Browsing by Subject "WAVES"

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  • Andreeova, K.; Juusola, L.; Kilpua, E. K. J.; Koskinen, H. E. J. (2014)
  • Polonen, R. P.; Penttinen, K.; Swan, H.; Aalto-Setälä, K. (2018)
    Mutations in the cardiac ryanodine receptor (RYR2) are the leading cause for catecholaminergic polymorphic ventricular tachycardia (CPVT). In this study, we evaluated antiarrhythmic efficacy of carvedilol and flecainide in CPVT patient-specific induced pluripotent stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes (iPSC-CMs) carrying different mutations in RYR2. iPSC-CMs were generated from skin biopsies of CPVT patients carrying exon 3 deletion and IA115 or V4653F mutation in RYR2 and of a healthy individual. Ca2+ kinetics and drug effects were studied with Fluo-4 AM indicator. Carvedilol abolished Ca2+ abnormalities in 31% of L4115F, 36% of V4653F, and 46% of exon 3 deletion carrying CPVT cardiomyocytes and flecainide 33%, 30%, and 52%, respectively. Both drugs lowered the intracellular Ca2+ level and beating rate of the cardiomyocytes significantly. Moreover, flecainide caused abnormal Ca2+ transients in 61% of controls compared to 26% of those with carvedilol. Carvedilol and flecainide were equally effective in CPVT iPSC-CMs. However, flecainide induced arrhythmias in 61% of control cells. CPVT cardiomyocytes carrying the exon 3 deletion had the most severe Ca2+ abnormalities, but they had the best response to drug therapies. According to this study, the arrhythmia-abolishing effect of neither of the drugs is optimal. iPSC-CMs provide a unique platform for testing drugs for CPVT.
  • Blanco-Cano, Xochitl; Battarbee, Markus; Turc, Lucile; Dimmock, Andrew P.; Kilpua, Emilia K. J.; Hoilijoki, Sanni; Ganse, Urs; Sibeck, David G.; Cassak, Paul A.; Fear, Robert C.; Järvinen, Riku; Juusola, Liisa; Pfau-Kempf, Yann; Vainio, Rami; Palmroth, Minna (2018)
    In this paper we present the first identification of foreshock cavitons and the formation of spontaneous hot flow anomalies (SHFAs) with the Vlasiator global magnetospheric hybrid-Vlasov simulation code. In agreement with previous studies we show that cavitons evolve into SHFAs. In the presented run, this occurs very near the bow shock. We report on SHFAs surviving the shock crossing into the down-stream region and show that the interaction of SHFAs with the bow shock can lead to the formation of a magnetosheath cavity, previously identified in observations and simulations. We report on the first identification of long-term local weakening and erosion of the bow shock, associated with a region of increased foreshock SHFA and caviton formation, and repeated shock crossings by them. We show that SHFAs are linked to an increase in suprathermal particle pitch-angle spreads. The realistic length scales in our simulation allow us to present a statistical study of global caviton and SHFA size distributions, and their comparable size distributions support the theory that SHFAs are formed from cavitons. Virtual spacecraft observations are shown to be in good agreement with observational studies.
  • Caro, Pedro; Helin, Tapio; Kujanpää, Antti; Lassas, Matti (2019)
    Scattering from a non-smooth random field on the time domain is studied for plane waves that propagate simultaneously through the potential in variable angles. We first derive sufficient conditions for stochastic moments of the field to be recovered from empirical correlations between amplitude measurements of the leading singularities, detected in the exterior of a region where the potential is almost surely supported. The result is then applied to show that if two sufficiently regular random fields yield the same correlations, they have identical laws as function-valued random variables.
  • Myllys, M.; Henri, P.; Vallieres, X.; Gilet, N.; Nilsson, H.; Palmerio, E.; Turc, L.; Wellbrock, A.; Goldstein, R.; Witasse, O. (2021)
    Context. The Mutual Impedance Probe (RPC-MIP) carried by the Rosetta spacecraft monitored both the plasma density and the electric field in the close environment of comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko (67P), as the instrument was operating alternatively in two main modes: active and passive. The active mode is used primarily to perform plasma density measurements, while the passive mode enables the instrument to work as a wave analyzer. Aims. We are reporting electric field emissions at the plasma frequency near comet 67P observed by RPC-MIP passive mode. The electric field emissions are related to Langmuir waves within the cometary ionized environment. In addition, this study gives feedback on the density measurement capability of RPC-MIP in the presence of cold electrons. Methods. We studied the occurrence rate of the electric field emissions as well as their dependence on solar wind structures like stream interaction regions (SIRs) and coronal mass ejections (CMEs). Results. We are showing that strong electric field emissions at the plasma frequency near 67P were present sporadically throughout the period when Rosetta was escorting the comet, without being continuous, as the occurrence rate is reported to be of about 1% of all the measured RPC-MIP passive spectra showing strong electric field emissions. The Langmuir wave activity monitored by RPC-MIP showed measurable enhancements during SIR or CME interactions and near perihelion. Conclusions. According to our results, Langmuir waves are a common feature at 67P during the passage of SIRs. Comparing the plasma frequency given by the RPC-MIP passive mode during Langmuir wave periods with the RPC-MIP active mode observations, we conclude that the measurement accuracy of RPC-MIP depends on the operational submode when the cold electron component dominates the electron density.
  • Khotyaintsev, Yu; Graham, D. B.; Steinvall, K.; Alm, L.; Vaivads, A.; Johlander, A.; Norgren, C.; Li, W.; Divin, A.; Fu, H. S.; Hwang, K-J; Burch, J. L.; Ahmadi, N.; Le Contel, O.; Gershman, D. J.; Russell, C. T.; Torbert, R. B. (2020)
    We report electrostatic Debye-scale turbulence developing within the diffusion region of asymmetric magnetopause reconnection with amoderate guide field using observations by the Magnetospheric Multiscale mission. We show that Buneman waves and beam modes cause efficient and fast thermalization of the reconnection electron jet by irreversible phase mixing, during which the jet kinetic energy is transferred into thermal energy. Our results show that the reconnection diffusion region in the presence of a moderate guide field is highly turbulent, and that electrostatic turbulence plays an important role in electron heating.
  • Tarvus, Vertti; Turc, Lucile; Battarbee, Markus; Suni, Jonas; Blanco-Cano, Xochitl; Ganse, Urs; Pfau-Kempf, Yann; Alho, Markku; Dubart, Maxime; Grandin, Maxime; Johlander, Andreas; Papadakis, Konstantinos; Palmroth, Minna (2021)
    The foreshock located upstream of Earth's bow shock hosts a wide variety of phenomena related to the reflection of solar wind particles from the bow shock and the subsequent formation of ultra-low-frequency (ULF) waves. In this work, we investigate foreshock cavitons, which are transient structures resulting from the non-linear evolution of ULF waves, and spontaneous hot flow anomalies (SHFAs), which are thought to evolve from cavitons as they accumulate suprathermal ions while being carried to the bow shock by the solar wind. Using the global hybrid-Vlasov simulation model Vlasiator, we have conducted a statistical study in which we track the motion of individual cavitons and SHFAs in order to examine their properties and evolution. In our simulation run where the interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) is directed at a sunward-southward angle of 45 degrees, continuous formation of cavitons is found up to similar to 11 Earth radii (R-E) from the bow shock (along the IMF direction), and caviton-to-SHFA evolution takes place within similar to 2 R-E from the shock. A third of the cavitons in our run evolve into SHFAs, and we find a comparable amount of SHFAs forming independently near the bow shock. We compare the properties of cavitons and SHFAs to prior spacecraft observations and simulations, finding good agreement. We also investigate the variation of the properties as a function of position in the foreshock, showing that transients close to the bow shock are associated with larger depletions in the plasma density and magnetic field magnitude, along with larger increases in the plasma temperature and the level of bulk flow deflection. Our measurements of the propagation velocities of cavitons and SHFAs agree with earlier studies, showing that the transients propagate sunward in the solar wind rest frame. We show that SHFAs have a greater solar wind rest frame propagation speed than cavitons, which is related to an increase in the magnetosonic speed near the bow shock.
  • Yuryev, Mikhail; Andriichuk, Liliia; Leiwe, Marcus; Jokinen, Ville; Carabalona, Aurelie; Rivera, Claudio (2018)
    Prior to sensory experience spontaneous activity appears to play a fundamental role in the correct formation of prominent functional features of different cortical regions. The use of anaesthesia during pregnancy such as ketamine is largely considered to negatively affect neuronal development by interfering with synaptic transmission. Interestingly, the characteristics of spontaneous activity as well as the acute functional effects of maternal anaesthesia remain largely untested in the embryonic cortex in vivo. In the present work, we performed in vivo imaging of spontaneous calcium activity and cell motility in the marginal zone of the cortex of E14-15 embryos connected to the mother. We made use of a preparation where the blood circulation from the mother through the umbilical cord is preserved and fluctuations in intracellular calcium in the embryonic frontal cortex are acquired using two-photon imaging. We found that spontaneous transients were either sporadic or correlated in clusters of neuronal ensembles at this age. These events were not sensitive to maternal isoflurane anaesthesia but were strongly inhibited by acute in situ or maternal application of low concentration of the anaesthetic ketamine (a non-competitive antagonist of NMDA receptors). Moreover, simultaneous imaging of cell motility revealed a correlated strong sensitivity to ketamine. These results show that anaesthetic compounds can differ significantly in their impact on spontaneous early cortical activity as well as motility of cells in the marginal zone. The effects found in this study may be relevant in the etiology of heightened vulnerability to cerebral dysfunction associated with the use of ketamine during pregnancy.
  • Pokhotelov, D.; von Alfthan, S.; Kempf, Y.; Vainio, R.; Koskinen, H. E. J.; Palmroth, M. (2013)
  • Palmroth, Minna; Hietala, Heli; Plaschke, Ferdinand; Archer, Martin; Karlsson, Tomas; Blanco-Cano, Xochitl; Sibeck, David; Kajdic, Primoz; Ganse, Urs; Pfau-Kempf, Yann; Battarbee, Markus; Turc, Lucile (2018)
    We use a global hybrid-Vlasov simulation for the magnetosphere, Vlasiator, to investigate magnetosheath high-speed jets. Unlike many other hybrid-kinetic simulations, Vlasiator includes an unscaled geomagnetic dipole, indicating that the simulation spatial and temporal dimensions can be given in SI units without scaling. Thus, for the first time, this allows investigating the magnetosheath jet properties and comparing them directly with the observed jets within the Earth's magnetosheath. In the run shown in this paper, the interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) cone angle is 30 degrees, and a foreshock develops upstream of the quasi-parallel magnetosheath. We visually detect a structure with high dynamic pressure propagating from the bow shock through the magnetosheath. The structure is confirmed as a jet using three different criteria, which have been adopted in previous observational studies. We compare these criteria against the simulation results. We find that the magnetosheath jet is an elongated structure extending earthward from the bow shock by similar to 2.6 R-E, while its size perpendicular to the direction of propagation is similar to 0.5 R-E. We also investigate the jet evolution and find that the jet originates due to the interaction of the bow shock with a high-dynamic-pressure structure that reproduces observational features associated with a short, large-amplitude magnetic structure (SLAMS). The simulation shows that magnetosheath jets can develop also under steady IMF, as inferred by observational studies. To our knowledge, this paper therefore shows the first global kinetic simulation of a magnetosheath jet, which is in accordance with three observational jet criteria and is caused by a SLAMS advecting towards the bow shock.
  • Pölönen, R. P.; Swan, H.; Aalto-Setälä, K. (2020)
    Catecholaminergic polymorphic ventricular tachycardia (CPVT) is an inherited cardiac disease characterized by arrhythmias under adrenergic stress. Mutations in the cardiac ryanodine receptor (RYR2) are the leading cause for CPVT. We characterized electrophysiological properties of CPVT patient-specific induced pluripotent stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes (hiPSC-CMs) carrying different mutations in RYR2 and evaluated effects of carvedilol and flecainide on action potential (AP) and contractile properties of hiPSC-CMs. iPSC-CMs were generated from skin biopsies of CPVT patients carrying exon 3 deletion (E3D) and L4115F mutation in RYR2. APs and contractile movement were recorded simultaneously from the same hiPSC-CMs. Differences in AP properties of ventricular like CMs were seen in CPVT and control CMs: APD90 of both E3D (n = 20) and L4115F (n = 25) CPVT CMs was shorter than in control CMs (n = 15). E3D-CPVT CMs had shortest AP duration, lowest AP amplitude, upstroke velocity and more depolarized diastolic potential than controls. Adrenaline had positive and carvedilol and flecainide negative chronotropic effect in all hiPSC CMs. CPVT CMs had increased amount of delayed after depolarizations (DADs) and early after depolarizations (EADs) after adrenaline exposure. E3D CPVT CMs had the most DADs, EADs, and tachyarrhythmia. Discordant negatively coupled alternans was seen in L4115F CPVT CMs. Carvedilol cured almost all arrhythmias in L4115F CPVT CMs. Both drugs decreased contraction amplitude in all hiPSC CMs. E3D CPVT CMs have electrophysiological properties, which render them more prone to arrhythmias. iPSC-CMs provide a unique platform for disease modeling and drug screening for CPVT. Combining electrophysiological measurements, we can gain deeper insight into mechanisms of arrhythmias.
  • Battarbee, Markus; Ganse, Urs; Pfau-Kempf, Yann; Turc, Lucile; Brito, Thiago; Grandin, Maxime; Koskela, Tuomas; Palmroth, Minna (2020)
    We study the interaction of solar wind protons with Earth's quasi-parallel bow shock using a hybrid-Vlasov simulation. We employ the global hybrid model Vlasiator to include effects due to bow shock curvature, tenuous upstream populations, and foreshock waves. We investigate the uncertainty of the position of the quasi-parallel bow shock as a function of several plasma properties and find that regions of non-locality or uncertainty of the shock position form and propagate away from the shock nose. Our results support the notion of upstream structures causing the patchwork reconstruction of the quasi-parallel shock front in a non-uniform manner. We propose a novel method for spacecraft data to be used to analyse this quasi-parallel reformation. We combine our hybrid-Vlasov results with test-particle studies and show that proton energization, which is required for injection, takes place throughout a larger shock transition zone. The energization of particles is found regardless of the instantaneous non-locality of the shock front, in agreement with it taking place over a larger region. Distortion of magnetic fields in front of and at the shock is shown to have a significant effect on proton injection. We additionally show that the density of suprathermal reflected particles upstream of the shock may not be a useful metric for the probability of injection at the shock, as foreshock dynamics and particle trapping appear to have a significant effect on energetic-particle accumulation at a given position in space. Our results have implications for statistical and spacecraft studies of the shock injection problem.
  • Kilpua, E. K. J.; Turner, D. L.; Jaynes, A.; Hietala, H.; Koskinen, H. E. J.; Osmane, A.; Palmroth, M.; Pulkkinen, T. I.; Vainio, R.; Baker, D.; Claudepierre, S. (2019)
    We study the response of the outer Van Allen radiation belt during an intense magnetic storm on 15-22 February 2014. Four interplanetary coronal mass ejections (ICMEs) arrived at Earth, of which the three last ones were interacting. Using data from the Van Allen Probes, we report the first detailed investigation of electron fluxes from source (tens of kiloelectron volts) to core (megaelectron volts) energies and possible loss and acceleration mechanisms as a response to substructures (shock, sheath and ejecta, and regions of shock-compressed ejecta) in multiple interacting ICMEs. After an initial enhancement induced by a shock compression of the magnetosphere, core fluxes strongly depleted and stayed low for 4 days. This sustained depletion can be related to a sequence of ICME substructures and their conditions that influenced the Earth's magnetosphere. In particular, the main depletions occurred during a high-dynamic pressure sheath and shock-compressed southward ejecta fields. These structures compressed/eroded the magnetopause close to geostationary orbit and induced intense and diverse wave activity in the inner magnetosphere (ULF Pc5, electromagnetic ion cyclotron, and hiss) facilitating both effective magnetopause shadowing and precipitation losses. Seed and source electrons in turn experienced stronger variations throughout the studied interval. The core fluxes recovered during the last ICME that made a glancing blow to Earth. This period was characterized by a concurrent lack of losses and sustained acceleration by chorus and Pc5 waves. Our study highlights that the seemingly complex behavior of the outer belt during interacting ICMEs can be understood by the knowledge of electron dynamics during different substructures.
  • Oleynik, Philipp; Vainio, Rami; Hedman, Hannu-Pekka; Punkkinen, Arttu; Punkkinen, Risto; Salomaa, Lassi; Säntti, Tero; Tuominen, Jarno; Virtanen, Pasi; Bosser, Alexandre; Janhunen, Pekka; Kilpua, Emilia; Palmroth, Minna; Praks, Jaan; Slavinskis, Andris; Kakakhel, Syed R.U.; Peltonen, Juhani; Plosila, Juha; Tammi, Jani; Tenhunen, Hannu; Westerlund, Tomi (2020)
    The Particle Telescope (PATE) of FORESAIL-1 mission is described. FORESAIL-1 is a CubeSat mission to polar Low Earth Orbit. Its scientific objectives are to characterize electron precipitation from the radiation belts and to observe energetic neutral atoms (ENAs) originating from the Sun during the strongest solar flares. For that purpose, the 3-unit CubeSat carries a particle telescope that measures energetic electrons in the nominal energy range of 80-800 keV in seven energy channels and energetic protons at 0.3-10 MeV in ten channels. In addition, particles penetrating the whole telescope at higher energies will be measured in three channels: one >800 keV electron channel, two integral proton channels at >10 MeV energies. The instrument contains two telescopes at right angles to each other, one measuring along the spin axis of the spacecraft and one perpendicular to it. During a spin period (nominally 15 s), the rotating telescope will, thus, deliver angular distributions of protons and electrons, at 11.25-degree clock-angle resolution, which enables one to accurately determine the pitch-angle distribution and separate the trapped and precipitating particles. During the last part of the mission, the rotation axis will be accurately pointed toward the Sun, enabling the measurement of the energetic hydrogen from that direction. Using the geomagnetic field as a filter and comparing the rates observed by the two telescopes, the instrument can observe the solar ENA flux for events similar to the only one so far observed in December 2006. We present the Geant4-simulated energy and angular response functions of the telescope and assess its sensitivity showing that they are adequate to address the scientific objectives of the mission. (C) 2019 COSPAR. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
  • Hayes, Laura A.; Gallagher, Peter T.; Dennis, Brian R.; Ireland, Jack; Inglis, Andrew; Morosan, Diana E. (2019)
    Solar flares often display pulsating and oscillatory signatures in the emission, known as quasi-periodic pulsations (QPP). QPP are typically identified during the impulsive phase of flares, yet in some cases, their presence is detected late into the decay phase. Here, we report extensive fine structure QPP that are detected throughout the large X8.2 flare from 2017 September 10. Following the analysis of the thermal pulsations observed in the Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite/X-ray sensor and the 131 angstrom channel of Solar Dynamics Observatory/Atmospheric Imaging Assembly, we find a pulsation period of similar to 65 s during the impulsive phase followed by lower amplitude QPP with a period of similar to 150 s in the decay phase, up to three hours after the peak of the flare. We find that during the time of the impulsive QPP, the soft X-ray source observed with the Reuven Ramaty High Energy Solar Spectroscopic Imager rapidly rises at a velocity of approximately 17 km s(-1) following the plasmoid/coronal mass ejection eruption. We interpret these QPP in terms of a manifestation of the reconnection dynamics in the eruptive event. During the long-duration decay phase lasting several hours, extended downward contractions of collapsing loops/plasmoids that reach the top of the flare arcade are observed in EUV. We note that the existence of persistent QPP into the decay phase of this flare are most likely related to these features. The QPP during this phase are discussed in terms of magnetohydrodynamic wave modes triggered in the post-flaring loops.
  • Good, S. W.; Ala-Lahti, M.; Palmerio, E.; Kilpua, E. K. J.; Osmane, A. (2020)
    The sheaths of compressed solar wind that precede interplanetary coronal mass ejections (ICMEs) commonly display large-amplitude magnetic field fluctuations. As ICMEs propagate radially from the Sun, the properties of these fluctuations may evolve significantly. We have analyzed magnetic field fluctuations in an ICME sheath observed by MESSENGER at 0.47 au and subsequently by STEREO-B at 1.08 au while the spacecraft were close to radial alignment. Radial changes in fluctuation amplitude, compressibility, inertial-range spectral slope, permutation entropy, Jensen-Shannon complexity, and planar structuring are characterized. These changes are discussed in relation to the evolving turbulent properties of the upstream solar wind, the shock bounding the front of the sheath changing from a quasi-parallel to quasi-perpendicular geometry, and the development of complex structures in the sheath plasma.
  • Dimmock, A. P.; Alho, M.; Kallio, E.; Pope, S. A.; Zhang, T. L.; Kilpua, E.; Pulkkinen, T. I.; Futaana, Y.; Coates, A. J. (2018)
    Owing to the heritage of previous missions such as the Pioneer Venus Orbiter and Venus Express, the typical global plasma environment of Venus is relatively well understood. On the other hand, this is not true for more extreme driving conditions such as during passages of interplanetary coronal mass ejections (ICMEs). One of the outstanding questions is how do ICMEs, either the ejecta or sheath portions, impact (1) the Venusian magnetic topology and (2) escape rates of planetary ions? One of the main issues encountered when addressing these problems is the difficulty of inferring global dynamics from single spacecraft obits; this is where the benefits of simulations become apparent. In the present study, we present a detailed case study of an ICME interaction with Venus on 5 November 2011 in which the magnetic barrier reached over 250 nT. We use both Venus Express observations and hybrid simulation runs to study the impact on the field draping pattern and the escape rates of planetary O+ ions. The simulation showed that the magnetic field line draping pattern around Venus during the ICME is similar to that during typical solar wind conditions and that O+ ion escape rates are increased by approximately 30% due to the ICME. Moreover, the atypically large magnetic barrier appears to manifest from a number of factors such as the flux pileup, dayside compression, and the driving time from the ICME ejecta.
  • Morosan, D. E.; Palmerio, E.; Pomoell, J.; Vainio, R.; Palmroth, M.; Kilpua, E. K. J. (2020)
    Context. Some of the most prominent sources for particle acceleration in our Solar System are large eruptions of magnetised plasma from the Sun called coronal mass ejections (CMEs). These accelerated particles can generate radio emission through various mechanisms. Aims. CMEs are often accompanied by a variety of solar radio bursts with different shapes and characteristics in dynamic spectra. Radio bursts directly associated with CMEs often show movement in the direction of CME expansion. Here, we aim to determine the emission mechanism of multiple moving radio bursts that accompanied a flare and CME that took place on 14 June 2012. Methods. We used radio imaging from the Nancay Radioheliograph, combined with observations from the Solar Dynamics Observatory and Solar Terrestrial Relations Observatory spacecraft, to analyse these moving radio bursts in order to determine their emission mechanism and three-dimensional (3D) location with respect to the expanding CME. Results. In using a 3D representation of the particle acceleration locations in relation to the overlying coronal magnetic field and the CME propagation, for the first time, we provide evidence that these moving radio bursts originate near the CME flanks and that some are possible signatures of shock-accelerated electrons following the fast CME expansion in the low corona. Conclusions. The moving radio bursts, as well as other stationary bursts observed during the eruption, occur simultaneously with a type IV continuum in dynamic spectra, which is not usually associated with emission at the CME flanks. Our results show that moving radio bursts that could traditionally be classified as moving type IVs can represent shock signatures associated with CME flanks or plasma emission inside the CME behind its flanks, which are closely related to the lateral expansion of the CME in the low corona. In addition, the acceleration of electrons generating this radio emission appears to be favoured at the CME flanks, where the CME encounters coronal streamers and open field regions.