such as storms have increased in frequency, intensity, and duration due to climate change. Ecological theory predicts that such extreme events should have large impacts on ecosystem structure and function. High winds and precipitation associated with storms can affect lakes via short-term runoff events from watersheds and physical mixing of the water column. In addition, lakes connected to rivers and streams will also experience flushing due to high flow rates. Although we have a well-developed understanding of how wind and precipitation events can alter lake physical processes and some aspects of biogeochemical cycling, our mechanistic understanding of the emergent responses of phytoplankton communities is poor. Here we provide a comprehensive synthesis that identifies how storms interact with lake and watershed attributes and their antecedent conditions to generate changes in lake physical and chemical environments. Such changes can restructure phytoplankton communities and their dynamics, as well as result in altered ecological function (e.g., carbon, nutrient and energy cycling) in the short- and long-term. We summarize the current understanding of storm-induced phytoplankton dynamics, identify knowledge gaps with a systematic review of the literature, and suggest future research directions across a gradient of lake types and environmental conditions.
  • Reusch, Thorsten B. H.; Dierking, Jan; Andersson, Helen C.; Bonsdorff, Erik; Carstensen, Jacob; Casini, Michele; Czajkowski, Mikolaj; Hasler, Berit; Hinsby, Klaus; Hyytiainen, Kari; Johannesson, Kerstin; Jomaa, Seifeddine; Jormalainen, Veijo; Kuosa, Harri; Kurland, Sara; Laikre, Linda; MacKenzie, Brian R.; Margonski, Piotr; Melzner, Frank; Oesterwind, Daniel; Ojaveer, Henn; Refsgaard, Jens Christian; Sandstrom, Annica; Schwarz, Gerald; Tonderski, Karin; Winder, Monika; Zandersen, Marianne (2018)
    Coastal global oceans are expected to undergo drastic changes driven by climate change and increasing anthropogenic pressures in coming decades. Predicting specific future conditions and assessing the best management strategies to maintain ecosystem integrity and sustainable resource use are difficult, because of multiple interacting pressures, uncertain projections, and a lack of test cases for management. We argue that the Baltic Sea can serve as a time machine to study consequences and mitigation of future coastal perturbations, due to its unique combination of an early history of multistressor disturbance and ecosystem deterioration and early implementation of cross-border environmental management to address these problems. The Baltic Sea also stands out in providing a strong scientific foundation and accessibility to long-term data series that provide a unique opportunity to assess the efficacy of management actions to address the breakdown of ecosystem functions. Trend reversals such as the return of top predators, recovering fish stocks, and reduced input of nutrient and harmful substances could be achieved only by implementing an international, cooperative governance structure transcending its complex multistate policy setting, with integrated management of watershed and sea. The Baltic Sea also demonstrates how rapidly progressing global pressures, particularly warming of Baltic waters and the surrounding catchment area, can offset the efficacy of current management approaches. This situation calls for management that is (i) conservative to provide a buffer against regionally unmanageable global perturbations, (ii) adaptive to react to new management challenges, and, ultimately, (iii) multisectorial and integrative to address conflicts associated with economic trade-offs.
  • Hernández-Ramos, José; Pernaa, Johannes; Cáceres-Jensen, Lizethly; Rodríguez-Becerra, Jorge (2021)
    Currently, a growing number of learning institutions at all educational levels are including problem-based learning (PBL) in their curricula. PBL scenarios often utilise technology and socio-scientific Issues (SSI), which enables the simultaneous learning of content and creative thinking and working skills needed in generating new knowledge for the future. In this sense, using SSI and technological tools in PBL learning environments can be viewed as a starting point for acquiring and integrating new knowledge. However, there is no comprehensive knowledge regarding the possibilities of this approach. The objective of this systematic review is to produce this knowledge via the PRISMA method. The strategy is used to explore the effects of the described approach through implementations conducted at secondary and undergraduate levels. The data consisted of 33 research articles that were categorised via qualitative content analysis. According to the results, PBL scenarios exploit mainly local SSIs that link scientific knowledge with a meaningful context for students. Technology is principally used in offering technical support for teaching tasks. Lastly, these results are discussed from the technological pedagogical science knowledge (TPASK) framework perspective, which proposes guidelines for achieving the Sustainable Development Goals (SDG).
  • Juutinen, Artti; Saarimaa, Miia; Ojanen, Paavo; Sarkkola, Sakari; Haara, Arto; Karhu, Jouni; Nieminen, Mika; Minkkinen, Kari; Penttila, Timo; Laatikainen, Matti; Tolvanen, Anne (2019)
    Economic development creates challenges for land-use planners in balancing between increasing the use of natural resources and safeguarding biodiversity and ecosystem services. We developed and utilized multi-objective numeric optimization models to analyze the trade-offs between biodiversity and ecosystem services (BES). The approach was used in the land-use planning process in northern Finland when selecting potential peat production sites as a part of the development of the regional master plan. We first quantified Net Present Value (NPV) of peat production, biodiversity, greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, and water emissions of peatlands. Then we applied multi-objective optimization to examine the trade-offs between the variables as well as to determine a cost-efficient selection of potential peat production sites, that is, a selection which would simultaneously generate the greatest possible economic returns and environmental benefits. Our results showed that with a relatively small decrease in NPV, a substantial decrease in biodiversity loss and a reduction in water emissions compared to the benchmark level could be attained. However, a significant decrease in GHG emissions resulted in a substantial decrease in NPV. We conclude that it is possible to significantly improve land-use management by applying multi-objective optimization in land-use planning.
  • Panksep, Kristel; Tamm, Marju; Mantzouki, Evanthia; Rantala-Ylinen, Anne; Laugaste, Reet; Sivonen, Kaarina; Tammeorg, Olga; Kisand, Veljo (2020)
    Global warming, paired with eutrophication processes, is shifting phytoplankton communities towards the dominance of bloom-forming and potentially toxic cyanobacteria. The ecosystems of shallow lakes are especially vulnerable to these changes. Traditional monitoring via microscopy is not able to quantify the dynamics of toxin-producing cyanobacteria on a proper spatio-temporal scale. Molecular tools are highly sensitive and can be useful as an early warning tool for lake managers. We quantified the potential microcystin (MC) producers in Lake Peipsi using microscopy and quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) and analysed the relationship between the abundance of the mcyE genes, MC concentration, MC variants and toxin quota per mcyE gene. We also linked environmental factors to the cyanobacteria community composition. In Lake Peipsi, we found rather moderate MC concentrations, but microcystins and microcystin-producing cyanobacteria were widespread across the lake. Nitrate (NO3-) was a main driver behind the cyanobacterial community at the beginning of the growing season, while in late summer it was primarily associated with the soluble reactive phosphorus (SRP) concentration. A positive relationship was found between the MC quota per mcyE gene and water temperature. The most abundant variant-MC-RR-was associated with MC quota per mcyE gene, while other MC variants did not show any significant impact.
  • Järvi, L.; Grimmond, C. S. B.; McFadden, J. P.; Christen, A.; Strachan, I. B.; Taka, M.; Warsta, L.; Heimann, M. (2017)
    While approximately 338 million people in the Northern hemisphere live in regions that are regularly snow covered in winter, there is little hydro-climatologic knowledge in the cities impacted by snow. Using observations and modelling we have evaluated the energy and water exchanges of four cities that are exposed to wintertime snow. We show that the presence of snow critically changes the impact that city design has on the local-scale hydrology and climate. After snow melt, the cities return to being strongly controlled by the proportion of built and vegetated surfaces. However in winter, the presence of snow masks the influence of the built and vegetated fractions. We show how inter-year variability of wintertime temperature can modify this effect of snow. With increasing temperatures, these cities could be pushed towards very different partitioning between runoff and evapotranspiration. We derive the dependency of wintertime runoff on this warming effect in combination with the effect of urban densification.