Browsing by Subject "WORK-ENVIRONMENT"

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  • Matilainen, A.; Pohja-Mykrä, M.; Lähdesmäki, M.; Kurki, S. (2017)
    The use of natural resources often generates conflict among stakeholders. Conflict analysis and management in this sector has traditionally been based on compliance enforcement and/or education. Recently, however, the need for alternative approaches has been increasingly highlighted. In this study, we address the need for in-depth analysis, and introduce the theoretical concept of psychological ownership to improve the understanding and potential management of conflict situations. We suggest that ownership feelings may play a significant role both in successful co-operation, and in conflicts related to the use of natural resources. The study is qualitative in nature. The data consisted of two interview datasets related to nature tourism: nature tourism in private forests and bear watching safaris. We show that the ways the psychological ownership of stakeholder groups is constructed and taken into account in co-operative relationships are of the utmost importance for the sustainability and success of the interplay among stakeholders. (C) 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
  • Heikkilä, Katriina; Pentti, Jaana; Madsen, Ida E. H.; Lallukka, Tea; Virtanen, Marianna; Alfredsson, Lars; Bjorner, Jakob; Borritz, Marianne; Brunner, Eric; Burr, Hermann; Ferrie, Jane E.; Knutsson, Anders; Koskinen, Aki; Leineweber, Constanze; Hanson, Linda L. Magnusson; Nielsen, Martin L.; Nyberg, Solja T.; Oksanen, Tuula; Pejtersen, Jan H.; Pietiläinen, Olli; Rahkonen, Ossi; Rugulies, Reiner; Singh-Manoux, Archana; Steptoe, Andrew; Suominen, Sakari; Theorell, Tores; Vahtera, Jussi; Vaananen, Ari; Westerlund, Hugo; Kivimaki, Mika (2020)
    Background Job strain is implicated in many atherosclerotic diseases, but its role in peripheral artery disease (PAD) is unclear. We investigated the association of job strain with hospital records of PAD, using individual-level data from 11 prospective cohort studies from Finland, Sweden, Denmark, and the United Kingdom. Methods and Results Job strain (high demands and low control at work) was self-reported at baseline (1985-2008). PAD records were ascertained from national hospitalization data. We used Cox regression to examine the associations of job strain with PAD in each study, and combined the study-specific estimates in random effects meta-analyses. We used tau(2), I-2, and subgroup analyses to examine heterogeneity. Of the 139 132 participants with no previous hospitalization with PAD, 32 489 (23.4%) reported job strain at baseline. During 1 718 132 person-years at risk (mean follow-up 12.8 years), 667 individuals had a hospital record of PAD (3.88 per 10 000 person-years). Job strain was associated with a 1.41-fold (95% CI, 1.11-1.80) increased average risk of hospitalization with PAD. The study-specific estimates were moderately heterogeneous (tau(2)=0.0427, I-2: 26.9%). Despite variation in their magnitude, the estimates were consistent in both sexes, across the socioeconomic hierarchy and by baseline smoking status. Additional adjustment for baseline diabetes mellitus did not change the direction or magnitude of the observed associations. Conclusions Job strain was associated with small but consistent increase in the risk of hospitalization with PAD, with the relative risks on par with those for coronary heart disease and ischemic stroke.
  • Siren, Maria; Viikari-Juntura, Eira; Arokoski, Jari; Solovieva, Svetlana (2020)
    Objectives To determine the associations of lifestyle factors and cumulative physical workload exposures with sickness absence (SA) due to a shoulder lesion and to calculate their population attributable fractions (PAF). Methods Our nationally representative cohort consisted of 4344 individuals aged 30-62 years who participated in the Finnish Health 2000 Survey. Education, smoking, chronic diseases and work exposures were assessed during interviews and leisure time physical activity with a questionnaire. Weight and height were measured. We followed the individuals for 15 years for the first SA due to a shoulder lesion. We used competing risk regression models. We calculated PAFs to assess the proportion of SA that was attributed to modifiable risk factors. Results In the entire study population, risk factors of SA were age, daily smoking, being exposed for more than 10 years to physically heavy work and being exposed for more than 10 years to at least two specific physical workload factors. The overall PAF for the modifiable risk factors was 49%. In men, number of specific cumulative exposures, obesity and daily smoking predicted SA with PAF values of 34%, 30% and 14%, respectively. Among women, being exposed for more than 10 years to physically heavy work, number of specific cumulative exposures and daily smoking accounted for 23%, 22% and 15% of SA, respectively. Conclusions Reducing significantly prolonged exposure to physical workload factors, avoiding regular smoking in both genders and obesity in men has a high potential to prevent SA due to a shoulder lesion.
  • Rugulies, Reiner; Framke, Elisabeth; Sorensen, Jeppe Karl; Svane-Petersen, Annemette Coop; Alexanderson, Kristina; Bonde, Jens Peter; Farrants, Kristin; Flachs, Esben Meulengracht; Hanson, Linda L. Magnusson; Nyberg, Solja T.; Kivimäki, Mika; Madsen, Ida E. H. (2020)
    Objectives This study aimed to examine the association between job strain and incident coronary heart disease (CHD) in Denmark, while accounting for changes of job strain. Methods We included all employees residing in Denmark in 2000, aged 30-59 years with no prevalent CHD (N=1660 150). We determined exposure to job strain from 1996-2009 using a job exposure matrix (JEM) with annual updates. Follow-up for incident CHD was from 2001-2010 via linkage to health records. We used Cox regression to calculate hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for the association between job strain and incident CHD. Results During 16.1 million person-years, we identified 24 159 incident CHD cases (15.0 per 10 000 person-years). After adjustment for covariates, job strain in 2000 predicted onset of CHD during a mean follow-up of 9.71 years (HR 1.10, 95% CI 1.07-1.13). When analyzing changes in job strain from one year to the next and CHD in the subsequent year, persistent job strain (HR 1.07, 95% CI 1.03-1.10), onset of job strain (HR 1.20, 95% CI 1.12-1.29) and removal of strain (HR 1.20, 95% CI 1.12-1.28) were associated with higher CHD incidence compared to persistent no job strain. Associations were similar among men and women. Conclusions Job strain is associated with a higher risk of incident CHD in Denmark. As we used a JEM, we can rule out reporting bias. However, under- or overestimation of associations is possible due to non-differential misclassification of job strain and residual confounding by socioeconomic position.
  • Xu, Tianwei; Magnusson Hanson, Linda L.; Lange, Theis; Starkopf, Liis; Westerlund, Hugo; Madsen, Ida E. H.; Rugulies, Reiner; Pentti, Jaana; Stenholm, Sari; Vahtera, Jussi; Hansen, Ase M.; Virtanen, Marianna; Kivimäki, Mika; Rod, Naja H. (2019)
    Aims To assess the associations between bullying and violence at work and cardiovascular disease (CVD). Methods and results Participants were 79201 working men and women, aged 18-65years and free of CVD and were sourced from three cohort studies from Sweden and Denmark. Exposure to workplace bullying and violence was measured at baseline using self-reports. Participants were linked to nationwide health and death registers to ascertain incident CVD, including coronary heart disease and cerebrovascular disease. Study-specific results were estimated by marginal structural Cox regression and were combined using fixed-effect meta-analysis. Nine percent reported being bullied at work and 13% recorded exposure to workplace violence during the past year. We recorded 3229 incident CVD cases with a mean follow-up of 12.4years (765 in the first 4years). After adjustment for age, sex, country of birth, marital status, and educational level, being bullied at work vs. not was associated with a hazard ratio (HR) of 1.59 [95% confidence interval (CI) 1.28-1.98] for CVD. Experiencing workplace violence vs. not was associated with a HR of 1.25 (95% CI 1.12-1.40) for CVD. The population attributable risk was 5.0% for workplace bullying and 3.1% for workplace violence. The excess risk remained similar in analyses with different follow-up lengths, cardiovascular risk stratifications, and after additional adjustments. Dose-response relations were observed for both workplace bullying and violence (P-trend <0.001). There was only negligible heterogeneity in study-specific estimates. Conclusion Bullying and violence are common at workplaces and those exposed to these stressors are at higher risk of CVD.