Browsing by Subject "WORK"

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  • Järvinen, Teppo N. L.; Sihvonen, Raine; Englund, Martin (2014)
  • Jones, Marjaana; Pietilä, Ilkka Veikko (2020)
    Health policies and strategies promote the involvement of people with illness experiences in service development and production, integrating them into settings that have traditionally been domains of health professionals. In this study, we focus on the perspectives of people with personal illness experiences and explore how they justify involvement, position themselves as legitimate actors and forge collaborative relationships with health professionals. We have used discourse analysis in analysing individual interviews conducted with peer support workers and experts by experience (n = 17) who currently work in Finnish health services. The interviewees utilised discourses of empowerment, efficiency and patient-centeredness, aligning themselves with the justifications constructed by patient movements additionally to those found in current health policies. Both groups wanted to retain critical distance from professionals in order to voice criticisms of current care practices, yet they also frequently aligned themselves with professionals in order to gain legitimacy for their involvement. They adopted professional traits that moved them further from being lay participants sharing personal experiences and adopted an expert position. Although national-level policies provided backing and legitimacy for involvement, the lack of local-level guidance could hinder the practical implementation and make involvement largely dependent of professionals' discretion.
  • Laužikas, Rimvydas; Dallas, Costis; Thomas, Suzie; Kelpšienė, Ingrida; Huvila, Isto; Luengo, Pedro; Nobre, Helena; Toumpouri, Marina; Vaitkevičius, Vykintas (2018)
    Archaeology and material cultural heritage enjoys a particular status as a form of heritage that, capturing the public imagination, has become the locus for the expression and negotiation of regional, national, and intra-national cultural identities. One important question is: why and how do contemporary people engage with archaeological heritage objects, artefacts, information or knowledge outside the realm of an professional, academically-based archaeology? This question is investigated here from the perspective of theoretical considerations based on Yuri Lotman's semiosphere theory, which helps to describe the connections between the centre and peripheries of professional archaeology as sign structures. The centre may be defined according to prevalent scientific paradigms, while periphery in the space of creolisation in which, through interactions with other culturally more distant sign structures, archaeology-related non-professional communities emerge. On the basis of these considerations, we use collocation analysis on representative English language corpora to outline the structure of the field of archaeology-related non-professional communities, identify salient creolised peripheral spaces and archaeology-related practices, and develop a framework for further investigation of archaeological knowledge production and reuse in the context of global archaeology.
  • Shiri, Rahman; Heliovaara, Markku; Moilanen, Leena; Viikari, Jorma; Liira, Helena Johanna; Viikari-Juntura, Eira (2011)
  • Holt, R. E.; Woods, P. J.; Ferreira, A. S. A.; Bardarson, H.; Bonanomi, S.; Boonstra, W. J.; Butler, W. E.; Diekert, F. K.; Fouzai, N.; Holma, M.; Kokkalis, A.; Kvile, K. O.; MacDonald, J. I.; Malanski, E.; Nieminen, E.; Ottosen, K. M.; Pedersen, M. W.; Richter, A.; Rogers, L.; Romagnoni, G.; Snickars, M.; Tornroos, A.; Weigel, B.; Whittington, J. D.; Yletyinen, J. (2017)
    As the world's social-environmental problems increasingly extend across boundaries, both disciplinary and political, there is a growing need for interdisciplinarity, not only in research per se, but also in doctoral education. We present the common pitfalls of interdisciplinary research in doctoral education, illustrating approaches towards solutions using the Nordic Centre for Research on Marine Ecosystems and Resources under Climate Change (NorMER) research network as a case study. We provide insights and detailed examples of how to overcome some of the challenges of conducting interdisciplinary research within doctoral studies that can be applied within any doctoral/postdoctoral education programme, and beyond. Results from a self-evaluation survey indicate that early-career workshops, annual meetings and research visits to other institutions were the most effective learning mechanisms, whereas single discipline-focused courses and coursework were among the least effective learning mechanisms. By identifying the strengths and weaknesses of components of NorMER, this case study can inform the design of future programmes to enhance interdisciplinarity in doctoral education, as well as be applied to science collaboration and academic research in general.
  • Skålen, Per; Fougère, Martin (Emerald Group Publishing Ltd, 2007)
  • Katila, Saija; Laamanen, Mikko; Laihonen, Maarit; Lund, Recebba; Meriläinen, Susan; Rinkinen, Jenny; Tienari, Janne (2020)
    Purpose The purpose of this paper is to analyze how global and local changes in higher education impact upon writing practices through which doctoral students become academics. The study explores how norms and values of academic writing practice are learned, negotiated and resisted and elucidates how competences related to writing come to determine the academic selves. Design/methodology/approach The study uses memory work, which is a group method that puts attention to written individual memories and their collective analysis and theorizing. The authors offer a comparison of experiences in becoming academics by two generational cohorts (1990s and 2010s) in the same management studies department in a business school. Findings The study indicates that the contextual and temporal enactment of academic writing practice in the department created a situation where implicit and ambiguous criteria for writing competence gradually changed into explicit and narrow ones. The change was relatively slow for two reasons. First, new performance management indicators were introduced over a period of two decades. Second, when the new indicators were gradually introduced, they were locally resisted. The study highlights how the focus, forms and main actors of resistance changed over time. Originality/value The paper offers a detailed account of how exogenous changes in higher education impact upon, over time and cultural space, academic writing practices through which doctoral students become academics.
  • Stenholm, Sari; Solovieva, Svetlana; Viikari-Juntura, Eira; Aalto, Ville; Kivimaki, Mika; Vahtera, Jussi (2017)
    Background: Retirement is a major life transition affecting health behaviors. The aim of this study was to examine within-individual changes in body mass index (BMI) during transition from full-time work to statutory retirement by sex and physical work characteristics. Methods: A multiwave cohort study repeated every 4 years and data linkage to records from retirement registers. Participants were 5426 Finnish public-sector employees who retired on a statutory basis in 2000-2011 and who reported their body weight one to three times prior to (w(-3), w(-2), w(-1)), and one to three times after (w(+1), w(+2), w(+3)) retirement. Results: During the 4-year retirement transition (w(+1), vs. w(-1)) men showed decline in BMI, which was most marked among men with sedentary work (-0.18 kg/m(2), 95% CI -.30 to -0.05). In contrast, BMI increased during retirement transition in women and was most marked among women with diverse (0.14 kg/m(2), 95% CI 0.08 to 0.20) or physically heavy work (0.31 kg/m(2), 95% CI 0.16 to 0.45). Physical activity during leisure time or commuting to work, alcohol consumption or smoking did not explain the observed changes during retirement transition. Conclusions: In this study statutory retirement was associated with small changes in BMI. Weight loss was most visible in men retiring from sedentary jobs and weight gain in women retiring from diverse and physically heavy jobs.
  • Stenholm, Sari; Pulakka, Anna; Kawachi, Ichiro; Oksanen, Tuula; Halonen, Jaana I.; Aalto, Ville; Kivimaki, Mika; Vahtera, Jussi (2016)
    Background: Retirement is a major life transition which may affect lifestyle. The aim of this study is to examine within-individual changes in physical activity during the transition from full-time work to retirement. Methods: The study population consisted of 9,488 Finnish public-sector employees who retired in 2000-2011 and who reported their leisure-time and commuting physical activity before and after retirement. On average, participants provided data at 3.6 (of the four) repeat examinations during 10 years before and 10 years after the retirement. Physical activity was self-reported and was expressed as weekly metabolic equivalent task (MET) hours. Generalized estimating equations were used to examine physical activity trajectories around retirement. Results: Among participants entering to statutory retirement physical activity first increased by 1.81 MET-hours (95 % confidence interval [CI] 1.20 to 2.42) during 4-year retirement transition, but then decreased by -1.80 MET hours (95 % CI -2.83 to -0.79) during the subsequent post-retirement period. Older retirement age, higher occupational status and fewer chronic diseases were associated with greater increase in physical activity during transition to statutory retirement. Conclusions: Statutory retirement appears to be associated with a temporary increase in physical activity. Future research should examine ways to maintain the increased activity level after retirement.
  • Sortheix, Florencia M.; Parker, Philip D.; Lechner, Clemens; Schwartz, Shalom (2019)
    We investigate the impact of the global financial crisis (GFC) on the personal values of youth and young adults (age 16-35 years) from 16 European countries. Using time series cross-sectional data from seven waves (2002-2014) of the European Social Survey, we examined (1) whether the GFC led to value shifts between cohorts of young people and (2) whether welfare state provision moderate the expected value shifts. Multilevel analyses showed that, following the GFC, the importance of security, tradition, benevolence, and, to a lesser extent, conformity values increased. In contrast, hedonism, self-direction, and stimulation values decreased. In line with our moderation hypothesis, power, and, to a lesser extent, achievement values increased following the GFC in countries low on welfare expenditures but decreased in countries high on welfare expenditures. Contrary to expectations, increases in tradition and benevolence values were more pronounced in high-welfare countries.
  • Vuokko, Aki; Karvala, Kirsi; Suojalehto, Hille; Lindholm, Harri; Selinheimo, Sanna; Heinonen-Guzejev, Marja; Leppamaki, Sami; Cederstrom, Sebastian; Hublin, Christer; Tuisku, Katinka; Sainio, Markku (2019)
    Background: Chronic nonspecific symptoms attributed to indoor nonindustrial work environments are common and may cause disability, but the medical nature of this disability is unclear. The aim was to medically characterize the disability manifested by chronic, recurrent symptoms and restrictions to work participation attributed to low-level indoor pollutants at workplace and whether the condition shares features with idiopathic environmental intolerance. Methods: We investigated 12 patients with indoor air-related work disability. The examinations included somatic, psychological, and psychiatric evaluations as well as investigations of the autonomic nervous system, cortisol measurements, lung function, and allergy tests. We evaluated well-being, health, disability, insomnia, pain, anxiety, depression, and burnout via questionnaires. Results: The mean symptom history was 10.5 years; for disabling symptoms, 2.7 years. Eleven patients reported reactions triggered mainly by indoor molds, one by fragrances only. Ten reported sensitivity to odorous chemicals, and three, electric devices. Nearly all had co-occurrent somatic and psychiatric diagnoses and signs of pain, insomnia, burnout, and/or elevated sympathetic responses. Avoiding certain environments had led to restrictions in several life areas. On self-assessment scales, disability showed higher severity and anxiety showed lower severity than in physician assessments. Conclusion: No medical cause was found to explain the disability. Findings support that the condition is a form of idiopathic environmental intolerance and belongs to functional somatic syndromes. Instead of endless avoidance, rehabilitation approaches of functional somatic syndromes are applicable. (C) 2019 Occupational Safety and Health Research Institute, Published by Elsevier Korea LLC.
  • Ahonen, Lauri; Cowley, Benjamin; Torniainen, Jari; Ukkonen, Antti; Vihavainen, Arto; Puolamäki, Kai (2016)
    It is known that periods of intense social interaction result in shared patterns in collaborators' physiological signals. However, applied quantitative research on collaboration is hindered due to scarcity of objective metrics of teamwork effectiveness. Indeed, especially in the domain of productive, ecologically-valid activity such as programming, there is a lack of evidence for the most effective, affordable and reliable measures of collaboration quality. In this study we investigate synchrony in physiological signals between collaborating computer science students performing pair-programming exercises in a class room environment. We recorded electrocardiography over the course of a 60 minute programming session, using lightweight physiological sensors. We employ correlation of heart-rate variability features to study social psychophysiological compliance of the collaborating students. We found evident physiological compliance in collaborating dyads' heart-rate variability signals. Furthermore, dyads' self-reported workload was associated with the physiological compliance. Our results show viability of a novel approach to field measurement using lightweight devices in an uncontrolled environment, and suggest that self-reported collaboration quality can be assessed via physiological signals.
  • Kouvonen, A.; Kivimaki, M.; Pentti, J.; Aalto, V.; Oksanen, T.; Virtanen, M.; Vahtera, J. (2017)
    AimsTo investigate if diabetes is associated with a higher risk of occupational (workplace or commuting) injury. MethodsMedication data from the Finnish Prescription Register were used to identify diabetes cases in 2004 in a large employee cohort (the Finnish Public Sector study). These data were linked to injury records obtained from the Federation of Accident Insurance Institutions. A total of 1020 diabetes cases (median age 52 years, range 20 to 65 years; 66% women) and their 5234 age- and sex-matched controls were followed up until 2011. Sex-stratified Cox proportional hazards models, adjusting for age, occupational status, obesity and health behaviours, were applied. Because of the small number of men in the cohort, injury types and locations were only examined among women. ResultsDuring the median follow-up of 6.7 years, 25% of the participants with diabetes (n=252) and 20% of those without (n=1051) experienced an occupational injury. The association between diabetes and injury was stronger in women than men (P=0.048). Diabetes was associated with a higher risk of workplace (hazard ratio 1.37, 95% CI 1.11 to 1.69) and commuting (hazard ratio 1.36, 95% CI 1.03 to 1.79) injury in women. With regard to different injury types and locations, diabetes was associated with bone fractures, dislocations, sprains and strains, and injuries to upper and lower extremities. In men, there was an association between insulin-treated diabetes and commuting injury (hazard ratio 3.14, 95% CI 1.52 to 6.49). ConclusionsDiabetes was associated with workplace and commuting injuries in women. Men with insulin-treated diabetes had a higher risk of commuting injuries.
  • Ahmad, Akhlaq (2020)
    Using a correspondence field experiment, the study reported in this article has investigated if immigrant job applicants with equivalent qualifications are treated differently in the Finnish labour market. The study consists of 5000 job applications that were sent out to 1000 advertised positions by five applicants of Finnish, English, Iraqi, Russian and Somali backgrounds, who differed only in their names. The findings show that applicants of immigrant origin receive significantly fewer invitations for a job interview than the native candidate, even if they possess identical language proficiency, education and vocational diplomas. However, the extent of discrimination is not equally distributed among the immigrant groups. Rather, job applicants from non-European backgrounds seem to suffer a significantly greater labour-market penalty. The findings clearly suggest that, despite anti-discrimination legislation and measures aimed at promoting equal employment opportunities, discrimination continues to remain a serious barrier to immigrants' labour-market integration in a Nordic welfare society.
  • Serlachius, Anna; Pulkki-Råback, Laura; Juonala, Markus; Sabin, Matthew; Lehtimäki, Terho; Raitakari, Olli; Elovainio, Marko (2017)
    Objective: The transmission of overweight from one generation to the next is well established, however little is known about what psychosocial factors may protect against this familial risk. The aim of this study was to examine whether optimism plays a role in the intergenerational transmission of obesity. Methods: Our sample included 1043 participants from the prospective Cardiovascular Risk in Young FINNS Study. Optimism was measured in early adulthood (2001) when the cohort was aged 24-39 years. BMI was measured in 2001 (baseline) and 2012 when they were aged 35-50 years. Parental BMI was measured in 1980. Hierarchical linear regression and logistic regression were used to examine the association between optimism and future BMI/obesity, and whether an interaction existed between optimism and parental BMI when predicting BMI/obesity 11 years later. Results: High optimism in young adulthood demonstrated a negative relationship with high BMI in mid-adulthood, but only in women (beta = - 0.127, p = 0.001). The optimism x maternal BMI interaction term was a significant predictor of future BMI in women (beta = 0.588, p = 0.036). The logistic regression results confirmed that high optimism predicted reduced obesity in women (OR = 0.68, 95% CI, 0.55-0.86), however the optimism x maternal obesity interaction term was not a significant predictor (OR = 0.50, 95% CI, 0.10-2.48). Conclusions: Our findings supported our hypothesis that high optimism mitigated the intergenerational transmission of high BMI, but only in women. These findings also provided evidence that positive psychosocial factors such as optimism are associated with long-term protective effects on BMI in women.
  • Sumanen, Hilla; Lahelma, Eero; Lahti, Jouni; Pietiläinen, Olli; Rahkonen, Ossi (2016)
    Objective Socioeconomic differences in sickness absence (SA) are well established among older employees but poorly understood among the young. Our aim was to examine 12-year trends in educational differences in SA among young female and male employees, and to assess the magnitude of the differences. Design We examined annual SA spells. The data were obtained from the employer's registers and linked to Statistics Finland's register data on completed education and qualifications. Education was classified into four hierarchical groups. Joinpoint regression models were used to identify turning points in SA trends. The magnitude of the relative educational differences was estimated in accordance with the relative index of inequality for 2002, 2008 and 2013. Setting Employees of the City of Helsinki, Finland, in 2002-2013. Participants The analyses covered female and male employees aged 25-34years: employees aged 35-54years were used as a reference group. Outcome SA spells. Results An educational gradient emerged among younger and older women and men. SA spells increased in the early 2000s, and downward turning points were located in 2007-2010 in all educational groups among women and in most groups among men. The magnitude of the differences remained broadly stable among younger women from 2002 to 2013, and decreased slightly among older women and more strongly among younger and older men. The educational differences were greater among men than women in the early 2000s, but similar among both at the end of the study period. Conclusions The changes in SA spells may reflect the economic downturn started in 2008 and resulting job insecurity. Early preventive measures aimed at reducing educational differences in SA should be focused at an early stage on those with low levels of education in particular.
  • Hujala, Anneli; Oksman, Erja (2018)
    Cross-boundary collaboration, both multiprofessional and interorganizational, is needed when providing integrated care for people with multiple problems, who need services at the same time from diverse care providers. Multiple problems of clients also pose extra challenges for interaction between care professionals and clients. Emotional dynamics are always present in everyday interaction between human beings, but seldom explicitly addressed in research on integrated care. The aim of this reflective paper is to illustrate the emotional dimensions of integrated care in light of the experiences of care professionals in the context of care for people with multiple complex problems. The paper draws on a Finnish study on integrated care reflecting its findings from the perspective of emotional labor. The difficult life situations of people with multiple complex problems form an emotional burden, which is mirrored in the interaction between clients and professionals and affects relational dynamics among professionals. Professionals' fear of emotions and the different feeling rules' of care professions and sectors pose extra challenges to professionals' collaboration in this emotionally loaded context. Alongside the structural and functional aspects of integrated care, it is important that emotions embedded in everyday cross-boundary collaboration are recognized and taken into account in order to ensure the success of integrated care.
  • Rakotoarison, Zo R.; Dietrich, Stephanie; Hiilamo, Heikki (2021)
    Contributing to the emerging religion and development literature, this study sets out to analyse the role of faith in the context of a particular development approach, 'Use Your Talents' (UYT) at the Malagasy Lutheran Church in Madagascar. By analysing the views of lay Christian informants with regard to their involvement in the UYT project, the study asked what is the role of faith as an intangible asset in an asset-based community development project? The qualitative data were collected through participant observations and interviews conducted in four congregations across Madagascar in 2018. The results showed that church teachings and biblical stories created a normativity of good and desirable behaviour in the context of the asset-based community development project. Faith may constitute an asset when it promoted the individual's capacity to achieve positive economic and social change. Contribution: This research broadened the understanding of religion in the context of asset-based community development projects. The results showed that the participants attributed their engagement in community development to their religious calling. The belief in the existence of a higher power not only seemed to influence individuals to act but also enabled them to feel empowered and have something to contribute. As a contribution to sociology of religion, this study showed that community development can be part of Christians' and congregational holistic activities that depended on local knowledge and resources. Faith not only motivated individuals to engage in community development, but also it seemed to represent the essence of their engagement.
  • Kaihlanen, Anu-Marja; Elovainio, Marko; Haavisto, Elina; Salminen, Leena; Sinervo, Timo (2020)
    Background The shortage of nurses is a global issue, and turnover rates are especially high for newly graduated nurses. The transition from student to nurse is often described as challenging, and the final clinical practicum before graduation is suggested to be important in preparing graduating students for the transition. However, little is known about the actual relationships between the final clinical practicum, transition and turnover intentions. Objectives To examine whether the final clinical practicum experience is associated with the transition experience and turnover intentions of newly graduated nurses, and whether the transition experience mediates the potential relationship between the practicum and turnover intentions. Design Cross-sectional survey study. Settings The study was carried out in Finland (October–December 2018). Participants Registered nurses graduated within the past two years (n = 712). Methods A new survey instrument with five subscales was developed for measuring the final clinical practicum experience. Transition experience was measured on four scales that demonstrated the emotional, physical, socio-developmental and intellectual domains of the transition: Psychological distress, sleep quality, role conflict/ambiguity, perception of transition and educational preparation. Turnover intentions from job and profession were asked about with two questions. Structural equation modelling was used to explore the associations between the variables. The models were adjusted for multiple potential confounders. Results Final clinical practicum experience was associated with all domains of the transition experience and turnover intentions. The association between the practicum and turnover intentions was partly mediated by the emotional (psychological distress) and socio-developmental (role conflict and ambiguity) domains of the transition. Conclusions Our findings provide new evidence about the associations between the specific final clinical practicum dimensions and turnover intentions and the specific mechanisms linking this association. These results highlight the importance of final clinical practicums and suggest targets for improving nurses' transition processes during their first years in practice.