Browsing by Subject "WHOLE-GRAIN"

Sort by: Order: Results:

Now showing items 1-2 of 2
  • Swann, J. R.; Rajilic-Stojanovic, M.; Salonen, A.; Sakwinska, O.; Gill, C.; Meynier, A.; Fanca-Berthon, P.; Schelkle, B.; Segata, N.; Shortt, C.; Tuohy, K.; Hasselwander, O. (2020)
    With the growing appreciation for the influence of the intestinal microbiota on human health, there is increasing motivation to design and refine interventions to promote favorable shifts in the microbiota and their interactions with the host. Technological advances have improved our understanding and ability to measure this indigenous population and the impact of such interventions. However, the rapid growth and evolution of the field, as well as the diversity of methods used, parameters measured and populations studied, make it difficult to interpret the significance of the findings and translate their outcomes to the wider population. This can prevent comparisons across studies and hinder the drawing of appropriate conclusions. This review outlines considerations to facilitate the design, implementation and interpretation of human gut microbiota intervention studies relating to foods based upon our current understanding of the intestinal microbiota, its functionality and interactions with the human host. This includes parameters associated with study design, eligibility criteria, statistical considerations, characterization of products and the measurement of compliance. Methodologies and markers to assess compositional and functional changes in the microbiota, following interventions are discussed in addition to approaches to assess changes in microbiota-host interactions and host responses. Last, EU legislative aspects in relation to foods and health claims are presented. While it is appreciated that the field of gastrointestinal microbiology is rapidly evolving, such guidance will assist in the design and interpretation of human gut microbiota interventional studies relating to foods.
  • Puhlmann, Marie-Luise; de Vos, Willem M. (2022)
    Dietary fibers contribute to structure and storage reserves of plant foods and fundamentally impact human health, partly by involving the intestinal microbiota, notably in the colon. Considerable attention has been given to unraveling the interaction between fiber type and gut microbiota utilization, focusing mainly on single, purified fibers. Studying these fibers in isolation might give us insights into specific fiber effects, but neglects how dietary fibers are consumed daily and impact our digestive tract: as intrinsic structures that include the cell matrix and content of plant tissues. Like our ancestors we consume fibers that are entangled in a complex network of plants cell walls that further encapsulate and shield intra-cellular fibers, such as fructans and other components from immediate breakdown. Hence, the physiological behavior and consequent microbial breakdown of these intrinsic fibers differs from that of single, purified fibers, potentially entailing unexplored health effects. In this mini-review we explain the difference between intrinsic and isolated fibers and discuss their differential impact on digestion. Subsequently, we elaborate on how food processing influences intrinsic fiber structure and summarize available human intervention studies that used intrinsic fibers to assess gut microbiota modulation and related health outcomes. Finally, we explore current research gaps and consequences of the intrinsic plant tissue structure for future research. We postulate that instead of further processing our already (extensively) processed foods to create new products, we should minimize this processing and exploit the intrinsic health benefits that are associated with the original cell matrix of plant tissues.