Browsing by Subject "WESTERN CAPE"

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  • Bibi, Faysal; Pante, Michael; Souron, Antoine; Stewart, Kathlyn; Varela, Sara; Werdelin, Lars; Boisserie, Jean-Renaud; Fortelius, Mikael; Hlusko, Leslea; Njau, Jackson; de la Torre, Ignacio (2018)
    Eight years of excavation work by the Olduvai Geochronology and Archaeology Project (OGAP) has produced a rich vertebrate fauna from several sites within Bed II, Olduvai Gorge, Tanzania. Study of these as well as recently re-organized collections from Mary Leakey's 1972 HWK EE excavations here provides a synthetic view of the faunal community of Olduvai during Middle Bed II at similar to 1.7-1.4 Ma, an interval that captures the local transition from Oldowan to Acheulean technology. We expand the faunal list for this interval, name a new bovid species, clarify the evolution of several mammalian lineages, and record new local first and last appearances. Compositions of the fish and large mammal assemblages support previous indications for the dominance of open and seasonal grassland habitats at the margins of an alkaline lake. Fish diversity is low and dominated by cichlids, which indicates strongly saline conditions. The taphonomy of the fish assemblages supports reconstructions of fluctuating lake levels with mass die-offs in evaporating pools. The mammals are dominated by grazing bovids and equids. Habitats remained consistently dry and open throughout the entire Bed II sequence, with no major turnover or paleoecological changes taking place. Rather, wooded and wet habitats had already given way to drier and more open habitats by the top of Bed I, at 1.85-1.80 Ma. This ecological change is close to the age of the Oldowan-Acheulean transition in Kenya and Ethiopia, but precedes the local transition in Middle Bed II. The Middle Bed II large mammal community is much richer in species and includes a much larger number of large-bodied species (>300 kg) than the modern Serengeti. This reflects the severity of Pleistocene extinctions on African large mammals, with the loss of large species fitting a pattern typical of defaunation or 'downsizing' by human disturbance. However, trophic network (food web) analyses show that the Middle Bed II community was robust, and comparisons with the Serengeti community indicate that the fundamental structure of food webs remained intact despite Pleistocene extinctions. The presence of a generalized meateating hominin in the Middle Bed II community would have increased competition among carnivores and vulnerability among herbivores, but the high generality and interconnectedness of the Middle Bed II food web suggests this community was buffered against extinctions caused by trophic interactions. (C) 2017 Published by Elsevier Ltd.
  • Bistrom, Olof; Nilsson, Anders N.; Bergsten, Johannes (Pensoft Publishers, 2015)
    The African species of the genus Laccophilus Leach, 1815, are revised, on the basis of study of adult specimens. In all, 105 species are now recognized. A phenetic character-analysis was undertaken, which resulted in a split of the genus into 17 species groups. Diagnoses and a description of each species are given together with keys for identification of species groups and species. We also provide habitus photos, illustration of male genitalia and distribution maps for all species. New species are described as follows: L. grossus sp. n. (Angola, Namibia), L. rocchii sp. n. (Tanzania, Namibia, Botswana, Mozambique), L. ferrugo sp. n. (Mozambique), L. furthi sp. n. (Madagascar), L. isamberti sp. n. (Madagascar), L. inobservatus sp. n. (Gambia, Senegal, Mali, Niger, Sudan, Chad, Ethiopia, Burkina Faso, Ivory Coast, Ghana, Nigeria, Cameroon, Zaire and Asia: Yemen), L. cryptos sp. n. (Zaire, Mozambique, Zimbabwe, Namibia, Botswana, South Africa), L. enigmaticus sp. n. (Nigeria, Sudan), L. bellus sp. n. (Benin, Nigeria), L. guentheri sp. n. (Guinea, Ghana), L. guineensis sp. n. (Guinea), L. decorosus sp. n. (Uganda), L. empheres sp. n. (Kenya), L. inconstans sp. n. (Guinea, Ivory Coast, Ghana, Nigeria, Cameroon), L. brancuccii sp. n. (Central African Republic), L. incomptus sp. n. (Cameroon), L. australis sp. n. (Tanzania, South Africa), L. minimus sp. n. (Namibia), L. eboris sp. n. (Ivory Coast), L. insularum sp. n. (Madagascar), L. occidentalis sp. n. (Gambia, Senegal, Mali, Guinea, Sierra Leone, Ivory Coast, Ghana, Benin, Nigeria, Central African Republic, Zaire) and L. transversovittatus sp. n. (Madagascar). L. restrictus Sharp, 1882, is restored as good species; not junior synonym of L. pictipennis Sharp, 1882. New synonyms are established as follows: L. continentalis Gschwendtner, 1935 = L. perplexus Omer- Cooper, 1970, syn. n., L. taeniolatus Regimbart, 1889 = L. congener Omer-Cooper, 1957, syn. n., L. adspersus Boheman, 1848 = L. vitshumbii Guignot, 1959, syn. n. = L. adspersus nigeriensis Omer-Cooper, 1970, syn. n. = L. adspersus sudanensis Omer-Cooper, 1970, syn. n., L. modestus Regimbart, 1895 = L. espanyoli Hernando, 1990, syn. n., L. flaveolus Regimbart, 1906 = L. pampinatus Guignot, 1941, syn. n., L. trilineola Regimbart, 1889 = L. simulator Omer-Cooper, 1958, syn. n., L. mediocris Guignot, 1952 = L. meii Rocchi, 2000, syn. n., L. epinephes Guignot, 1955 = L. castaneus Guignot, 1956, syn. n., L. saegeri Guignot, 1958 = L. comoensis Pederzani & Reintjes, 2002, syn. n., L. restrictus Sharp, 1882 = L. evanescens Regimbart, 1895, syn. n., L. incrassatus Gschwendtner, 1933 = L. virgatus Guignot, 1953, syn. n., L. cyclopis Sharp, 1882 = L. shephardi Omer-Cooper, 1965, syn. n., L. burgeoni Gschwendtner, 1930 = L. wittei Guignot, 1952, syn. n., L. secundus Regimbart, 1895 = L. torquatus Guignot, 1956, syn. n., L. desintegratus Regimbart, 1895 = L. sanguinosus Regimbart, 1895, syn. n. and L. flavopictus Regimbart, 1889 = L. bergeri Guignot, 1953, syn. n. = L. segmentatus Omer-Cooper, 1957, syn. n. Lectotypes are designated for the following taxa: L. productus Regimbart, 1906, L. ruficollis Zimmermann, 1919, L. sordidus Sharp, 1882, L. alluaudi Regimbart, 1899, L. pictipennis Sharp, 1882, L. wehnckei Sharp, 1882, L. continentalis Gschwendtner, 1935, L. simplicistriatus Gschwendtner, 1932, L. complicatus Sharp, 1882, L. rivulosus Klug, 1833, L. ampliatus Regimbart, 1895, L. pilitarsis Regimbart, 1906, L. adspersus Boheman, 1848, L. livens Regimbart, 1895, L. modestus Regimbart, 1895, L. nodieri Regimbart, 1895, L. flaveolus Regimbart, 1906, L. pallescens Regimbart, 1903, L. restrictus Sharp, 1882, L. vermiculosus Gerstaecker, 1867, L. mocquerysi Regimbart, 1895, L. bizonatus Regimbart, 1895, L. tschoffeni Regimbart, 1895, L. persimilis Regimbart, 1895, L. poecilus Klug, 1834, L. lateralis Sharp, 1882, L. lateralis var. polygrammus Regimbart, 1903, L. cyclopis Sharp, 1882, L. shephardi Omer-Cooper, 1965, L. conjunctus Guignot, 1950, L. grammicus Sharp, 1882, L. flavoscriptus Regimbart, 1895, L. flavosignatus Regimbart, 1895, L. brevicollis Sharp, 1882, L. secundus Regimbart, L. desintegratus Regimbart, 1895, L. gutticollis Regimbart, 1895, L. luctuosus Sharp, 1882 and L. inornatus Zimmermann, 1926. Laccophilus remex Guignot, 1952, comprises a species complex with uncertain taxonomic delimitation; the complex includes L. concisus Guignot, 1953, L. turneri Omer-Cooper, 1957 and L. praeteritus Omer-Cooper, 1957, as tentative synonyms of L. remex Guignot, 1952.
  • Bistrom, Olof; Bergsten, Johannes (2016)
    Here we describe two new Hydrovatus species (Coleoptera: Dytiscidae: Hydroporinae: Hydrovatini) from the province of Khon Kaen, Isan region in NE Thailand. Hydrovatus is the third most species rich genus of diving beetles (Dytiscidae). It occurs on all continents except Antarctica and now numbers 210 currently recognized species. Both new species, H. diversipunctatus sp. n. and H. globosus sp. n., were collected at lights and are only known from the type locality "Khon Kaen" (a city and province). Diagnoses based on morphology for the separation from closely related species are given together with illustrations of male genitalia and habitus photos. We provide a determination key to Old World species of the pustulatus species group and to Oriental species of the oblongipennis species group.