Browsing by Subject "WINDOW"

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  • Peuhu, Elina; Thomssen, Pia-Maria; Siitonen, Juha (2019)
    Hollow trees are an important habitat for a large number of saproxylic invertebrates, many of which are rare or threatened. Large old trees occur frequently in cities, but the saproxylic fauna inhabiting these trees has been poorly studied. Sampling in urban areas includes the risk of trap failure due to human interference, which needs to be considered when designing sampling. The aim of our study was to find an efficient trap type for sampling saproxylic beetles in hollow urban trees. We compared the species richness and species composition of saproxylic beetle assemblages between trunk window, aluminium foil tray and pitfall traps placed inside hollow trees in the Helsinki metropolitan area, Finland. A total of 30 traps of each trap type were set in 15 trees. The traps caught a total of 4004 saproxylic beetle individuals belonging to 131 species. Trunk window and aluminium foil traps had similar assemblage and trapping efficiency, and were significantly more efficient than pitfall traps. However, pitfall traps caught certain species more efficiently than the other two trap types. Time spent separating insects from samples was the most laborious work stage. The time increased with increasing sample weight, i.e. the amount of wood mould in the trap. Trunk windows were the most efficient trap type also in terms of saproxylic species and individuals per handling time. We conclude that saproxylic beetle fauna living in hollow urban trees can be efficiently sampled with small trunk window traps or containers placed on the inner walls of hollows.
  • Boggavarapu, Nageswara Rao; Lalitkumar, Sujata; Joshua, Vijay; Kasvandik, Sergo; Salumets, Andres; Lalitkumar, Parameswaran Grace; Gemzell-Danielsson, Kristina (2016)
    The complexity of endometrial receptivity at the molecular level needs to be explored in detail to improve the management of infertility. Here, differential expression of transcriptomes in receptive endometrial glands and stroma revealed Ectonucleotide Pyrophosphatase/Phosphodiesterase 3 (ENPP3) as a progesterone regulated factor and confirmed by various methods, both at mRNA and protein level. The involvement of ENPP3 in embryo attachment was tested in an in vitro model for human embryo implantation. Interestingly, there was high expression of ENPP3 mRNA in stroma but not protein. Presence of N-glycosylated ENPP3 in receptive phase uterine fluid in women confirms its regulation by progesterone and makes it possible to use in a non-invasive test of endometrial receptivity.
  • Demir, And; Hero, Matti; Holopainen, Elina; Juul, Anders (2022)
    ObjectivesMost of the currently available ovulation prediction kits provide a relatively rough estimation of ovulation time with a short fertility window. This is due to their focus on the maximum probability of conception occurring one day before ovulation, with no follow-up after LH surge until ovulation nor during the subsequent days thereafter. Earlier studies have shown that urine of reproductive age women contains at least 3 different molecular forms of luteinizing hormone (LH); 1) intact LH, 2) LH beta-subunit (LH beta) and a 3) small molecular weight fragment of LH beta, LH beta core fragment (LH beta cf). The proportion of these LH forms in urine varies remarkably during the menstrual cycle, particularly in relation to the mid-cycle LH surge. In this exploratory study, we studied the potential implications of determining the periovulatory course of total LH immunoreactivity in urine (U-LH-ir) and intact LH immunoreactivity in serum (S-LH-ir) in the evaluation of the fertility window from a broader aspect with emphasis on the post-surge segment. MethodsWe determined total U-LH-ir in addition to intact S-LH-ir, follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), progesterone, and estradiol in 32 consecutive samples collected daily from 10 women at reproductive age. Inference to the non-intact U-LH-ir levels was made by calculating the proportion of total U-LH-ir to intact S-LH-ir. ResultsTotal U-LH-ir increased along with LH surge and remained at statistically significantly higher levels than those in serum for 5 consecutive days after the surge in S-LH-ir. S-LH-ir returned to follicular phase levels immediately on the following day after the LH surge, whereas the same took 7 days for total U-LH-ir. ConclusionsThe current exploratory study provides preliminary evidence of the fact that U-LH-ir derived from degradation products of LH remains detectable at peak levels from the LH surge until ovulation and further during the early postovulatory period of fecundability. Thus, non-intact (or total) U-LH-ir appears to be a promising marker in the evaluation of the post-surge segment of the fertility window. Future studies are needed to unravel if this method can improve the prediction of ovulation time and higher rates of fecundability in both natural and assisted conception.