Browsing by Subject "WEIGHT CHANGE"

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  • Konttinen, Hanna; Llewellyn, Clare; Wardle, Jane; Silventoinen, Karri; Joensuu, Anni; Mannisto, Satu; Salomaa, Veikko; Jousilahti, Pekka; Kaprio, Jaakko; Perola, Markus; Haukkala, Ari (2015)
    The mechanisms through which genes influence body weight are not well understood, but appetite has been implicated as one mediating pathway. Here we use data from two independent population-based Finnish cohorts (4632 adults aged 25-74 years from the DILGOM study and 1231 twin individuals aged 21-26 years from the FinnTwin12 study) to investigate whether two appetitive traits mediate the associations between known obesity-related genetic variants and adiposity. The results from structural equation modelling indicate that the effects of a polygenic risk score (90 obesity-related loci) on measured body mass index and waist circumference are partly mediated through higher levels of uncontrolled eating (beta(indirect) = 0.030-0.032, P <0.001 in DILGOM) and emotional eating (beta(indirect) = 0.020-0.022, P <0.001 in DILGOM and beta(indirect) = 0.013-0.015, P = 0.043-0.044 in FinnTwin12). Our findings suggest that genetic predispositions to obesity may partly exert their effects through appetitive traits reflecting lack of control over eating or eating in response to negative emotions. Obesity prevention and treatment studies should examine the impact of targeting these eating behaviours, especially among individuals having a high genetic predisposition to obesity.
  • Stenholm, Sari; Solovieva, Svetlana; Viikari-Juntura, Eira; Aalto, Ville; Kivimaki, Mika; Vahtera, Jussi (2017)
    Background: Retirement is a major life transition affecting health behaviors. The aim of this study was to examine within-individual changes in body mass index (BMI) during transition from full-time work to statutory retirement by sex and physical work characteristics. Methods: A multiwave cohort study repeated every 4 years and data linkage to records from retirement registers. Participants were 5426 Finnish public-sector employees who retired on a statutory basis in 2000-2011 and who reported their body weight one to three times prior to (w(-3), w(-2), w(-1)), and one to three times after (w(+1), w(+2), w(+3)) retirement. Results: During the 4-year retirement transition (w(+1), vs. w(-1)) men showed decline in BMI, which was most marked among men with sedentary work (-0.18 kg/m(2), 95% CI -.30 to -0.05). In contrast, BMI increased during retirement transition in women and was most marked among women with diverse (0.14 kg/m(2), 95% CI 0.08 to 0.20) or physically heavy work (0.31 kg/m(2), 95% CI 0.16 to 0.45). Physical activity during leisure time or commuting to work, alcohol consumption or smoking did not explain the observed changes during retirement transition. Conclusions: In this study statutory retirement was associated with small changes in BMI. Weight loss was most visible in men retiring from sedentary jobs and weight gain in women retiring from diverse and physically heavy jobs.
  • Masip, Guiomar; Keski-Rahkonen, Anna; Pietiläinen, Kirsi H.; Kujala, Urho M.; Rottensteiner, Mirva; Väisänen, Karoliina; Kaprio, Jaakko; Bogl, Leonie H. (2019)
    We constructed a food-based diet quality score (DQS) and examined its association with obesity measures, eating styles and nutrient intakes. Participants were 3592 individuals (764 dizygotic [DZ] and 430 monozygotic [MZ] twin pairs) from the FinnTwin16 study. The DQS (0-12 points) was constructed from a short 14 item food frequency questionnaire. Anthropometric measures and eating styles were self-reported. Nutrient intakes were calculated from food diaries completed in a subsample of 249 individuals (45 same-sex DZ and 60 MZ twin pairs). Twins were analyzed both as individuals and as twin pairs. The DQS was inversely associated with body mass index (beta = -0.12, per one-unit increase in DQS, p <0.001), waist circumference (beta = -0.34, p <0.001), obesity (odds ratio [OR]: 0.95, p = 0.004) and abdominal obesity (OR: 0.88, p <0.001), independent of sex, age, physical activity and education. A higher DQS was associated with health-conscious eating, having breakfast, less snacking, fewer evening meals, and a higher frequency and regularity of eating. The DQS was positively correlated with the intakes of protein, fiber and magnesium and negatively correlated with the intakes of total fat, saturated fat and sucrose. Within twin pairs, most of the associations between the DQS with eating styles and some nutrients remained, but the DQS was not associated with obesity measures within twin pairs. The DQS is an easy-to-use tool for ranking adults according to diet quality and shows an association with obesity measures, eating styles and key nutrients in the expected direction.
  • Shen, Yun; Wang, Peng; Wang, Leishen; Zhang, Shuang; Liu, Huikun; Li, Weiqin; Li, Nan; Li, Wei; Leng, Junhong; Wang, Jing; Tian, Huiguang; Zhang, Cuilin; Tuomilehto, Jaakko; Yang, Xilin; Yu, Zhijie; Hu, Gang (2018)
    Aims: To compare risks of early postpartum diabetes and prediabetes in Chinese women with and without gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) during pregnancy. Subjects and methods: Tianjin GDM observational study included 1263 women with a history of GDM and 705 women without GDM who participated in the urban GDM universal screening survey by using World Health Organization's criteria. Postpartum diabetes and prediabetes were identified after a standard oral glucose tolerance test. Cox proportional hazards regression was used to assess risks of postpartum diabetes and prediabetes between women with and without GDM. Results: During a mean follow-up of 3.53 years postpartum, 90 incident cases of diabetes and 599 incident cases of prediabetes were identified. Multivariable-adjusted hazard ratios among women with prior GDM, compared with those without it, were 76.1 (95% Cl: 23.6-246) for diabetes and 25.4 (95% CI: 18.2-35.3) for prediabetes. When the mean follow-up extended to 4.40 years, 121 diabetes and 616 prediabetes cases were identified. Women with prior GDM had a 13.0-fold multivariable-adjusted risk (95% CI: 5.54-30.6) for diabetes and 2.15-fold risk (95% CI: 1.76-2.62) for prediabetes compared with women without GDM. The positive associations between GDM and the risks of postpartum diabetes and prediabetes were significant and persistent when stratified by younger and older than 30 years at delivery and normal weight and overweight participants. Conclusions: The present study indicated that women with prior GDM had significantly increased risks for postpartum diabetes and prediabetes, with the highest risk at the first 3-4 years after delivery, compared with those without GDM.
  • Egnell, Christina; Ranta, Susanna; Banerjee, Joanna; Merker, Andrea; Niinimäki, Riitta; Lund, Bendik; Mogensen, Pernille Rudebeck; Jonsson, Olafur G.; Vaitkeviciene, Goda; Lepik, Kristi; Forslund, Anders; Heyman, Mats; Harila-Saari, Arja (2020)
    Objectives High body mass index (BMI) is associated with poorer survival in childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL), but the actual impact on the risk of relapse still needs to be clarified. We evaluated the impact of BMI at diagnosis on the risk of relapse in children with ALL treated according to Nordic Society of Paediatric Haematology and Oncology (NOPHO) protocols. Method In a multicenter study, we collected data on BMI at diagnosis and outcome of 2558 children aged 2.0-17.9 years diagnosed between 1992 and 2016. Patients were divided into four groups according to International Obesity Task Force (IOTF) childhood BMI cut-offs: underweight, = 30 kg/m(2). Results In Cox multivariate regression analyses, an increased risk of relapse was observed in children aged 10-17.9 years with unhealthy BMI at diagnosis (underweight hazard ratio HR: 2.90 [95% confidence interval: 1.24-6.78],P = .01; overweight, HR: 1.95 [1.11-3.43],P = .02, and obese HR: 4.32 [95% 2.08-8.97],P <.001), compared to children with healthy weight. BMI had no impact on relapse in children under 10 years of age. Conclusion High BMI, and especially obesity at diagnosis, is an independent adverse prognostic factor for relapse in older children with ALL.
  • Svard, Anna; Lahti, Jouni; Roos, Eira; Rahkonen, Ossi; Lahelma, Eero; Lallukka, Tea; Manty, Minna (2017)
    Background: Studies suggest an association between weight change and subsequent poor physical health functioning, whereas the association with mental health functioning is inconsistent. We aimed to examine whether obesity and change of body mass index among normal weight, overweight and obese women and men associate with changes in physical and mental health functioning. Methods: The Helsinki Health Study cohort includes Finnish municipal employees aged 40 to 60 in 2000-02 (phase 1, response rate 67%). Phase 2 mail survey (response rate 82%) took place in 2007 and phase 3 in 2012 (response rate 76%). This study included 5668 participants (82% women). Seven weight change categories were formed based on body mass index (BMI) (phase 1) and weight change (BMI change >= 5%) (phase 1-2). The Short Form 36 Health Survey (SF-36) measured physical and mental health functioning. The change in health functioning (phase 1-3) score was examined with repeated measures analyses. Covariates were age, sociodemographic factors, health behaviours, and somatic ill-health. Results: Weight gain was common among women (34%) and men (25%). Weight-gaining normal weight (-1.3 points), overweight (-1.3 points) and obese (-3.6 points) women showed a greater decline in physical component summary scores than weight-maintaining normal weight women. Among weight-maintainers, only obese (-1.8 points) women showed a greater decline than weight-maintaining normal weight women. The associations were similar, but statistically non-significant for obese men. No statistically significant differences in the change in mental health functioning occurred. Conclusion: Preventing weight gain likely helps maintaining good physical health functioning and work ability.
  • Mustelin, Linda; Bulik, Cynthia M.; Kaprio, Jaakko; Keski-Rahkonen, Anna (2017)
    Binge eating disorder (BED) is associated with high levels of obesity and psychological suffering, but little is known about 1) the distribution of features of BED in the general population and 2) their consequences for weight development and psychological distress in young adulthood. We investigated the prevalence of features of BED and their association with body mass index (BMI) and psychological distress among men (n = 2423) and women (n = 2825) from the longitudinal community-based FinnTwin16 cohort (born 1975-1979). Seven eating-related cognitions and behaviors similar to the defining features of BED were extracted from the Eating Disorder Inventory-2 and were assessed at a mean age of 24. BMI and psychological distress, measured with the General Health Questionnaire, were assessed at ages 24 and 34. We assessed prevalence of the features and their association with BMI and psychological distress cross-sectionally and prospectively. More than half of our participants reported at least one feature of BED; clustering of several features in one individual was less common, particularly among men. The most frequently reported feature was 'stuffing oneself with food', whereas the least common was 'eating or drinking in secrecy'. All individual features of BED and their clustering particularly were associated with higher BMI and more psychological distress cross-sectionally. Prospectively, the clustering of features of BED predicted increase in psychological distress but not additional weight gain when baseline BMI was accounted for. In summary, although some features of BED were common, the clustering of several features in one individual was not. The features were cumulatively associated with BMI and psychological distress and predicted further increase in psychological distress over ten years of follow-up. (C) 2016 Published by Elsevier Ltd.
  • Mattila, Jaakko; Kokki, Krista; Hietakangas, Ville; Boutros, Michael (2018)
    The intestine is an organ with an exceptionally high rate of cell turnover, and perturbations in this process can lead to severe diseases such as cancer or intestinal atrophy. Nutrition has a profound impact on intestinal volume and cellular architecture. However, how intestinal homeostasis is maintained in fluctuating dietary conditions remains insufficiently understood. By utilizing the Drosophila midgut model, we reveal a novel stem cell intrinsic mechanism coupling cellular metabolism with stem cell extrinsic growth signal. Our results show that intestinal stem cells (ISCs) employ the hexosamine biosynthesis pathway (HBP) to monitor nutritional status. Elevated activity of HBP promotes Warburg effectlike metabolic reprogramming required for adjusting the ISC division rate according to nutrient content. Furthermore, HBP activity is an essential facilitator for insulin signaling-induced ISC proliferation. In conclusion, ISC intrinsic hexosamine synthesis regulates metabolic pathway activities and defines the stem cell responsiveness to niche-derived growth signals.