Browsing by Subject "WIND"

Sort by: Order: Results:

Now showing items 1-20 of 22
  • Manninen, Antti J.; O'Connor, Ewan J.; Vakkari, Ville; Petäjä, Tuukka (2016)
    Current commercially available Doppler lidars provide an economical and robust solution for measuring vertical and horizontal wind velocities, together with the ability to provide co- and cross-polarised backscatter profiles. The high temporal resolution of these instruments allows turbulent properties to be obtained from studying the variation in radial velocities. However, the instrument specifications mean that certain characteristics, especially the background noise behaviour, become a limiting factor for the instrument sensitivity in regions where the aerosol load is low. Turbulent calculations require an accurate estimate of the contribution from velocity uncertainty estimates, which are directly related to the signal-to-noise ratio. Any bias in the signal-to-noise ratio will propagate through as a bias in turbulent properties. In this paper we present a method to correct for artefacts in the background noise behaviour of commercially available Doppler lidars and reduce the signal-to-noise ratio threshold used to discriminate between noise, and cloud or aerosol signals. We show that, for Doppler lidars operating continuously at a number of locations in Finland, the data availability can be increased by as much as 50% after performing this background correction and subsequent reduction in the threshold. The reduction in bias also greatly improves subsequent calculations of turbulent properties in weak signal regimes.
  • Vakkari, Ville; Manninen, Antti J.; O'Connor, Ewan; Schween, Jan H.; Van Zyl, Pieter G.; Marinou, Eleni (2019)
    Commercially available Doppler lidars have now been proven to be efficient tools for studying winds and turbulence in the planetary boundary layer. However, in many cases low signal-to-noise ratio is still a limiting factor for utilising measurements by these devices. Here, we present a novel post-processing algorithm for Halo Stream Line Doppler lidars, which enables an improvement in sensitivity of a factor of 5 or more. This algorithm is based on improving the accuracy of the instrumental noise floor and it enables longer integration times or averaging of high temporal resolution data to be used to obtain signals down to -32 dB. While this algorithm does not affect the measured radial velocity, it improves the accuracy of radial velocity uncertainty estimates and consequently the accuracy of retrieved turbulent properties. Field measurements using three different Halo Doppler lidars deployed in Finland, Greece and South Africa demonstrate how the new post-processing algorithm increases data availability for turbulent retrievals in the planetary boundary layer, improves detection of high-altitude cirrus clouds and enables the observation of elevated aerosol layers.
  • Turc, Lucile; Taryus, Vertti; Dimmock, Andrew P.; Battarbee, Markus; Ganse, Urs; Johlander, Andreas; Grandin, Maxime; Pfau-Kempf, Yann; Dubart, Maxime; Palmroth, Minna (2020)
    Bounded by the bow shock and the magnetopause, the magnetosheath forms the interface between solar wind and magnetospheric plasmas and regulates solar wind-magnetosphere coupling. Previous works have revealed pronounced dawn-dusk asymmetries in the magnetosheath properties. The dependence of these asymmetries on the upstream parameters remains however largely unknown. One of the main sources of these asymmetries is the bow shock configuration, which is typically quasi-parallel on the dawn side and quasi-perpendicular on the dusk side of the terrestrial magnetosheath because of the Parker spiral orientation of the interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) at Earth. Most of these previous studies rely on collections of spacecraft measurements associated with a wide range of upstream conditions which are processed in order to obtain average values of the magnetosheath parameters. In this work, we use a different approach and quantify the magnetosheath asymmetries in global hybrid-Vlasov simulations performed with the Vlasiator model. We concentrate on three parameters: the magnetic field strength, the plasma density, and the flow velocity. We find that the Vlasiator model reproduces the polarity of the asymmetries accurately but that their level tends to be higher than in spacecraft measurements, probably because the magnetosheath parameters are obtained from a single set of upstream conditions in the simulation, making the asymmetries more prominent. A set of three runs with different upstream conditions allows us to investigate for the first time how the asymmetries change when the angle between the IMF and the Sun-Earth line is reduced and when the Alfven Mach number decreases. We find that a more radial IMF results in a stronger magnetic field asymmetry and a larger variability of the magnetosheath density. In contrast, a lower Alfven Mach number leads to a reduced magnetic field asymmetry and a decrease in the variability of the magnetosheath density, the latter likely due to weaker foreshock processes. Our results highlight the strong impact of the quasi-parallel shock and its associated foreshock on global magnetosheath properties, in particular on the magnetosheath density, which is extremely sensitive to transient quasi-parallel shock processes, even with the perfectly steady upstream conditions in our simulations. This could explain the large variability of the density asymmetry levels obtained from spacecraft measurements in previous studies.
  • Manninen, A. J.; Marke, T.; Tuononen, M.; O'Connor, E. J. (2018)
    We present a method using Doppler lidar data for identifying the main sources of turbulent mixing within the atmospheric boundary layer. The method identifies the presence of turbulence and then assigns a turbulent source by combining several lidar quantities: attenuated backscatter coefficient, vertical velocity skewness, dissipation rate of turbulent kinetic energy, and vector wind shear. Both buoyancy-driven and shear-driven situations are identified, and the method operates in both clear-sky and cloud-topped conditions, with some reservations in precipitation. To capture the full seasonal cycle, the classification method was applied to more than 1year of data from two sites, Hyytiala, Finland, and Julich, Germany. Analysis showed seasonal variation in the diurnal cycle at both sites; a clear diurnal cycle was observed in spring, summer, and autumn seasons, but due to their respective latitudes, a weaker cycle in winter at Julich, and almost non-existent at Hyytiala. Additionally, there are significant contributions from sources other than convective mixing, with cloud-driven mixing being observed even within the first 500m above ground. Also evident is the considerable amount of nocturnal mixing within the lowest 500m at both sites, especially during the winter. The presence of a low-level jet was often detected when sources of nocturnal mixing were diagnosed as wind shear. The classification scheme and the climatology extracted from the classification provide insight into the processes responsible for mixing within the atmospheric boundary layer, how variable in space and time these can be, and how they vary with location. Key Points
  • Lilover, Madis-Jaak; Pavelson, Juss; Kouts, Tarmo; Lepparanta, Matti (2018)
    High-resolution Eulerian and Lagrangian sea ice kinematics are examined based on an ADCP and four icebound drifting buoys in the Gulf of Finland, Baltic Sea. The measurements were performed in the central Gulf of Finland in winter 2010 from January to March. Ice drift was mostly in near-free drift state driven by winds and ice-independent currents in the basin. Internal friction was significant, apart from off-ice forcing toward the open boundary. The averaged asymptotic ice/wind speed ratio and deviation angle at higher wind speeds were 0.034 and 9 degrees in the oceanic boundary layer, respectively. The ratio depended on the direction of the wind indicating the role of morphometry of the coast to the local ice kinematics. The maximum values of wind ratio were observed in cases of NE winds and minimum values in cases of SW winds. Coherent ice drift was observed up to a distance of 42 km.
  • Jylhä, Kirsti; Laapas, Mikko; Ruosteenoja, Kimmo; Arvola, Lauri; Drebs, Achim; Kersalo, Juha; Saku, Seppo; Gregow, Hilppa; Hannula, Henna-Reetta; Pirinen, Pentti (2014)
  • Scolini, Camilla; Chane, Emmanuel; Temmer, Manuela; Kilpua, Emilia K. J.; Dissauer, Karin; Veronig, Astrid M.; Palmerio, Erika; Pomoell, Jens; Dumbovic, Mateja; Guo, Jingnan; Rodriguez, Luciano; Poedts, Stefaan (2020)
    Coronal mass ejections (CMEs) are the primary sources of intense disturbances at Earth, where their geo-effectiveness is largely determined by their dynamic pressure and internal magnetic field, which can be significantly altered during interactions with other CMEs in interplanetary space. We analyse three successive CMEs that erupted from the Sun during September 4-6, 2017, investigating the role of CME-CME interactions as source of the associated intense geomagnetic storm (Dst(min)=-142 nT on September 7). To quantify the impact of interactions on the (geo-)effectiveness of individual CMEs, we perform global heliospheric simulations with the EUHFORIA model, using observation-based initial parameters with the additional purpose of validating the predictive capabilities of the model for complex CME events. The simulations show that around 0.45 AU, the shock driven by the September 6 CME started compressing a preceding magnetic ejecta formed by the merging of two CMEs launched on September 4, significantly amplifying its B-z until a maximum factor of 2.8 around 0.9 AU. The following gradual conversion of magnetic energy into kinetic and thermal components reduced the B-z amplification until its almost complete disappearance around 1.8 AU. We conclude that a key factor at the origin of the intense storm triggered by the September 4-6, 2017 CMEs was their arrival at Earth during the phase of maximum B-z amplification. Our analysis highlights how the amplification of the magnetic field of individual CMEs in space-time due to interaction processes can be characterised by a growth, a maximum, and a decay phase, suggesting that the time interval between the CME eruptions and their relative speeds are critical factors in determining the resulting impact of complex CMEs at various heliocentric distances (helio-effectiveness).
  • Good, S. W.; Kilpua, E. K. J.; Ala-Lahti, M.; Osmane, A.; Bale, S. D.; Zhao, L. -L. (2020)
    Magnetic clouds are large-scale transient structures in the solar wind with low plasma-beta, low-amplitude magnetic field fluctuations, and twisted field lines with both ends often connected to the Sun. Their inertial-range turbulent properties have not been examined in detail. In this Letter, we analyze the normalized cross helicity, sigma(c), and residual energy, sigma(r), of plasma fluctuations in the 2018 November magnetic cloud observed at 0.25.au by the Parker Solar Probe. A low value of |sigma(c)| was present in the cloud core, indicating that wave power parallel and antiparallel to the mean field was approximately balanced, while the cloud's outer layers displayed larger amplitude Alfvenic fluctuations with high |sigma(c)| values and sigma(r) similar to 0. These properties are discussed in terms of the cloud's solar connectivity and local interaction with the solar wind. We suggest that low |sigma(c)| is likely a common feature of magnetic clouds given their typically closed field structure. Antisunward fluctuations propagating immediately upstream of the cloud had strongly negative sigma(r) values.
  • Atashi, Nahid; Rahimi, Dariush; Sinclair, Victoria A.; Zaidan, Martha A.; Rusanen, Anton; Vuollekoski, Henri; Kulmala, Markku; Vesala, Timo; Hussein, Tareq (2021)
    Dew is a non-conventional source of water that has been gaining interest over the last two decades, especially in arid and semi-arid regions. In this study, we performed a long-term (1979-2018) energy balance model simulation to estimate dew formation potential in Iran aiming to identify dew formation zones and to investigate the impacts of long-term variation in meteorological parameters on dew formation. The annual average of dew occurrence in Iran was similar to 102 d, with the lowest number of dewy days in summer (similar to 7 d) and the highest in winter (similar to 45 d). The average daily dew yield was in the range of 0.03-0.14 Lm(-2) and the maximum was in the range of 0.29-0.52 Lm(-2). Six dew formation zones were identified based on cluster analysis of the time series of the simulated dew yield. The distribution of dew formation zones in Iran was closely aligned with topography and sources of moisture. Therefore, the coastal zones in the north and south of Iran (i.e., Caspian Sea and Oman Sea), showed the highest dew formation potential, with 53 and 34 Lm(-2) yr(-2), whereas the dry interior regions (i.e., central Iran and the Lut Desert), with the average of 12-18 Lm(-2) yr(-2), had the lowest potential for dew formation. Dew yield estimation is very sensitive to the choice of the heat transfer coefficient. The uncertainty analysis of the heat transfer coefficient using eight different parameterizations revealed that the parameterization used in this study the Richards (2004) formulation - gives estimates that are similar to the average of all methods and are neither much lower nor much higher than the majority of other parameterizations and the largest differences occur for the very low values of daily dew yield. Trend analysis results revealed a significant (p < 0:05) negative trend in the yearly dew yield in most parts of Iran during the last 4 decades (1979-2018). Such a negative trend in dew formation is likely due to an increase in air temperature and a decrease in relative humidity and cloudiness over the 40 years.
  • Palmerio, E.; Kilpua, E. K. J.; James, A. W.; Green, L. M.; Pomoell, J.; Isavnin, A.; Valori, G. (2017)
    A key aim in space weather research is to be able to use remote-sensing observations of the solar atmosphere to extend the lead time of predicting the geoeffectiveness of a coronal mass ejection (CME). In order to achieve this, the magnetic structure of the CME as it leaves the Sun must be known. In this article we address this issue by developing a method to determine the intrinsic flux rope type of a CME solely from solar disk observations. We use several well-known proxies for the magnetic helicity sign, the axis orientation, and the axial magnetic field direction to predict the magnetic structure of the interplanetary flux rope. We present two case studies: the 2 June 2011 and the 14 June 2012 CMEs. Both of these events erupted from an active region, and despite having clear in situ counterparts, their eruption characteristics were relatively complex. The first event was associated with an active region filament that erupted in two stages, while for the other event the eruption originated from a relatively high coronal altitude and the source region did not feature a filament. Our magnetic helicity sign proxies include the analysis of magnetic tongues, soft X-ray and/or extreme-ultraviolet sigmoids, coronal arcade skew, filament emission and absorption threads, and filament rotation. Since the inclination of the posteruption arcades was not clear, we use the tilt of the polarity inversion line to determine the flux rope axis orientation and coronal dimmings to determine the flux rope footpoints, and therefore, the direction of the axial magnetic field. The comparison of the estimated intrinsic flux rope structure to in situ observations at the Lagrangian point L1 indicated a good agreement with the predictions. Our results highlight the flux rope type determination techniques that are particularly useful for active region eruptions, where most geoeffective CMEs originate.
  • Battarbee, Markus; Blanco-Cano, Xochitl; Turc, Lucile; Kajdic, Primoz; Johlander, Andreas; Tarvus, Vertti; Fuselier, Stephen; Trattner, Karlheinz; Alho, Markku; Brito, Thiago; Ganse, Urs; Pfau-Kempf, Yann; Akhavan-Tafti, Mojtaba; Karlsson, Tomas; Raptis, Savvas; Dubart, Maxime; Grandin, Maxime; Suni, Jonas; Palmroth, Minna (2020)
    The foreshock is a region of space upstream of the Earth's bow shock extending along the interplanetary magnetic field (IMF). It is permeated by shock-reflected ions and electrons, low-frequency waves, and various plasma transients. We investigate the extent of the He2+ foreshock using Vlasiator, a global hybrid-Vlasov simulation. We perform the first numerical global survey of the helium foreshock and interpret some historical foreshock observations in a global context. The foreshock edge is populated by both proton and helium field-aligned beams, with the proton foreshock extending slightly further into the solar wind than the helium foreshock and both extending well beyond the ultra-low frequency (ULF) wave foreshock. We compare our simulation results with Magnetosphere Multiscale (MMS) Hot Plasma Composition Analyzer (HPCA) measurements, showing how the gradient of suprathermal ion densities at the foreshock crossing can vary between events. Our analysis suggests that the IMF cone angle and the associated shock obliquity gradient can play a role in explaining this differing behaviour. We also investigate wave-ion interactions with wavelet analysis and show that the dynamics and heating of He2+ must result from proton-driven ULF waves. Enhancements in ion agyrotropy are found in relation to, for example, the ion foreshock boundary, the ULF foreshock boundary, and specular reflection of ions at the bow shock. We show that specular reflection can describe many of the foreshock ion velocity distribution function (VDF) enhancements. Wave-wave interactions deep in the foreshock cause de-coherence of wavefronts, allowing He2+ to be scattered less than protons.
  • Suvanto, Susanne; Henttonen, Helena M.; Nöjd, Pekka; Mäkinen, Harri (2018)
    Storms cause major forest disturbances in Europe. The aim of this study was to model tree-level storm damage probability based on the properties of a tree and its environment and to examine whether fine-scale topographic information is connected to the damage probability. We used data documenting effects of two autumn storms on over 17 000 trees on permanent Finnish National Forest Inventory plots. The first storm was associated with wet snowfall that damaged trees, while exceptionally strong winds and gusts characterized the second storm. During the storms, soils were unfrozen and deciduous trees were without leaves. Generalized linear mixed models were used to study how topographical variables calculated from digital elevation models (DEM) with resolutions of 2 and 10 m (TOPO2 and TOPO10, respectively) were related to damage probability, in addition to variable groups for tree (TREE) and stand (STAND) characteristics. We compared models containing different variable groups with Akaike information criteria. The best model contained the variable groups TREE, STAND, and TOPO2. Increase in slope steepness calculated from the high-resolution DEM decreased tree-level damage probability significantly in the model. This suggests that the local topography affects the tree-level damage probability and that high-resolution topographical data improves the tree-level damage probability models.
  • Marchaudon, A.; Blelly, P. -L.; Grandin, M.; Aikio, A.; Kozlovsky, A.; Virtanen, I. (2018)
    Our aim is to understand the effect of high-speed stream events on the high-latitude ionosphere and more specifically the decrease of the f(o)F(2) frequency during the entire day following the impact. First, we have selected one summertime event, for which a large data set was available: Super Dual Auroral Radar Network (SuperDARN) and European Incoherent SCATter (EISCAT) radars, Tromso and Sodankyla ionosondes, and the CHAllenging Minisatellite Payload (CHAMP) satellite. We modeled with the IPIM model (IRAP Plasmasphere Ionosphere Model) the dynamics of the ionosphere at Tromso and Sodankyla using inputs derived from the data. The simulations nicely match the measurements made by the EISCAT radar and the ionosondes, and we showed that the decrease of f(o)F(2) is associated with a transition from F-2 to F-1 layer resulting from a decrease of neutral atomic oxygen concentration. Modeling showed that electrodynamics can explain short-term behavior on the scale of a few hours, but long-term behavior on the scale of a few days results from the perturbation induced in the atmosphere. Enhancement of convection is responsible for a sharp increase of the ion temperature by Joule heating, leading through chemistry to an immediate reduction of the F-2 layer. Then, ion drag on neutrals is responsible for a rapid heating and expansion of the thermosphere. This expansion affects atomic oxygen through nonthermal upward flow, which results in a decrease of its concentration and amplifies the decrease of [O]/[N-2] ratio. This thermospheric change explains long-term extinction of the F-2 layer.
  • Karttunen, Sasu; Kurppa, Mona; Auvinen, Mikko; Hellsten, Antti; Järvi, Leena (2020)
    Street vegetation has been found to have both positive and negative impacts on pedestrian-level air quality, but the net effect has remained unclear. In this study, the effect of street trees on aerosol mass (PM10 and PM2.5) and number in a boulevard-type street canyon with high traffic volumes in Helsinki is examined using the large-eddy simulation model PALM. Including a detailed aerosol module and a canopy module to comprise permeable trees, PALM allows to examine the effect of street trees in depth. The main aim is to understand the relative importance of dry deposition and the aerodynamic impact of street trees on the different aerosol measures at pedestrian-level and to find a suitable street-tree layout that would minimise the pedestrian-level aerosol particle concentrations over the boulevard pavements. The layout scenarios were decided together with urban planners who needed science-based knowledge to support the building of new neighbourhoods with boulevard-type streets in Helsinki. Two wind conditions with wind being parallel and perpendicular to the boulevard under neutral atmospheric stratification are examined. Adding street trees to the boulevard increases aerosol particle concentrations on the pavements up to 123%, 72% and 53% for PM10, PM2.5 and total number, respectively. This shows decreased ventilation to be more important for local aerosol particle concentrations than dry deposition on vegetation. This particularly for PM10 and PM2.5 whereas for aerosol number, dominated by small particles, the importance of dry deposition increases. Therefore the studied aerosol measure is important when the effect of vegetation on pedestrian-level air quality is quantified. Crown volume fraction in the street space is one of the main determining factors for elevated mass concentrations on the pavements. The lowest pedestrian-level mass concentrations are seen with three rows of trees of variable height, whereas the lowest number concentrations with four rows of uniform trees. The tree-height variation allows stronger vertical turbulent transport with parallel wind and largest volumetric flow rates with perpendicular wind. Introducing low (height <1 m) hedges under trees between the traffic lanes and pavements is found to be a less effective mitigation method for particle mass than introducing tree-height variability, and for particle number less effective than maximising the tree volume in the street canyon. The results show how street trees in a boulevard-type street canyon lead to decreased pedestrian-level air quality with the effect being particularly strong for larger aerosol particles. However, with careful planning of the street vegetation, significant reductions in pedestrian-level aerosol particle concentrations can be obtained.
  • Marke, Tobias; Crewell, Susanne; Schemann, Vera; Schween, Jan H.; Tuononen, Minttu (2018)
    Low-level-jet (LLJ) periods are investigated by exploiting a long-termrecord of ground-based remote sensing Doppler wind lidar measurements supported by tower observations and surface flux measurements at the Julich Observatory for Cloud Evolution (JOYCE), a midlatitude site in western Germany. LLJs were found 13% of the time during continuous observations over more than 4 yr. The climatological behavior of the LLJs shows a prevailing nighttime appearance of the jets, with a median height of 375 m and a median wind speed of 8.8 ms(-1) at the jet nose. Significant turbulence below the jet nose only occurs for high bulk wind shear, which is an important parameter for describing the turbulent characteristics of the jets. The numerous LLJs (16% of all jets) in the range of wind-turbine rotor heights below 200 m demonstrate the importance of LLJs and the associated intermittent turbulence for wind-energy applications. Also, a decrease in surface fluxes and an accumulation of carbon dioxide are observed if LLJs are present. A comprehensive analysis of an LLJ case shows the influence of the surrounding topography, dominated by an open pit mine and a 200-m-high hill, on the wind observed at JOYCE. High-resolution large-eddy simulations that complement the observations show that the spatial distribution of the wind field exhibits variations connected with the orographic flow depending on the wind direction, causing high variability in the long-term measurements of the vertical velocity.
  • Pentikäinen, Pyry; O’Connor, Ewan J.; Manninen, Antti; Ortiz Amezcua, Pablo (2020)
    Doppler lidars provide two measured parameters, radial velocity and signal-to-noise ratio, from which winds and turbulent properties are routinely derived. Attenuated backscatter, which gives quantitative information on aerosols, clouds, and precipitation in the atmosphere, can be used in conjunction with the winds and turbulent properties to create a sophisticated classification of the state of the atmospheric boundary layer. Calculating attenuated backscatter from the signal-to-noise ratio requires accurate knowledge of the telescope focus function, which is usually unavailable. Inaccurate assumptions of the telescope focus function can significantly deform attenuated backscatter profiles, even if the instrument is focused at infinity. Here, we present a methodology for deriving the telescope focus function using a co-located ceilometer for pulsed heterodyne Doppler lidars. The method was tested with Halo Photonics StreamLine and StreamLine XR Doppler lidars but should also be applicable to other pulsed heterodyne Doppler lidar systems. The method derives two parameters of the telescope focus function, the effective beam diameter and the effective focal length of the telescope. Additionally, the method provides uncertainty estimates for the retrieved attenuated backscatter profile arising from uncertainties in deriving the telescope function, together with standard measurement uncertainties from the signal-to-noise ratio. The method is best suited for locations where the absolute difference in aerosol extinction at the ceilometer and Doppler lidar wavelengths is small.
  • Wijsen, N.; Aran, A.; Pomoell, J.; Poedts, S. (2019)
    Aims. We introduce a new solar energetic particle (SEP) transport code that aims at studying the effects of different background solar wind configurations on SEP events. In this work, we focus on the influence of varying solar wind velocities on the adiabatic energy changes of SEPs and study how a non-Parker background solar wind can trap particles temporarily at small heliocentric radial distances (less than or similar to 1.5AU) thereby influencing the cross-field diffusion of SEPs in the interplanetary space. Methods. Our particle transport code computes particle distributions in the heliosphere by solving the focused transport equation (FTE) in a stochastic manner. Particles are propagated in a solar wind generated by the newly developed data-driven heliospheric model, EUHFORIA. In this work, we solve the FTE, including all solar wind effects, cross-field diffusion, and magnetic-field gradient and curvature drifts. As initial conditions, we assume a delta injection of 4 MeV protons, spread uniformly over a selected region at the inner boundary of the model. To verify the model, we first propagate particles in nominal undisturbed fast and slow solar winds. Thereafter, we simulate and analyse the propagation of particles in a solar wind containing a corotating interaction region (CIR). We study the particle intensities and anisotropies measured by a fleet of virtual observers located at different positions in the heliosphere, as well as the global distribution of particles in interplanetary space. Results. The differential intensity-time profiles obtained in the simulations using the nominal Parker solar wind solutions illustrate the considerable adiabatic deceleration undergone by SEPs, especially when propagating in a fast solar wind. In the case of the solar wind containing a CIR, we observe that particles adiabatically accelerate when propagating in the compression waves bounding the CIR at small radial distances. In addition, for r greater than or similar to 1.5AU, there are particles accelerated by the reverse shock as indicated by, for example, the anisotropies and pitch-angle distributions of the particles. Moreover, a decrease in high-energy particles at the stream interface (SI) inside the CIR is observed. The compression /shock waves and the magnetic configuration near the SI may also act as a magnetic mirror, producing long-lasting high intensities at small radial distances. We also illustrate how the efficiency of the cross-field diffusion in spreading particles in the heliosphere is enhanced due to compressed magnetic fields. Finally, the inclusion of cross-field diffusion enables some particles to cross both the forward compression wave at small radial distances and the forward shock at larger radial distances. This results in the formation of an accelerated particle population centred on the forward shock, despite the lack of magnetic connection between the particle injection region and this shock wave. Particles injected in the fast solar wind stream cannot reach the forward shock since the SI acts as a diffusion barrier.
  • Sanchez-Diaz, E.; Rouillard, A. P.; Davies, J. A.; Lavraud, B.; Sheeley, N. R.; Pinto, R. F.; Kilpua, E.; Plotnikov, I.; Genot, V. (2017)
    The origin of the slow solar wind is still a topic of much debate. The continual emergence of small transient structures from helmet streamers is thought to constitute one of the main sources of the slow wind. Determining the height at which these transients are released is an important factor in determining the conditions under which the slow solar wind forms. To this end, we have carried out a multipoint analysis of small transient structures released from a north-south tilted helmet streamer into the slow solar wind over a broad range of position angles during Carrington Rotation 2137. Combining the remote-sensing observations taken by the Solar-TErrestrial RElations Observatory (STEREO) mission with coronagraphic observations from the SOlar and Heliospheric Observatory (SOHO) spacecraft, we show that the release of such small transient structures (often called blobs), which subsequently move away from the Sun, is associated with the concomitant formation of transient structures collapsing back toward the Sun; the latter have been referred to by previous authors as "raining inflows." This is the first direct association between outflowing blobs and raining inflows, which locates the formation of blobs above the helmet streamers and gives strong support that the blobs are released by magnetic reconnection.
  • Laurila, Terhi; Sinclair, Victoria; Gregow, Hilppa (2020)
    On 22 September 1982, an intense windstorm caused considerable damage in northern Finland. Local forecasters noted that this windstorm potentially was related to Hurricane Debby, a category 4 hurricane that occurred just 5 days earlier. Due to the unique nature of the event and lack of prior research, our aim is to document the synoptic sequence of events related to this storm using ERA-Interim reanalysis data, best track data, and output from OpenIFS simulations. During extratropical transition, the outflow from Debby resulted in a ridge building and an acceleration of the jet. Debby did not reintensify immediately in the midlatitudes despite the presence of an upper-level trough. Instead, ex-Debby propagated rapidly across the Atlantic as a diabatic Rossby wave-like feature. Simultaneously, an upper-level trough approached from the northeast and once ex-Debby moved ahead of this feature near the United Kingdom, rapid reintensification began. All OpenIFS forecasts diverged from reanalysis after only 2 days indicating intrinsic low predictability and strong sensitivities. Phasing between Hurricane Debby and the weak trough, and phasing of the upper- and lower-level potential vorticity anomalies near the United Kingdom was important in the evolution of ex-Debby. In the only OpenIFS simulation to correctly capture the phasing over the United Kingdom, stronger wind gusts were simulated over northern Finland than in any other simulation. Turbulent mixing behind the cold front, and convectively driven downdrafts in the warm sector, enhanced the wind gusts over Finland. To further improve understanding of this case, we suggest conducting research using an ensemble approach.