Browsing by Subject "WOMEN"

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  • Kausto, Johanna; Oksanen, Tuula; Koskinen, Aki; Pentti, Jaana; Mattila-Holappa, Pauliina; Kaila-Kangas, Leena; Nevala, Nina; Kivimaki, Mika; Vahtera, Jussi; Ervasti, Jenni (2021)
    Purpose Employers increasingly use 'return to work' (RTW) coordinators to support work ability and extend working careers, particularly among employees with reduced work ability. We examined whether applying this model was associated with changes in employee sickness absence and disability retirements. Methods We used data from the Finnish Public Sector study from 2009 until 2015. Employees where the model was introduced in 2012 constituted the cases (n = 4120, one municipality) and employees where the model was not in use during the follow-up, represented the controls (n = 5600, two municipalities). We analysed risk of disability retirement in 2013-2015 and risk of sickness absence after (2013-2015) vs. before (2009-2011) intervention by case-control status. Results The incidence of disability retirement after the intervention was lower in cases compared to controls both in the total population (hazard ratio HR = 0.49, 95% CI 0.30-0.79) and in the subgroup of participants with reduced work ability (HR = 0.34, 95% CI 0.12-0.99). The risk of sickness absence increased from pre-intervention to post-intervention period both among cases and controls although the relative increase was greater among cases (RRpost- vs. pre-intervention = 1.26, 95% CI 1.14-1.40) than controls (RRpost- vs. pre-intervention = 1.03, 95% CI 0.97-1.08). In the group of employees with reduced work ability, no difference in sickness absence trends between cases and controls was observed. Conclusions These findings suggest that RTW-coordinator model may increase employee sickness absence, but decrease the risk of disability retirement, i.e., permanent exclusion from the labour market.
  • Vuori, Matti A.; Harald, Kennet; Jula, Antti; Valsta, Liisa; Laatikainen, Tiina; Salomaa, Veikko; Tuomilehto, Jaakko; Jousilahti, Pekka; Niiranen, Teemu J. (2020)
    Aims: The objective was to evaluate whether sodium intake, assessed with the gold standard 24-h urinary collections, was related to long-term incidence of death, cardiovascular disease (CVD) and diabetes mellitus (DM). Methods:A cohort of 4630 individuals aged 25-64 years collected 24-h urine samples in 1979-2002 and were followed up to 14 years for the incidence of any CVD, coronary heart disease (CHD), stroke, heart failure (HF) and DM event, and death. Cox proportional hazards models were used to estimate the association between the baseline salt intake and incident events and adjusted for baseline age, body mass index, serum cholesterol, prevalent DM, and stratified by sex and cohort baseline year. Results: During the follow-up, we observed 423 deaths, 424 CVD events (288 CHD events, 142 strokes, 139 HF events) and 161 DM events. Compared with the highest quartile of salt intake, persons in the lowest quartile had a lower incidence of CVD (hazard ratio [HR] 0.70; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.51-0.95,p = .02), CHD (HR 0.63 [95% CI 0.42-0.94],p = .02) and DM (HR 0.52 [95% CI 0.31-0.87],p = .01). The results were non-significant for mortality, HF, and stroke. Conclusion: High sodium intake is associated with an increased incidence of CVD and DM.
  • Tammiste, Triin; Kask, Keiu; Padrik, Peeter; Idla, Kulli; Rosenstein, Karin; Jatsenko, Tatjana; Veerus, Piret; Salumets, Andres (2019)
    BackgroundOvarian insufficiency is a major concern for long-term cancer survivors. Although semen freezing is well established to preserve male fertility, the possibilities to secure post-cancer female fertility are mostly limited to oocyte or embryo freezing. These methods require time-consuming ovarian stimulation with or without in vitro fertilization (IVF) that evidently delays cancer therapy. Ovarian tissue cryopreservation and subsequent thawed tissue autotransplantation are considered the most promising alternative strategy for restoring the fertility of oncology patients, which has not yet received the full clinical acceptance. Therefore, all successful cases are needed to prove its reliability and safety.Case presentationHere we report a single case in Estonia, where a 28-year-old woman with malignant breast neoplasm had ovarian cortex cryopreserved before commencing gonadotoxic chemo- and radiotherapy. Two years after cancer therapy, the patient underwent heterotopic ovarian tissue transplantation into the lateral pelvic wall. The folliculogenesis was stimulated in the transplanted tissue by exogenous follicle-stimulating hormone and oocytes were collected under ultrasound guidance for IVF and embryo transfer. The healthy boy was born after full-term gestation in 2014, first in Eastern Europe.ConclusionDespite many countries have reported the first implementation of the ovarian tissue freezing and transplantation protocols, the data is still limited on the effectiveness of heterotopic ovarian transplant techniques. Thus, all case reports of heterotopic ovarian tissue transplantation and long-term follow-ups to describe the children's health are valuable source of clinical experience.
  • Maukonen, Mirkka; Mannisto, Satu; Tolonen, Hanna (2018)
    Aims: Up-to-date information on the accuracy between different anthropometric data collection methods is vital for the reliability of anthropometric data. A previous review on this matter was conducted a decade ago. Our aim was to conduct a literature review on the accuracy of self-reported height, weight, and body mass index (BMI) against measured values for assessing obesity in adults. To obtain an overview of the present situation, we included studies published after the previous review. Differences according to sex, BMI groups, and continents were also assessed. Methods: Studies published between January 2006 and April 2017 were identified from a literature search on PubMed. Results: Our search retrieved 62 publications on adult populations that showed a tendency for self-reported height to be overestimated and weight to be underestimated when compared with measured values. The findings were similar for both sexes. BMI derived from self-reported height and weight was underestimated; there was a clear tendency for underestimation of overweight (from 1.8%-points to 9.8%-points) and obesity (from 0.7%-points to 13.4%-points) prevalence by self-report. The bias was greater in overweight and obese participants than those of normal weight. Studies conducted in North America showed a greater bias, whereas the bias in Asian studies seemed to be lower than those from other continents. Conclusions: With globally rising obesity rates, accurate estimation of obesity is essential for effective public health policies to support obesity prevention. As self-report bias tends to be higher among overweight and obese individuals, measured anthropometrics provide a more reliable tool for assessing the prevalence of obesity.
  • Toijonen, Anna E.; Heinonen, Seppo T.; Gissler, Mika V. M.; Macharey, Georg (2020)
    Purpose To determine if the common risks for breech presentation at term labor are also eligible in preterm labor. Methods A Finnish cross-sectional study included 737,788 singleton births (24-42 gestational weeks) during 2004-2014. A multivariable logistic regression analysis was used to calculate the risks of breech presentation. Results The incidence of breech presentation at delivery decreased from 23.5% in pregnancy weeks 24-27 to 2.5% in term pregnancies. In gestational weeks 24-27, preterm premature rupture of membranes was associated with breech presentation. In 28-31 gestational weeks, breech presentation was associated with maternal pre-eclampsia/hypertension, preterm premature rupture of membranes, and fetal birth weight below the tenth percentile. In gestational weeks 32-36, the risks were advanced maternal age, nulliparity, previous cesarean section, preterm premature rupture of membranes, oligohydramnios, birth weight below the tenth percentile, female sex, and congenital anomaly. In term pregnancies, breech presentation was associated with advanced maternal age, nulliparity, maternal hypothyroidism, pre-gestational diabetes, placenta praevia, premature rupture of membranes, oligohydramnios, congenital anomaly, female sex, and birth weight below the tenth percentile. Conclusion Breech presentation in preterm labor is associated with obstetric risk factors compared to cephalic presentation. These risks decrease linearly with the gestational age. In moderate to late preterm delivery, breech presentation is a high-risk state and some obstetric risk factors are yet visible in early preterm delivery. Breech presentation in extremely preterm deliveries has, with the exception of preterm premature rupture of membranes, similar clinical risk profiles as in cephalic presentation.
  • Tuohinen, Suvi Sirkku; Aula, Hanna; Skyttä, Tanja; Huhtala, Heini; Keski-Pukkila, Konsta; Nikus, Kjell; Virtanen, Vesa; Kellokumpu-Lehtinen, Pirkko-Liisa; Raatikainen, Pekka (2022)
    Background/Aim: Radiotherapy (RT) induces late changes in all cardiac structures. Most studies of early changes focus on individual parameters. Patients and Methods: Data from eighty early-stage breast cancer patients at baseline, post-RT and three-year follow-up visit were assessed prospectively. Changes in ten cardiac parameters were collected including electrocardiogram (ECG), echocardiography, and biomarkers. A percentage of abnormal changes was calculated. Results: The mean heart radiation dose (Dmean) was independently associated with the increased incidence of changes post-RT (?? =0.403, p
  • Sundell, Veli-Matti; Jousi, Mikko; Hukkinen, Katja; Blanco, Roberto; Mäkelä, Teemu; Kaasalainen, Touko (2019)
    Background: Digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT) is a three-dimensional breast imaging method. DBT vendors employ various approaches in both image acquisition and data processing, which may affect image quality and radiation exposure to patients. Objective: This study aimed to evaluate the performance of five DBT systems: Fujifilm Amulet Innovality (using both a standard mode and high-resolution mode), GE Senographe Essential, Hologic Selenia Dimensions, Planmed Clarity 3D, and Siemens Mammomat Inspiration. Materials and methods: The performance of each device and imaging technique was evaluated and compared by phantom measurements performed with four quality assurance phantoms. Technical image quality assessments consisted of measuring artefact extent, in-plane resolution, relative noise power spectrum, and geometric accuracy. Results: Artefact spreading varied remarkably between the devices, and the full width at half maximum values of artefact spread functions varied from 3.5 mm to 10.7 mm. Noticeable in-plane resolution anisotropy, determined using modulation transfer function (MTF) analysis, was typically observed between tube travel direction and chest wall-nipple direction. The MTF50 varied from 1.1 mm(-1) to 1.6 mm(-1) and from 1.5 mm(-1) to 4.1 mm(-1) in the tube travel and chest wall-nipple directions, respectively. Moreover, distinctly different noise power spectra were observed between the systems. The geometric accuracy in every system was within 0.5%. Conclusion: Technical image quality assessments with image quality phantoms revealed remarkable differences in artefact spread, in-plane resolution, and noise properties between the DBT systems and imaging methods.
  • Moller, Grith; Sluik, Diewertje; Ritz, Christian; Mikkilä, Vera; Raitakari, Olli T.; Hutri-Kähönen, Nina; Dragsted, Lars O.; Larsen, Thomas M.; Poppitt, Sally D.; Silvestre, Marta P.; Feskens, Edith J. M.; Brand-Miller, Jennie; Raben, Anne (2017)
    Higher-protein diets have been advocated for body-weight regulation for the past few decades. However, the potential health risks of these diets are still uncertain. We aimed to develop a protein score based on the quantity and source of protein, and to examine the association of the score with glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c) and estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR). Analyses were based on three population studies included in the PREVIEW project (PREVention of diabetes through lifestyle Intervention and population studies in Europe and around the World): NQplus, Lifelines, and the Young Finns Study. Cross-sectional data from food-frequency questionnaires (n = 76,777 subjects) were used to develop a protein score consisting of two components: 1) percentage of energy from total protein, and 2) plant to animal protein ratio. An inverse association between protein score and HbA1c (slope -0.02 +/- 0.01 mmol/mol, p <0.001) was seen in Lifelines. We found a positive association between the protein score and eGFR in Lifelines (slope 0.17 +/- 0.02 mL/min/1.73 m(2), p <0.0001). Protein scoring might be a useful tool to assess both the effect of quantity and source of protein on health parameters. Further studies are needed to validate this newly developed protein score.
  • Gabriel, Michael; Fey, Vidal; Heinosalo, Taija; Adhikari, Prem; Rytkönen, Kalle; Komulainen, Tuomo; Huhtinen, Kaisa; Laajala, Teemu Daniel; Siitari, Harri; Virkki, Arho; Suvitie, Pia; Kujari, Harry; Aittokallio, Tero; Perheentupa, Antti; Poutanen, Matti (2020)
    Endometriosis is a common inflammatory estrogen-dependent gynecological disorder, associated with pelvic pain and reduced fertility in women. Several aspects of this disorder and its cellular and molecular etiology remain unresolved. We have analyzed the global gene expression patterns in the endometrium, peritoneum and in endometriosis lesions of endometriosis patients and in the endometrium and peritoneum of healthy women. In this report, we present the EndometDB, an interactive web-based user interface for browsing the gene expression database of collected samples without the need for computational skills. The EndometDB incorporates the expression data from 115 patients and 53 controls, with over 24000 genes and clinical features, such as their age, disease stages, hormonal medication, menstrual cycle phase, and the different endometriosis lesion types. Using the web-tool, the end-user can easily generate various plot outputs and projections, including boxplots, and heatmaps and the generated outputs can be downloaded in pdf-format.
  • Hartonen, Ville R.; Väisänen, Pertti; Karlsson, Liisa; Pöllänen, Sinikka (2022)
    The asylum regime encloses tens of millions of applicants for international protection in camps and different types of reception centres, to wait even decades for their cases to be resolved. Simultaneously both within and outside the nation state, asylum seekers and refugees occupy a social space outside the natural order of things, a stage of limbo. By incorporating the classical anthropological concepts of limbo and liminality to the methodological possibilities of meta-ethnography, we conducted to our knowledge the first meta-synthesis of 17 scientific peer-reviewed articles with the aims of defining what constitutes the concept of a stage of limbo and investigating refugees' and asylum seekers' agency as they cope when navigating in it. By dissecting detailed descriptions of forced migrants' experiences of liminality, our synthesis identified four key concepts involved in negotiations of agency in a stage of limbo: process of eligibility, spatial-temporal inconsistency, ontological insecurity and actions.
  • Moilanen, Ulla; Kirkinen, Tuija; Saari, Nelli Johanna; Rohrlach, Adam B.; Krause, Johannes; Onkamo, Païvi; Salmela, Elina (2022)
    In 1968, a weapon grave with brooches was found at Suontaka Vesitorninmäki, Hattula, Finland. Since then, the grave has been interpreted as evidence of powerful women, even female warriors and leaders in early medieval Finland. Others have denied the possibility of a woman buried with a sword and tried to explain it as a double burial. We present the first modern analysis of the grave, including an examination of its context, a soil sample analysis for microremains, and an aDNA analysis. Based on these analyses, we suggest a new interpretation: the Suontaka grave possibly belonged to an individual with sex-chromosomal aneuploidy XXY. The overall context of the grave indicates that it was a respected person whose gender identity may well have been non-binary.
  • Bogl, Leonie H.; Kaye, Sanna M.; Ramo, Joel T.; Kangas, Antti J.; Soininen, Pasi; Hakkarainen, Antti; Lundbom, Jesper; Lundbom, Nina; Ortega-Alonso, Alfredo; Rissanen, Aila; Ala-Korpela, Mika; Kaprio, Jaakko; Pietilainen, Kirsi H. (2016)
    Objective. To investigate how obesity, insulin resistance and low-grade inflammation link to circulating metabolites, and whether the connections are due to genetic or environmental factors. Subjects and methods. Circulating serum metabolites were determined by proton NMR spectroscopy. Data from 1368 (531 monozygotic (MZ) and 837 dizygotic (DZ)) twins were used for bivariate twin modeling to derive the genetic (r(g)) and environmental (re) correlations between waist circumference (WC) and serum metabolites. Detailed examination of the associations between fat distribution (DEXA) and metabolic health (HOMA-IR, CRP) was performed among 286 twins including 33 BMI-discordant MZ pairs (intrapair BMI difference >= 3 kg/m(2)). Results. Fat, especially in the abdominal area (i.e. WC, android fat % and android to gynoid fat ratio), together with HOMA-IR and CRP correlated significantly with an atherogenic lipoprotein profile, higher levels of branched-chain (BCAA) and aromatic amino acids, higher levels of glycoprotein, and a more saturated fatty acid profile. In contrast, a higher proportion of gynoid to total fat associated with a favorable metabolite profile. There was a significant genetic overlap between WC and several metabolites, most strongly with phenylalanine (r(g) = 0.40), glycoprotein (r(g) = 0.37), serum triglycerides (r(g) = 0.36), BCAAs (r(g) = 0.30-0.40), HDL particle diameter (r(g) = -0.33) and HDL cholesterol (r(g) = -0.30). The effect of acquired obesity within the discordant MZ pairs was particularly strong for atherogenic lipoproteins. Conclusions. A wide range of unfavorable alterations in the serum metabolome was associated with abdominal obesity, insulin resistance and low-grade inflammation. Twin modeling and obesity-discordant twin analysis suggest that these associations are partly explained by shared genes but also reflect mechanisms independent of genetic liability. (C) 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
  • Koivuaho, E.; Laru, J.; Ojaniemi, M.; Puukka, K.; Kettunen, J.; Tapanainen, J. S.; Franks, S.; Järvelin, M. -R.; Morin-Papunen, L.; Sebert, S.; Piltonen, T. T. (2019)
    Background: Adiposity rebound (AR), the second BMI rise in childhood at around the age of 6 years, is associated with obesity and metabolic alteration in later life. Given that polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) has a strong metabolic component, early life growth patterns could reveal a risk of PCOS. Thus, we aimed to investigate the associations between age at AR and PCOS diagnosis and BMI later in life. Materials and methods: This study is part of a prospective, population-based longitudinal study, where women with PCOS diagnosis by age 46 (n = 280) were compared with asymptomatic women (CTRLs, n = 1573). Weight and height data from birth to age 13 years, at age at menarche, and at ages 31 and 46 years were analyzed Results: Women with PCOS had lower birth weight (3357 +/- 477 vs. 3 445 +/- 505 g, p <0.001), earlier age at AR (5.2 +/- 1.0 vs. 5.6 +/- 0.90 years, p <0.001) and higher BMI from AR onwards compared with controls. Early timing of AR was associated with PCOS diagnosis independently of BMI (OR 1.62, 95% CI 1.37-1.92). Women with PCOS and early AR had higher BMI at 31 and 46 years when compared to controls with early AR. The age at AR did not associate with T levels at ages 31 or 46 years. Conclusions: Early AR was associated with PCOS diagnosis and high BMI in adulthood. Adolescent girls with early AR and persisting obesity should be screened for PCOS symptoms, such as persistent irregular cycles and hirsutism.
  • Harjutsalo, Valma; Maric-Bilkan, Christine; Forsblom, Carol; Groop, Per-Henrik; FinnDiane Study Grp (2016)
    Aims/hypothesis The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship among age at onset of diabetes, age at onset of menarche and risk of diabetic nephropathy and laser-treated retinopathy in type 1 diabetes. Methods Data related to age at menarche were collected through questionnaires and were available for 1,304 women who participated in the Finnish Diabetic Nephropathy Study (FinnDiane). A possible association between age at menarche and diabetic nephropathy and retinopathy was investigated. Results There was an inverse relationship between the age at onset of diabetes and age at menarche: the younger the age at onset of diabetes, the higher the age at menarche (p <0.0001). A non-linear relationship between the age of menarche and risk of diabetic microvascular complications was found in patients with diabetes onset before menarche, but there was no such association in patients with diabetes onset after menarche. Women with delayed menarche (> mean age+ 2 years) had a 2.30 (95% CI 1.27, 4.17; p <0.006) times higher risk of nephropathy compared with the women who underwent menarche at the mean age +/- 2 years. Delayed menarche also increased the risk of retinopathy (OR 2.34 [95% CI 1.36, 4.01]). After excluding patients with nephropathy, the OR for retinopathy was 2.11 (95% CI 1.15, 3.90). Earlier menarche (<mean age-2 years) did not have any effect on this risk. Conclusions/interpretation Delayed menarche was associated with an increased risk of diabetic nephropathy and retinopathy, whereas early menarche was not. Delayed menarche may be used as a new tool to identify women at risk of diabetic microvascular complications.
  • Mikkola, Tuija M.; Kautiainen, Hannu; Mänty, Minna; von Bonsdorff, Mikaela B.; Kröger, Teppo; Eriksson, Johan G. (2021)
    Background Evidence on family caregivers' health is conflicting. Aim To investigate all-cause and cause-specific mortality in Finnish family caregivers providing high-intensity care and to assess whether age modifies the association between family caregiver status and mortality using data from multiple national registers. Methods The data include all individuals, who received family caregiver's allowance in Finland in 2012 (n = 42,256, mean age 67 years, 71% women) and a control population matched for age, sex, and municipality of residence (n = 83,618). Information on dates and causes of death between 2012 and 2017 were obtained from the Finnish Causes of Death Register. Results Family caregivers had lower all-cause mortality than the controls over the follow-up (8.1 vs. 11.6%) both among women (socioeconomic status adjusted hazard ratio [HR]: 0.64, 95% CI 0.61-0.68) and men (adjusted HR: 0.73, 95% CI 0.70-0.77). When modelling all-cause mortality as a function of age, younger caregivers had only slightly lower or equal mortality to their controls, but older caregivers had markedly lower mortality than their controls, up to more than 10% lower. Caregivers had a lower mortality rate for all the causes of death studied, namely cardiovascular, cancer, neurological, external, respiratory, gastrointestinal and dementia. The lowest risk was for dementia (subhazard ratio = 0.29, 95% CI 0.25-0.34). Conclusions Older family caregivers had lower mortality than the age-matched general population while mortality did not differ according to caregiver status in young adulthood. This age-dependent advantage in mortality is likely to reflect the selection of healthier individuals into the family caregiver role.
  • Mäkitie, Riikka E.; Hackl, Matthias; Niinimäki, Riitta; Kakko, Sakari; Grillari, Johannes; Mäkitie, Outi (2018)
    Context: WNT signaling is fundamental to bone health, and its aberrant activation leads to skeletal pathologies. The heterozygous missense mutation p.C218G in WNT1, a key WNT pathway ligand, leads to severe early-onset and progressive osteoporosis with multiple peripheral and spinal fractures. Despite the severe skeletal manifestations, conventional bone turnover markers are normal in mutation-positive patients. Objective: This study sought to explore the circulating microRNA (miRNA) pattern in patients with impaired WNT signaling. Design and Setting: A cross-sectional cohort study at a university hospital. Participants: Altogether, 12 mutation-positive (MP) subjects (median age, 39 years; range, 11 to 76 years) and 12 mutation-negative (MN) subjects (35 years; range, 9 to 59 years) from two Finnish families with WNT1 osteoporosis due to the heterozygous p.C218G WNT1 mutation. Methods and Main Outcome Measure: Serum samples were screened for 192 miRNAs using quantitative polymerase chain reaction. Findings were compared between WNT1 MP and MN subjects. Results: The pattern of circulating miRNAs was significantly different in the MP subjects compared with the MN subjects, with two upregulated (miR-18a-3p and miR-223-3p) and six downregulated miRNAs (miR-22-3p, miR-31-5p, miR-34a-5p, miR-143-5p, miR-423-5p, and miR-423-3p). Three of these (miR-22-3p, miR-34a-5p, and miR-31-5p) are known inhibitors of WNT signaling: miR-22-3p and miR-34a-5p target WNT1 messenger RNA, and miR-31-5p is predicted to bind to WNT1 3'UTR. Conclusions: The circulating miRNA pattern reflects WNT1 mutation status. The findings suggest that the WNT1 mutation disrupts feedback regulation between these miRNAs and WNT1, providing insights into the pathogenesis of WNT-related bone disorders. These miRNAs may have potential in the diagnosis and treatment of osteoporosis.
  • Vahteristo, Maija; Heinävaara, Sirpa; Anttila, Ahti; Sarkeala, Tytti (2022)
    Objective. Primary HPV screening programmes for cervical cancer have been implemented in many European countries using a cytology triage. Nonetheless, the optimal cytology triage strategy for minimizing the harms and maximizing the benefits is yet unclear. We identified key characteristics of different algorithms for HPV screening with cytology triage.Methods. Using the Finnish randomized HPV screening trial data, we formulated five post-hoc algorithms for HPV screening with a cytology triage, one for HPV screening without a triage and one for cytology screening. Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, colposcopy referral rate and cumulative sensitivity for CIN II + s detected during the first and second screening rounds of the trial were calculated for all algorithms.Results. In the first screening round, direct referral of HPV positives to colposcopy led to the highest sensitivity (94%) accompanied by the lowest specificity (93%). Following HPV positives up with one repeat screen showed 86% sensitivity and 97% specificity. The corresponding figures with two repeat screens were 84% and 98%. In HPV algorithms, where cytology negative HPV positive individuals had no follow-up, the sensitivities were 65-82% and the specificities 98-99%. The Cytology algorithm had a low sensitivity (69%) with a high specificity (99%). Compared to the first round, the second-round sensitivities were lower and specificities similar or higher.Conclusions. The best balance between sensitivity and specificity was achieved by an HPV algorithm with two repeated follow-up tests. However, all HPV algorithms with cytology triage increased colposcopy volume more than the cytology algorithm and thus provoked overdiagnosis.(c) 2022 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license (http:// creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/).
  • Jääskeläinen, Tiina; Heinonen, Seppo; Hämäläinen, Esa; Pulkki, Kari; Romppanen, Jarkko; Laivuori, Hannele (2018)
    Objectives: To study first and second/third trimester levels of soluble fms-like tyrosine kinase 1 (sFlt1), placental growth factor (PlGF) and soluble endoglin (sEng) in FINNPEC case-control cohort. The participants were further divided into subgroups based on parity and onset of the disease. Recommended cut-off values in aid of pre-eclampsia (PE) prediction and diagnosis were also tested. Methods: First trimester serum samples were available from 221 women who later developed PE and 239 women who did not develop PE. Second/third trimester serum samples were available from 175 PE and 55 non-PE women. sFl1-1 and PlGF were measured electro-chemiluminescence immunoassays and sEng by ELISA. Results: In all timepoints PlGF, endoglin and the sFlt-1/PlGF ratio were increased in the PE group compared to the non-PE group. The serum concentrations of sFlt-1 were increased only a second/third trimester in PE women. Higher concentrations of s-Flt1, endoglin and higher sFlt/PlGF ratio were found a the third trimester in primiparous women compared to multiparous women. Primiparous PE women also had lower concentrations of PlGF a the third trimester. The proportion of women exceeding all cut-offs of the sFlt-1/PlGF ratio (>= 33, >= 38, >= 85 and >= 110) was greater in the PE group, but there were also pre-eclamptic women who met rule-out cut-off or did no meet rule-in cut-off. Conclusions: Primiparous pregnancies have more anti-angiogenic profile during second/third trimester compared with multiparous pregnancies. Our findings also suggest that certain maternal characteristics, e.g. BMI, smoking and pre-existing diseases, should be taken into account when different sFlt-1/PlGF ratio cut-offs are utilized.
  • Randler, Christoph; Adan, Ana; Antofie, Maria-Mihaela; Arrona-Palacios, Arturo; Candido, Manecas; Boeve-de Pauw, Jelle; Chandrakar, Priti; Demirhan, Eda; Detsis, Vassilis; Di Milia, Lee; Fancovicova, Jana; Gericke, Niklas; Haldar, Prasun; Heidari, Zeinab; Jankowski, Konrad S.; Lehto, Juhani E.; Lundell-Creagh, Ryan; Medina-Jerez, William; Meule, Adrian; Milfont, Taciano L.; Orgiles, Mireia; Morales, Alexandra; Natale, Vincenzo; Ortiz-Jimenez, Xochitl; Pande, Babita; Partonen, Timo; Pati, Atanu Kumar; Prokop, Pavol; Rahafar, Arash; Scheuch, Martin; Sahu, Subhashis; Tomazic, Iztok; Tonetti, Lorenzo; Medina, Pablo Vallejo; van Petegem, Peter; Vargas, Alejandro; Vollmer, Christian (2021)
    Simple Summary Animal Welfare Attitudes (AWA) can be defined as the attitudes of humans towards the welfare of animals. Although AWA has been previously associated with demographic factors as gender, one of the main limitations is that few studies applied robust psychometric questionnaire scales. Moreover, some evidence of cross-cultural variations in AWA have been reported although limited by the reduced number of countries being examined. To overcome these limitations, a survey aimed at assessing the gender differences in AWA in university students living in 22 nations, based on a questionnaire having undergone psychometric testing (i.e., the Composite Respect for Animals Scale Short version, CRAS-S), was carried out. To this end, the CRAS-S was administered to 7914 people (5155 women, 2711 men, 48 diverse) alongside a questionnaire on demographic information and diet. Moreover, the gender inequality index, based on indicators as completion of secondary education, was computed. The main results showed that diet was significantly related to AWA; more in detail, higher AWA was observed in vegans compared to omnivores. Moreover, gender differences in AWA have been reported, with women referring higher AWA compared to men. In addition, to the decreasing of gender inequality, gender differences in AWA increased. Animal Welfare Attitudes (AWA) are defined as human attitudes towards the welfare of animals in different dimensions and settings. Demographic factors, such as age and gender are associated with AWA. The aim of this study was to assess gender differences among university students in a large convenience sample from twenty-two nations in AWA. A total of 7914 people participated in the study (5155 women, 2711 men, 48 diverse). Participants completed a questionnaire that collected demographic data, typical diet and responses to the Composite Respect for Animals Scale Short version (CRAS-S). In addition, we used a measure of gender empowerment from the Human Development Report. The largest variance in AWA was explained by diet, followed by country and gender. In terms of diet, 6385 participants reported to be omnivores, 296 as pescatarian, 637 ate a vegetarian diet and 434 were vegans (n = 162 without answer). Diet was related with CRAS-S scores; people with a vegan diet scored higher in AWA than omnivores. Women scored significantly higher on AWA than men. Furthermore, gender differences in AWA increased as gender inequality decreased.
  • Konttinen, Hanna; Llewellyn, Clare; Wardle, Jane; Silventoinen, Karri; Joensuu, Anni; Mannisto, Satu; Salomaa, Veikko; Jousilahti, Pekka; Kaprio, Jaakko; Perola, Markus; Haukkala, Ari (2015)
    The mechanisms through which genes influence body weight are not well understood, but appetite has been implicated as one mediating pathway. Here we use data from two independent population-based Finnish cohorts (4632 adults aged 25-74 years from the DILGOM study and 1231 twin individuals aged 21-26 years from the FinnTwin12 study) to investigate whether two appetitive traits mediate the associations between known obesity-related genetic variants and adiposity. The results from structural equation modelling indicate that the effects of a polygenic risk score (90 obesity-related loci) on measured body mass index and waist circumference are partly mediated through higher levels of uncontrolled eating (beta(indirect) = 0.030-0.032, P <0.001 in DILGOM) and emotional eating (beta(indirect) = 0.020-0.022, P <0.001 in DILGOM and beta(indirect) = 0.013-0.015, P = 0.043-0.044 in FinnTwin12). Our findings suggest that genetic predispositions to obesity may partly exert their effects through appetitive traits reflecting lack of control over eating or eating in response to negative emotions. Obesity prevention and treatment studies should examine the impact of targeting these eating behaviours, especially among individuals having a high genetic predisposition to obesity.