Browsing by Subject "WOLBACHIA"

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  • Reza Ghanavi, Hamid; Twort, Victoria Gwendoline; Duplouy, Anne (2021)
    Models estimate that up to 80% of all butterfly and moth species host vertically transmitted endosymbiotic microorganisms, which can affect the host fitness, metabolism, reproduction, population dynamics, and genetic diversity, among others. The supporting empirical data are however currently highly biased towards the generally more colourful butterflies, and include less information about moths. Additionally, studies of symbiotic partners of Lepidoptera predominantly focus on the common bacterium Wolbachia pipientis, while infections by other inherited microbial partners have more rarely been investigated. Here, we mine the whole genome sequence data of 47 species of Erebidae moths, with the aims to both inform on the diversity of symbionts potentially associated with this Lepidoptera group, and discuss the potential of metagenomic approaches to inform on host associated microbiome diversity. Based on the result of Kraken2 and MetaPhlAn2 analyses, we found clear evidence of the presence of Wolbachia in four species. Our result also suggests the presence of three other bacterial symbionts (Burkholderia spp., Sodalis spp. and Arsenophonus spp.) in three other moth species. Additionally, we recovered genomic material from bracovirus in about half of our samples. The detection of the latter, usually found in mutualistic association to braconid parasitoid wasps, may inform on host-parasite interactions that take place in the natural habitat of the Erebidae moths, suggesting either contamination with material from species of the host community network, or horizontal transfer of members of the microbiome between interacting species.
  • Pimentel, Andre C.; Beraldo, Camila S.; Cogni, Rodrigo (2021)
    Host shifts, when a cross-species transmission of a pathogen can lead to successful infections, are the main cause of emerging infectious diseases, such as COVID-19. A complex challenge faced by the scientific community is to address the factors that determine whether the cross-species transmissions will result in spillover or sustained onwards infections. Here we review recent literature and present a perspective on current approaches we are using to understand the mechanisms underlying host shifts. We highlight the usefulness of the interactions between Drosophila species and viruses as an ideal study model. Additionally, we discuss how cross-infection experiments - when pathogens from a natural reservoir are intentionally injected in novel host species-can test the effect cross-species transmissions may have on the fitness of virus and host, and how the host phylogeny may influence this response. We also discuss experiments evaluating how cooccurrence with other viruses or the presence of the endosymbiont bacteria Wolbachia may affect the performance of new viruses in a novel host. Finally, we discuss the need of surveys of virus diversity in natural populations using next-generation sequencing technologies. In the long term, these approaches can contribute to a better understanding of the basic biology of host shifts.
  • Minard, Guillaume; Tran, Florence-Hélène; Tran Van, Van; Fournier, Corentin; Potier, Patrick; Roiz, David; Mavingui, Patrick; Valiente Moro, Claire (2018)
    The Asian tiger mosquito Aedes albopictus became of public health concern as it can replicate and transmit viral and filarial pathogens with a strong invasive success over the world. Various strategies have been proposed to reduce mosquito population's vectorial capacity. Among them, symbiotic control of mosquito borne disease offers promising perspectives. Such method is likely to be affected by the dynamics of mosquito-associated symbiotic communities, which might in turn be affected by host genotype and environment. Our previous study suggested a correlation between mosquitoes' origin, genetic diversity and midgut bacterial diversity. To distinguish the impact of those factors, we have been studying the midgut bacterial microbiota of two Ae. albopictus populations from tropical (La Re A union) and temperate (Montpellier) origins under controlled laboratory conditions. the two populations experienced random mating or genetic bottleneck. Microbiota composition did not highlight any variation of the alpha and beta-diversities in bacterial communities related to host's populations. However, sizes of the mosquitoes were negatively correlated with the bacterial a-diversity of females. Variations in mosquito sex were associated with a shift in the composition of bacterial microbiota. The females' mosquitoes also exhibited changes in the microbiota composition according to their size and after experiencing a reduction of their genetic diversity. These results provide a framework to investigate the impact of population dynamics on the symbiotic communities associated with the tiger mosquito.