Browsing by Subject "WEST NILE VIRUS"

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  • Ronnberg, Bengt; Gustafsson, Ake; Vapalahti, Olli; Emmerich, Petra; Lundkvist, Ake; Schmidt-Chanasit, Jonas; Blomberg, Jonas (2017)
    The recent spread of Zika virus (ZIKV) in the Americas and Asia necessitates an increased preparedness for improved maternal and perinatal health and blood safety. However, serological cross-reactions, especially to Dengue virus (DENV), complicate ZIKV antibody serodiagnosis. A novel "pan-Flavi" suspension multiplex immunoassay (PFSMIA) using 25 antigens, whole virus (WV), non-structural protein 1 (NS1), and envelope (E) proteins, from 7 zoonotic flaviviruses for specific detection of ZIKV and DENV IgM and IgG was developed. Patterns of antibody cross-reactivity, avidity, and kinetics were established in 104 sera from returning travelers with known ZIKV and DENV infections. PFSMIA gave IgM- and IgG-sensitivities for both viruses of 96-100%, compared to an immunofluorescence assay. Main IgM cross-reactions were to NS1, for IgG to the E and WV antigens. Infecting virus yielded reactivity to several antigens of the homologous virus, while cross-reactions tended to occur only to a single antigen from heterologous virus(es). A specificity-enhancing computer procedure took into account antibody isotype, number of antibody-reactive antigens per virus, avidity, average degree of cross-reactivity to heterologous flavivirus antigens, and reactivity changes in serial sera. It classified all 50 cases correctly. Applied to sera from 200 pregnant women and 173 blood donors from Sweden, one blood donor was found ZIKV NS1 IgM positive, and another as ZIKV NS1 IgG positive. These samples did not react with other ZIKV antigens and were thereby judged as false-positives. PFSMIA provided sensitive and specific ZIKV and DENV serology, warranting high-throughput serological surveillance and a minimized need for laborious and expensive virus neutralization assays.
  • Uusitalo, Ruut Jaael; Siljander, Mika; Culverwell, Christine Lorna; Mutai, Noah; Forbes, Kristian Michael; Vapalahti, Olli; Pellikka, Petri Kauko Emil (2019)
    Mosquitoes are vectors for numerous pathogens, which are collectively responsible for millions of human deaths each year. As such, it is vital to be able to accurately predict their distributions, particularly in areas where species composition is unknown. Species distribution modeling was used to determine the relationship between environmental, anthropogenic and distance factors on the occurrence of two mosquito genera, Culex Linnaeus and Stegomyia Theobald (syn. Aedes), in the Taita Hills, southeastern Kenya. This study aims to test whether any of the statistical prediction models produced by the Biomod2 package in R can reliably estimate the distributions of mosquitoes in these genera in the Taita Hills; and to examine which factors best explain their presence. Mosquito collections were acquired from 122 locations between January–March 2016 along transects throughout the Taita Hills. Environmental-, anthropogenic- and distance-based geospatial data were acquired from the Taita Hills geo-database, satellite- and aerial imagery and processed in GIS software. The Biomod2 package in R, intended for ensemble forecasting of species distributions, was used to generate predictive models. Slope, human population density, normalized difference vegetation index, distance to roads and elevation best estimated Culex distributions by a generalized additive model with an area under the curve (AUC) value of 0.791. Mean radiation, human population density, normalized difference vegetation index, distance to roads and mean temperature resulted in the highest AUC (0.708) value in a random forest model for Stegomyia distributions. We conclude that in the process towards more detailed species-level maps, with our study results, general assumptions can be made about the distribution areas of Culex and Stegomyia mosquitoes in the Taita Hills and the factors which influence their distribution.
  • Mueller, Janis A.; Harms, Mirja; Krueger, Franziska; Gross, Ruediger; Joas, Simone; Hayn, Manuel; Dietz, Andrea N.; Lippold, Sina; von Einem, Jens; Schubert, Axel; Michel, Manuela; Mayer, Benjamin; Cortese, Mirko; Jang, Karen S.; Sandi-Monroy, Nathallie; Deniz, Miriam; Ebner, Florian; Vapalahti, Olli; Otto, Markus; Bartenschlager, Ralf; Herbeuval, Jean-Philippe; Schmidt-Chanasit, Jonas; Roan, Nadia R.; Muench, Jan (2018)
    Zika virus (ZIKV) causes severe birth defects and can be transmitted via sexual intercourse. Semen from ZIKV-infected individuals contains high viral loads and may therefore serve as an important vector for virus transmission. Here we analyze the effect of semen on ZIKV infection of cells and tissues derived from the anogenital region. ZIKV replicates in all analyzed cell lines, primary cells, and endometrial or vaginal tissues. However, in the presence of semen, infection by ZIKV and other flaviviruses is potently inhibited. We show that semen prevents ZIKV attachment to target cells, and that an extracellular vesicle preparation from semen is responsible for this anti-ZIKV activity. Our findings suggest that ZIKV transmission is limited by semen. As such, semen appears to serve as a protector against sexual ZIKV transmission, despite the availability of highly susceptible cells in the anogenital tract and high viral loads in this bodily fluid.