Browsing by Subject "WORK"

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  • Unal Abaday, Didem (2022)
    This article examines young Muslim women's dissident mentalities, practices, and subjectivities that confront the epistemological conditions whereby right-wing populist (RWP) gender politics operates in Turkey. Relying on frame theory in social movement research and the Foucauldian approach to resistance, dissent, and protest, it explores Muslim feminist critique of RWP gender discourse mainly with a focus on the following issues: (i.) Instrumentalization of the headscarf, (ii.) familialist policies, and (iii.) violence against women and the Istanbul Convention (the Convention on Preventing and Combating Violence Against Women and Domestic Violence). As a result, it demonstrates that young Muslim women's dissident mentalities and subjectivities generate a new "political project", i.e., a set of new meanings and social goals directed at bringing about social change, which comes into being through the act of resistance against RWP gender grammar and carves out new forms of knowledge reclaiming the Islam-gender nexus for a progressive feminist agenda.
  • Koskenvuori, Mika; Pietilainen, Olli; Elovainio, Marko; Rahkonen, Ossi; Salonsalmi, Aino (2021)
    Objectives Level of perceived interactional justice has been shown to be associated with sickness absence, but less is known about the effects of changes in interactional justice. It is also unknown to what extent unmeasured, time-invariant differences contribute to the association. We investigated the association between interactional justice changes and subsequent short-term (1-3 days) sickness absences over a 12-year follow-up using between- and within-individual modeling among ageing municipal employees. Methods The data was derived from Helsinki Health Study cohort with baseline survey in 2000-2002 (N=8960, response rate 67%) and follow-up surveys in 2007 and 2012 (response rates 79% and 83%, respectively). At baseline, participants were 40-60-year-old employees of the City of Helsinki, Finland. Sickness absences from the employer's registry were linked with the responses (78%). The analytic sample was 2109 and 2070 individuals for between-individual and 4433 individuals and 8425 observations for within-individual associations. Results Negative change in interactional justice was associated with an increased risk of short-term sickness absence in between-individual models after adjusting for age and gender. Adjustment for sickness absence history attenuated the association. In within-individual models, a negative change in perceived interactional justice was associated with an increased risk of short-term sickness absence spells [incidence rate ratios (IRR) 1.05 (95% confidence interval 1.01-1.09)]. This association was robust to adjustments for gender, age, health behaviors and sickness absence history. Conclusions Paying attention to management principles - especially managerial behavior and treatment of employees to avoid the deterioration of the level of interactional justice - may provide a way of reducing self-certified short-term sickness absence spells.
  • Järvinen, Teppo N. L.; Sihvonen, Raine; Englund, Martin (2014)
  • Simola, Anna (2022)
    In critical social research the concept of employability is associated with the neoliberal imperative that every individual should become a self-responsible, self-improving and enterprising subject in the increasingly precarious labour markets. Despite the prominence of employability in policies governing young people's intra-European migration, few studies examine migrants' subjectivities in this context. Building on narrative data, this article adds to our understanding on how neoliberal subject formations function as an instrument for governing young EU migrants' lives in conditions of precarious labour. Central to this understanding, it develops the concept of passion to depict young migrants' quest for obtaining work with opportunities for self-development and self-realisation. This concept contributes to the study of highly qualified intra-EU migration by allowing critical analysis of meanings given to mobility in relation to work; by highlighting dynamics of (self-)precarisation in this context; and by advancing debates on social-structural inequality among EU migrants pursuing their quest for passion.
  • Jones, Marjaana; Pietilä, Ilkka Veikko (2020)
    Health policies and strategies promote the involvement of people with illness experiences in service development and production, integrating them into settings that have traditionally been domains of health professionals. In this study, we focus on the perspectives of people with personal illness experiences and explore how they justify involvement, position themselves as legitimate actors and forge collaborative relationships with health professionals. We have used discourse analysis in analysing individual interviews conducted with peer support workers and experts by experience (n = 17) who currently work in Finnish health services. The interviewees utilised discourses of empowerment, efficiency and patient-centeredness, aligning themselves with the justifications constructed by patient movements additionally to those found in current health policies. Both groups wanted to retain critical distance from professionals in order to voice criticisms of current care practices, yet they also frequently aligned themselves with professionals in order to gain legitimacy for their involvement. They adopted professional traits that moved them further from being lay participants sharing personal experiences and adopted an expert position. Although national-level policies provided backing and legitimacy for involvement, the lack of local-level guidance could hinder the practical implementation and make involvement largely dependent of professionals' discretion.
  • Laužikas, Rimvydas; Dallas, Costis; Thomas, Suzie; Kelpšienė, Ingrida; Huvila, Isto; Luengo, Pedro; Nobre, Helena; Toumpouri, Marina; Vaitkevičius, Vykintas (2018)
    Archaeology and material cultural heritage enjoys a particular status as a form of heritage that, capturing the public imagination, has become the locus for the expression and negotiation of regional, national, and intra-national cultural identities. One important question is: why and how do contemporary people engage with archaeological heritage objects, artefacts, information or knowledge outside the realm of an professional, academically-based archaeology? This question is investigated here from the perspective of theoretical considerations based on Yuri Lotman's semiosphere theory, which helps to describe the connections between the centre and peripheries of professional archaeology as sign structures. The centre may be defined according to prevalent scientific paradigms, while periphery in the space of creolisation in which, through interactions with other culturally more distant sign structures, archaeology-related non-professional communities emerge. On the basis of these considerations, we use collocation analysis on representative English language corpora to outline the structure of the field of archaeology-related non-professional communities, identify salient creolised peripheral spaces and archaeology-related practices, and develop a framework for further investigation of archaeological knowledge production and reuse in the context of global archaeology.
  • Partanen, Eino; Laari, Siiri P K; Kantele, Oona Karoliina; Kämppi, Leena S; Nybo, Taina Tuulikki (2022)
    Objectives: Previous studies have shown that younger age, higher education, and seizure freedom after epilepsy surgery are associated with employment. However, very few studies have investigated associations with cognition and employment status in epilepsy surgery patients.Methods: This retrospective study consists of 46 adult patients, who underwent resective epilepsy surgery in the Helsinki University Hospital between 2010 and 2018 and who had been assessed by a neuropsychologist prior to surgery and 6 months after surgery using a systematic test battery. In addition to neuropsychological evaluation, neurologists assessed the patients prior to surgery and followed up the patients up to 24 months after the surgery and evaluated work status of the patients. Logistic regression models were used to assess the effects of cognition on changes in employment status, while controlling for age and education. Results: Out of the 46 patients 38 (82.6%) were seizure free and 7 (15.2%) had their seizures reduced 2 years postsurgically. From prior to surgery to 2 years postsurgery, use of antiseizure medication was reduced in most of the patients, mean reduction of the dosage being 26.9%. Employment status improved in 10 (21.7%) patients, remained unchanged in 27 (58.7%) and worsened in 3 (6.5%). An additional 6 patients were already not working prior to surgery. Subsequent analyses are based on the subsample of 37 patients whose employment status improved or remained unchanged. Mistakes in executive function tasks (p = 0.048) and working memory performance (p = 0.020) differentiated between the group whose employment status remained similar and those who were able to improve their employment status. Epilepsy surgery outcome or changes in antiseizure medication (ASM) use were not associated with changes in employment status.Conclusions: In the subsample of 37 patients, errors in executive function tasks and poorer working memory differentiated patients whose employment status did not change from those patients who could improve their employment status. Problems in executive function and working memory tasks might hinder performance in a complex work environment. When assessing the risks and opportunities in returning to work after surgery, difficulties in working memory and executive function performance should be taken into consideration as they may predispose the patient to challenges at work.(c) 2022 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. This is an open access article under the CC BY license (http:// creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).
  • Shiri, Rahman; Heliovaara, Markku; Moilanen, Leena; Viikari, Jorma; Liira, Helena Johanna; Viikari-Juntura, Eira (2011)
  • Pesonen, Henri; Tuononen, Tarja; Fabri, Marc; Lahdelma, Minja (2022)
    An unprecedented number of autistic people are completing university and they frequently face unemployment after graduation. However, research focusing on the forms of graduate capital and their employability is scarce. The focus of existing research has been on non-autistic, or neurotypical, graduates. The human, social, cultural, identity and psychological capital might be different for autistic graduates due to the characteristics of autism. Using a participatory approach, our aim was to examine the five areas of graduate capital in the context of autistic graduates. The study involved semi-structured interviews with 15 autistic university graduates from England, Finland, France and the Netherlands. Data were analysed using theory guided content analysis and 'datadriven' approaches. Findings indicate that the five areas of graduate capital are particularly relevant to autistic graduates, who typically expose gaps in several capital, jeopardising their employability.
  • Holt, R. E.; Woods, P. J.; Ferreira, A. S. A.; Bardarson, H.; Bonanomi, S.; Boonstra, W. J.; Butler, W. E.; Diekert, F. K.; Fouzai, N.; Holma, M.; Kokkalis, A.; Kvile, K. O.; MacDonald, J. I.; Malanski, E.; Nieminen, E.; Ottosen, K. M.; Pedersen, M. W.; Richter, A.; Rogers, L.; Romagnoni, G.; Snickars, M.; Tornroos, A.; Weigel, B.; Whittington, J. D.; Yletyinen, J. (2017)
    As the world's social-environmental problems increasingly extend across boundaries, both disciplinary and political, there is a growing need for interdisciplinarity, not only in research per se, but also in doctoral education. We present the common pitfalls of interdisciplinary research in doctoral education, illustrating approaches towards solutions using the Nordic Centre for Research on Marine Ecosystems and Resources under Climate Change (NorMER) research network as a case study. We provide insights and detailed examples of how to overcome some of the challenges of conducting interdisciplinary research within doctoral studies that can be applied within any doctoral/postdoctoral education programme, and beyond. Results from a self-evaluation survey indicate that early-career workshops, annual meetings and research visits to other institutions were the most effective learning mechanisms, whereas single discipline-focused courses and coursework were among the least effective learning mechanisms. By identifying the strengths and weaknesses of components of NorMER, this case study can inform the design of future programmes to enhance interdisciplinarity in doctoral education, as well as be applied to science collaboration and academic research in general.
  • Skålen, Per; Fougère, Martin (Emerald Group Publishing Ltd, 2007)
  • Katila, Saija; Laamanen, Mikko; Laihonen, Maarit; Lund, Recebba; Meriläinen, Susan; Rinkinen, Jenny; Tienari, Janne (2020)
    Purpose The purpose of this paper is to analyze how global and local changes in higher education impact upon writing practices through which doctoral students become academics. The study explores how norms and values of academic writing practice are learned, negotiated and resisted and elucidates how competences related to writing come to determine the academic selves. Design/methodology/approach The study uses memory work, which is a group method that puts attention to written individual memories and their collective analysis and theorizing. The authors offer a comparison of experiences in becoming academics by two generational cohorts (1990s and 2010s) in the same management studies department in a business school. Findings The study indicates that the contextual and temporal enactment of academic writing practice in the department created a situation where implicit and ambiguous criteria for writing competence gradually changed into explicit and narrow ones. The change was relatively slow for two reasons. First, new performance management indicators were introduced over a period of two decades. Second, when the new indicators were gradually introduced, they were locally resisted. The study highlights how the focus, forms and main actors of resistance changed over time. Originality/value The paper offers a detailed account of how exogenous changes in higher education impact upon, over time and cultural space, academic writing practices through which doctoral students become academics.
  • Stenholm, Sari; Solovieva, Svetlana; Viikari-Juntura, Eira; Aalto, Ville; Kivimaki, Mika; Vahtera, Jussi (2017)
    Background: Retirement is a major life transition affecting health behaviors. The aim of this study was to examine within-individual changes in body mass index (BMI) during transition from full-time work to statutory retirement by sex and physical work characteristics. Methods: A multiwave cohort study repeated every 4 years and data linkage to records from retirement registers. Participants were 5426 Finnish public-sector employees who retired on a statutory basis in 2000-2011 and who reported their body weight one to three times prior to (w(-3), w(-2), w(-1)), and one to three times after (w(+1), w(+2), w(+3)) retirement. Results: During the 4-year retirement transition (w(+1), vs. w(-1)) men showed decline in BMI, which was most marked among men with sedentary work (-0.18 kg/m(2), 95% CI -.30 to -0.05). In contrast, BMI increased during retirement transition in women and was most marked among women with diverse (0.14 kg/m(2), 95% CI 0.08 to 0.20) or physically heavy work (0.31 kg/m(2), 95% CI 0.16 to 0.45). Physical activity during leisure time or commuting to work, alcohol consumption or smoking did not explain the observed changes during retirement transition. Conclusions: In this study statutory retirement was associated with small changes in BMI. Weight loss was most visible in men retiring from sedentary jobs and weight gain in women retiring from diverse and physically heavy jobs.
  • Stenholm, Sari; Pulakka, Anna; Kawachi, Ichiro; Oksanen, Tuula; Halonen, Jaana I.; Aalto, Ville; Kivimaki, Mika; Vahtera, Jussi (2016)
    Background: Retirement is a major life transition which may affect lifestyle. The aim of this study is to examine within-individual changes in physical activity during the transition from full-time work to retirement. Methods: The study population consisted of 9,488 Finnish public-sector employees who retired in 2000-2011 and who reported their leisure-time and commuting physical activity before and after retirement. On average, participants provided data at 3.6 (of the four) repeat examinations during 10 years before and 10 years after the retirement. Physical activity was self-reported and was expressed as weekly metabolic equivalent task (MET) hours. Generalized estimating equations were used to examine physical activity trajectories around retirement. Results: Among participants entering to statutory retirement physical activity first increased by 1.81 MET-hours (95 % confidence interval [CI] 1.20 to 2.42) during 4-year retirement transition, but then decreased by -1.80 MET hours (95 % CI -2.83 to -0.79) during the subsequent post-retirement period. Older retirement age, higher occupational status and fewer chronic diseases were associated with greater increase in physical activity during transition to statutory retirement. Conclusions: Statutory retirement appears to be associated with a temporary increase in physical activity. Future research should examine ways to maintain the increased activity level after retirement.
  • Sortheix, Florencia M.; Parker, Philip D.; Lechner, Clemens; Schwartz, Shalom (2019)
    We investigate the impact of the global financial crisis (GFC) on the personal values of youth and young adults (age 16-35 years) from 16 European countries. Using time series cross-sectional data from seven waves (2002-2014) of the European Social Survey, we examined (1) whether the GFC led to value shifts between cohorts of young people and (2) whether welfare state provision moderate the expected value shifts. Multilevel analyses showed that, following the GFC, the importance of security, tradition, benevolence, and, to a lesser extent, conformity values increased. In contrast, hedonism, self-direction, and stimulation values decreased. In line with our moderation hypothesis, power, and, to a lesser extent, achievement values increased following the GFC in countries low on welfare expenditures but decreased in countries high on welfare expenditures. Contrary to expectations, increases in tradition and benevolence values were more pronounced in high-welfare countries.
  • Vuokko, Aki; Karvala, Kirsi; Suojalehto, Hille; Lindholm, Harri; Selinheimo, Sanna; Heinonen-Guzejev, Marja; Leppamaki, Sami; Cederstrom, Sebastian; Hublin, Christer; Tuisku, Katinka; Sainio, Markku (2019)
    Background: Chronic nonspecific symptoms attributed to indoor nonindustrial work environments are common and may cause disability, but the medical nature of this disability is unclear. The aim was to medically characterize the disability manifested by chronic, recurrent symptoms and restrictions to work participation attributed to low-level indoor pollutants at workplace and whether the condition shares features with idiopathic environmental intolerance. Methods: We investigated 12 patients with indoor air-related work disability. The examinations included somatic, psychological, and psychiatric evaluations as well as investigations of the autonomic nervous system, cortisol measurements, lung function, and allergy tests. We evaluated well-being, health, disability, insomnia, pain, anxiety, depression, and burnout via questionnaires. Results: The mean symptom history was 10.5 years; for disabling symptoms, 2.7 years. Eleven patients reported reactions triggered mainly by indoor molds, one by fragrances only. Ten reported sensitivity to odorous chemicals, and three, electric devices. Nearly all had co-occurrent somatic and psychiatric diagnoses and signs of pain, insomnia, burnout, and/or elevated sympathetic responses. Avoiding certain environments had led to restrictions in several life areas. On self-assessment scales, disability showed higher severity and anxiety showed lower severity than in physician assessments. Conclusion: No medical cause was found to explain the disability. Findings support that the condition is a form of idiopathic environmental intolerance and belongs to functional somatic syndromes. Instead of endless avoidance, rehabilitation approaches of functional somatic syndromes are applicable. (C) 2019 Occupational Safety and Health Research Institute, Published by Elsevier Korea LLC.
  • Ahonen, Lauri; Cowley, Benjamin; Torniainen, Jari; Ukkonen, Antti; Vihavainen, Arto; Puolamäki, Kai (2016)
    It is known that periods of intense social interaction result in shared patterns in collaborators' physiological signals. However, applied quantitative research on collaboration is hindered due to scarcity of objective metrics of teamwork effectiveness. Indeed, especially in the domain of productive, ecologically-valid activity such as programming, there is a lack of evidence for the most effective, affordable and reliable measures of collaboration quality. In this study we investigate synchrony in physiological signals between collaborating computer science students performing pair-programming exercises in a class room environment. We recorded electrocardiography over the course of a 60 minute programming session, using lightweight physiological sensors. We employ correlation of heart-rate variability features to study social psychophysiological compliance of the collaborating students. We found evident physiological compliance in collaborating dyads' heart-rate variability signals. Furthermore, dyads' self-reported workload was associated with the physiological compliance. Our results show viability of a novel approach to field measurement using lightweight devices in an uncontrolled environment, and suggest that self-reported collaboration quality can be assessed via physiological signals.
  • Kouvonen, A.; Kivimaki, M.; Pentti, J.; Aalto, V.; Oksanen, T.; Virtanen, M.; Vahtera, J. (2017)
    AimsTo investigate if diabetes is associated with a higher risk of occupational (workplace or commuting) injury. MethodsMedication data from the Finnish Prescription Register were used to identify diabetes cases in 2004 in a large employee cohort (the Finnish Public Sector study). These data were linked to injury records obtained from the Federation of Accident Insurance Institutions. A total of 1020 diabetes cases (median age 52 years, range 20 to 65 years; 66% women) and their 5234 age- and sex-matched controls were followed up until 2011. Sex-stratified Cox proportional hazards models, adjusting for age, occupational status, obesity and health behaviours, were applied. Because of the small number of men in the cohort, injury types and locations were only examined among women. ResultsDuring the median follow-up of 6.7 years, 25% of the participants with diabetes (n=252) and 20% of those without (n=1051) experienced an occupational injury. The association between diabetes and injury was stronger in women than men (P=0.048). Diabetes was associated with a higher risk of workplace (hazard ratio 1.37, 95% CI 1.11 to 1.69) and commuting (hazard ratio 1.36, 95% CI 1.03 to 1.79) injury in women. With regard to different injury types and locations, diabetes was associated with bone fractures, dislocations, sprains and strains, and injuries to upper and lower extremities. In men, there was an association between insulin-treated diabetes and commuting injury (hazard ratio 3.14, 95% CI 1.52 to 6.49). ConclusionsDiabetes was associated with workplace and commuting injuries in women. Men with insulin-treated diabetes had a higher risk of commuting injuries.
  • Ahmad, Akhlaq (2020)
    Using a correspondence field experiment, the study reported in this article has investigated if immigrant job applicants with equivalent qualifications are treated differently in the Finnish labour market. The study consists of 5000 job applications that were sent out to 1000 advertised positions by five applicants of Finnish, English, Iraqi, Russian and Somali backgrounds, who differed only in their names. The findings show that applicants of immigrant origin receive significantly fewer invitations for a job interview than the native candidate, even if they possess identical language proficiency, education and vocational diplomas. However, the extent of discrimination is not equally distributed among the immigrant groups. Rather, job applicants from non-European backgrounds seem to suffer a significantly greater labour-market penalty. The findings clearly suggest that, despite anti-discrimination legislation and measures aimed at promoting equal employment opportunities, discrimination continues to remain a serious barrier to immigrants' labour-market integration in a Nordic welfare society.