Browsing by Subject "WESTERN-EUROPE"

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  • Naafs, B. D. A.; Inglis, G. N.; Zheng, Y.; Amesbury, M. J.; Biester, H.; Bindler, R.; Blewett, J.; Burrows, M. A.; del Castillo Torres, D.; Chambers, F. M.; Cohen, A. D.; Evershed, R. P.; Feakins, S. J.; Galka, M.; Gallego-Sala, A.; Gandois, L.; Gray, D. M.; Hatcher, P. G.; Honorio Coronado, E. N.; Hughes, P. D. M.; Huguet, A.; Kononen, M.; Laggoun-Defarge, F.; Lahteenoja, O.; Lamentowicz, M.; Marchant, R.; McClymont, E.; Pontevedra-Pombal, X.; Ponton, C.; Pourmand, A.; Rizzuti, A. M.; Rochefort, L.; Schellekens, J.; De Vleeschouwer, F.; Pancost, R. D. (2017)
    Glycerol dialkyl glycerol tetraethers (GDGTs) are membrane-spanning lipids from Bacteria and Archaea that are ubiquitous in a range of natural archives and especially abundant in peat. Previous work demonstrated that the distribution of bacterial branched GDGTs (brGDGTs) in mineral soils is correlated to environmental factors such as mean annual air temperature (MAAT) and soil pH. However, the influence of these parameters on brGDGT distributions in peat is largely unknown. Here we investigate the distribution of brGDGTs in 470 samples from 96 peatlands around the world with a broad mean annual air temperature (-8 to 27 degrees C) and pH (3-8) range and present the first peat-specific brGDGT-based temperature and pH calibrations. Our results demonstrate that the degree of cyclisation of brGDGTs in peat is positively correlated with pH, pH = 2.49 x CBTpeat + 8.07 (n = 51, R-2 = 0.58, RMSE = 0.8) and the degree of methylation of brGDGTs is positively correlated with MAAT, MAAT(peat) (degrees C) = 52.18 x MBT'(5me) - 23.05 (n = 96, R-2 = 0.76, RMSE = 4.7 degrees C). These peat-specific calibrations are distinct from the available mineral soil calibrations. In light of the error in the temperature calibration (similar to 4.7 degrees C), we urge caution in any application to reconstruct late Holocene climate variability, where the climatic signals are relatively small, and the duration of excursions could be brief. Instead, these proxies are well-suited to reconstruct large amplitude, longer-term shifts in climate such as deglacial transitions. Indeed, when applied to a peat deposit spanning the late glacial period (similar to 15.2 kyr), we demonstrate that MAAT(peat) yields absolute temperatures and relative temperature changes that are consistent with those from other proxies. In addition, the application of MAAT(peat) to fossil peat (i.e. lignites) has the potential to reconstruct terrestrial climate during the Cenozoic. We conclude that there is clear potential to use brGDGTs in peats and lignites to reconstruct past terrestrial climate. (C) 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
  • Yravedra, Jose; Solano, Jose Antonio; Herranz-Rodrigo, Dario; Linares-Matas, Gonzalo J.; Saarinen, Juha; Rodriguez-Alba, Juan Jose; Titton, Stefania; Serrano-Ramos, Alexia; Courtenay, Lloyd A.; Mielgo, Clara; Luzon, Carmen; Camara, Jose Miguel; Sanchez-Bandera, Christian; Montilla, Eva; Toro-Moyano, Isidro; Barsky, Deborah; Fortelius, Mikael; Agusti, Jordi; Blain, Hugues-Alexandre; Oms, Oriol; Jimenez-Arenas, Juan Manuel (2022)
    Little is known about the subsistence practices of the first European settlers, mainly due to the shortage of archaeological sites in Europe older than a million years. This article contributes to the knowledge of the subsistence of the first Europeans with new zooarchaeology and taphonomic data from the Palaeolithic site of Barranco Leon (Orce, Granada, Spain). We present the results of the analysis of the faunal assemblages retrieved in the context of new excavations undertaken between 2016 and 2020. We have followed a standard methodology for the identification and quantification of species, mortality profiles, skeletal representation and taphonomic analysis. With regard to the taphonomic evidence, we have documented the extent of rounding, abrasion and other alterations. Finally, we examined traces from the activities of carnivores and hominins that led to the accumulation and alteration of the bone assemblages. Results indicate that the archaeo-paleontological deposits from Barranco Leon present a dual-patterned mixed taphonomic origin. The first phase primarily involved waterborne processes (BL-D1), which led to the accumulation of lithic raw materials, a few archaeological stone tools, and some faunal remains with percussion and cutmarks. The second phase (BL-D2) contains several stone tools associated with faunal remains with more anthropogenic alterations, such as cutmarks and percussion marks. After analysing the Barranco Leon zooarchaeological assemblage, the present study concludes that hominins had access to the meat and within-bone nutrients of animals of diverse sizes. However, the specific carcass acquisition mechanisms that hominins followed are less certain because the presence of tooth marks suggests that carnivores also played a role in the accumulation and modification of the Barranco Leon faunal assemblage.