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  • H. Khajavi, Siavash; Hossein Motlagh, Naser; Jaribion, Alireza; C. Werner, Liss; Holmström, Jan (2019)
    The concept of a digital twin has been used in some industries where an accurate digital model of the equipment can be used for predictive maintenance. The use of a digital twin for performance is critical, and for capital-intensive equipment such as jet engines it proved to be successful in terms of cost savings and reliability improvements. In this paper, we aim to study the expansion of the digital twin in including building life cycle management and explore the benefits and shortcomings of such implementation. In four rounds of experimentation, more than 25,000 sensor reading instances were collected, analyzed, and utilized to create and test a limited digital twin of an office building facade element. This is performed to point out the method of implementation, highlight the benefits gained from digital twin, and to uncover some of the technical shortcomings of the current Internet of Things systems for this purpose.
  • Hossein Motlagh, Naser; Mohammadrezaei, Mahsa; Hunt, Julian; Zakeri, Behnam (2020)
    Integration of renewable energy and optimization of energy use are key enablers of sustainable energy transitions and mitigating climate change. Modern technologies such the Internet of Things (IoT) offer a wide number of applications in the energy sector, i.e, in energy supply, transmission and distribution, and demand. IoT can be employed for improving energy efficiency, increasing the share of renewable energy, and reducing environmental impacts of the energy use. This paper reviews the existing literature on the application of IoT in in energy systems, in general, and in the context of smart grids particularly. Furthermore, we discuss enabling technologies of IoT, including cloud computing and different platforms for data analysis. Furthermore, we review challenges of deploying IoT in the energy sector, including privacy and security, with some solutions to these challenges such as blockchain technology. This survey provides energy policy-makers, energy economists, and managers with an overview of the role of IoT in optimization of energy systems.
  • Chen, Liang; Thombre, Sarang; Järvinen, Kimmo; Lohan, Elena Simona; Alén-Savikko, Anette; Leppäkoski, Helena; Bhuiyan, M. Zahidul H.; Bu-Pasha, Shakila; Ferrara, Giorgia Nunzia; Honkala, Salomon; Lindqvist, Jenna; Ruotsalainen, Laura; Korpisaari, Päivi; Kuusniemi, Heidi (2017)
    Internet of Things (IoT) connects sensing devices to the Internet for the purpose of exchanging information. Location information is one of the most crucial pieces of information required to achieve intelligent and context-aware IoT systems. Recently, positioning and localization functions have been realized in a large amount of IoT systems. However, security and privacy threats related to positioning in IoT have not been sufficiently addressed so far. In this paper, we survey solutions for improving the robustness, security, and privacy of location-based services in IoT systems. First, we provide an in-depth evaluation of the threats and solutions related to both global navigation satellite system (GNSS) and non-GNSS-based solutions. Second, we describe certain cryptographic solutions for security and privacy of positioning and location-based services in IoT. Finally, we discuss the state-of-the-art of policy regulations regarding security of positioning solutions and legal instruments to location data privacy in detail. This survey paper addresses a broad range of security and privacy aspects in IoT-based positioning and localization from both technical and legal points of view and aims to give insight and recommendations for future IoT systems providing more robust, secure, and privacy-preserving location-based services.