Browsing by Subject "WATER-USE"

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  • Riikonen, Anu; Järvi, Leena; Nikinmaa, Eero (2016)
    We investigated the drivers of street tree transpiration in boreal conditions, in order to better understand tree water use in the context of urban tree planning and stormwater management. Two streets built in Helsinki in 2002, hemiboreal zone that had been planted either with Tilia x vulgaris or Alnus glutinosa f. pyramidalis were used as the study sites. Tree water use was measured from sap flow over the 2008-2011 period by the heat dissipation method. Penman-Monteith based evapotranspiration models of increasing complexity were tested against the tree water use measurements to assess the role of environmental and tree related factors in tree transpiration. Alnus and Tilia respectively used 1.1 and 0.8 l of water per m(2) of leaf area per day under ample water conditions, but the annual variation was high. The Penman-Monteith evapotranspiration estimate and soil water status changes explained over 80 % of the variation in tree transpiration when the model was parameterized annually. The addition of tree crown surface area in the model improved its accuracy and diminished variation between years and sites. Using single parameterization over all four years instead of annually varying one did not produce reliable estimates of tree transpiration. Tree transpiration, scaled to different canopy cover percentages, implied that the columnar Alnus trees could transpire as much as all annual rainfall at or less than 50 % canopy cover.
  • Foken, Thomas; Babel, Wolfgang; Munger, J. William; Gronholm, Tiia; Vesala, Timo; Knohl, Alexander (2021)
    Extensive studies are available that analyse time series of carbon dioxide and water flux measurements of FLUXNET sites over many years and link these results to climate change such as changes in atmospheric carbon dioxide concentration, air temperature and growing season length and other factors. Many of the sites show trends to a larger carbon uptake. Here we analyse time series of net ecosystem exchange, gross primary production, respiration, and evapotranspiration of four forest sites with particularly long measurement periods of about 20 years. The regular trends shown are interrupted by periods with higher or lower increases of carbon uptake. These breakpoints can be of very different origin and include forest decline, increased vegetation period, drought effects, heat waves, and changes in site heterogeneity. The influence of such breakpoints should be included in long-term studies of land-atmosphere exchange processes.
  • Burgess, Alexandra J.; Durand, Maxime; Gibbs, Jonathon A.; Retkute, Renata; Robson, T. Matthew; Murchie, Erik H. (2021)
    Under field conditions, plants are subject to wind-induced movement which creates fluctuations of light intensity and spectral quality reaching the leaves, defined here as windflecks. Within this study, irradiance within two contrasting wheat (Triticum aestivum) canopies during full sun conditions was measured using a spectroradiometer to determine the frequency, duration and magnitude of low- to high-light events plus the spectral composition during wind-induced movement. Similarly, a static canopy was modelled using three-dimensional reconstruction and ray tracing to determine fleck characteristics without the presence of wind. Corresponding architectural traits were measured manually and in silico including plant height, leaf area and angle plus biomechanical properties. Light intensity can differ up to 40% during a windfleck, with changes occurring on a sub-second scale compared to similar to 5 min in canopies not subject to wind. Features such as a shorter height, more erect leaf stature and having an open structure led to an increased frequency and reduced time interval of light flecks in the CMH79A canopy compared to Paragon. This finding illustrates the potential for architectural traits to be selected to improve the canopy light environment and provides the foundation to further explore the links between plant form and function in crop canopies.