Browsing by Subject "WHOLE-BLOOD"

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  • Aabye, Martine G.; Eugen-Olsen, Jesper; Werlinrud, Anne Marie; Holm, Line Lindebo; Tuuminen, Tamara; Ravn, Pernille; Ruhwald, Morten (2012)
  • Chen, Jason; Verni, Christopher C.; Jouppila, Annukka; Lassila, Riitta; Diamond, Scott L. (2018)
    Heparin proteoglycans (HEP-PGs) carry standard heparin-mediated anticoagulant properties as well as novel antiplatelet functions, a combination that may be significant for targeting multiple pathways in a single therapy. Recent work developing semisynthetic HEP-PG mimetics has shown promising results also in vivo, however flow conditions in vitro that replicate in vivo hemodynamics have not been reported. In this work, we present several assays (platelet calcium mobilization, aggregometry, microfluidic tests at venous and arterial hemodynamics) to characterize specific mechanistic effects of dual antiplatelet and anticoagulant (APAC) constructs as mimetics of HEP-PGs. Three APACs with different conjugation levels of heparin chains (CL10, CL18, HICL) were shown to decrease platelet deposition to collagen surfaces in PPACK-treated whole blood at venous shear rate (200 s(-1)). FXIIa-inhibited whole blood (CTI: corn trypsin inhibitor, 40 mu g/mL) perfused over collagen/tissue factor showed reduced both platelet and fibrin deposition when treated with APACs. IC50 values for platelet and fibrin inhibition were calculated for each molecule at venous shear rate. Increasing the shear rate to arterial flows (1000 s(-1)) and using APAC as the sole anticoagulant, resulted in a more potent antiplatelet effect of APAC, suggesting an added effect on von Willebrand Factor (vWF) function. Additionally, APAC caused an inhibition of calcium mobilization specific to thrombin and collagen stimulation and a dose-dependent reduction in collagen-mediated platelet aggregation. Understanding the sensitivity of APAC activity to shear rate, platelet signaling and procoagulant pathways is important for applications in which APAC administration may have beneficial therapeutic effects.
  • Winn, Mary E.; Zapala, Matthew A.; Hovatta, Iiris; Risbrough, Victoria B.; Lillie, Elizabeth; Schork, Nicholas J. (2010)
  • Wolters, Maike; Dering, Carmen; Siani, Alfonso; Russo, Paola; Kaprio, Jaakko; Rise, Patrizia; Moreno, Luis A.; De Henauw, Stefaan; Mehlig, Kirsten; Veidebaum, Toomas; Molnar, Denes; Tornaritis, Michael; Iacoviello, Licia; Pitsiladis, Yannis; Galli, Claudio; Foraita, Ronja; Bornhorst, Claudia; IDEFICS; I Family Consortia (2017)
    Background The recent obesity epidemic in children also showed an increase in the prevalence of hypertension. As blood pressure (BP) is associated with (long-chain) polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC PUFA), genetic variation in desaturase enzymes being involved in the synthesis of LC PUFA may be associated with BP. This study aimed to investigate the direct effects (independent of mediating variables) and indirect effects (mediated through intermediate variables) of a common variant in the FADS1 gene, rs174546, known to affect delta-5 desaturase (D5D) activity on PUFA level, body mass index (BMI) and BP. Methods A subsample of the IDEFICS (Identification and prevention of dietary- and lifestyle-induced health effects in children and infants) baseline survey including 520 children aged 2 to Results Minor allele carriers of the SNP rs174546 had significantly higher DGLA and lower ARA and EPA levels as well as a lower D5D index. Via ARA and BMI z-score, the polymorphism had an indirect lowering effect on systolic BP z-score for each additional T allele (standardized effect estimate -0.057, p = 0.007). For DGLA, EPA and D5D index, the indirect effects of rs174546 on systolic BP were also negative but did not reach significance. DGLA and EPA had an increasing indirect effect on systolic BP via BMI. Results for diastolic BP were in general similar but effect estimates were lower compared to systolic BP. Conclusion Genetic variation in FADS1 influences BP via ARA and BMI indicating a favorable effect of the minor allele in SNP rs174546. Thus, polymorphisms with an impact on the D5D activity may play a role for the BP level mediated through PUFA and BMI. Therefore, health effects of dietary n-6 and n-3 PUFA may vary depending on genetic FADS1 variants.
  • Jääskeläinen, Anne J.; Korhonen, Essi M.; Huhtamo, Eili; Lappalainen, Maija; Vapalahti, Olli; Kallio-Kokko, Hannimari (2019)
    The laboratory confirmation of Zika virus (ZIKV) infection, and the differential diagnosis from other flavivirus infections such as dengue virus (DENV), often requires the use of several diagnostic test types. Cross-reactions and secondary infections complicate the serological diagnosis and specific viral RNA detection assays are often needed for confirming the diagnosis. The aim of this study was to validate serological and molecular methods for diagnosing ZIKV infection. This included the evaluation of a ZIKV RT-qPCR assay for diagnostics that was previously set up for research use and to compare the ZIKV, DENV and TBEV EIA methods. External and in-house controls and pre-characterized sample panels were tested, and also automated and manual nucleic acid extraction methods were compared. A total of ten Finnish traveler patients were diagnosed with acute ZIKV infection during 2015-2017 including one suspected dual DENV and ZIKV infection. These samples along with panels of DENV and tick-bome encephalitis virus (TBEV) infections were used to test the cross-reactive properties of ZIKV, DENV and TBEV IgM assays. Additionally, the diagnosed acute ZIKV patient samples were tested using commercially available diagnostic DENV NS1 antigen assay and a ZIKV NS1 antigen assay intended for research use. The ZIKV RT-qPCR assay was demonstrated to be both specific and sensitive (one genome per reaction) and suitable for routine diagnostic use utilizing automated nucleic acid extraction. Of the tested IgM tests the NS1 antigen-based ZIKV IgM (Euroimmun) assay performed with least cross -reactivity with a specificity of 97.4%. The DENV IgM assay (Focus Diagnostics) had specificity of only 86.1%. The results are in line with previous studies and additionally highlight that also acute TBEV patients may give a false positive test result in DENV and ZIKV IgM assays.