Browsing by Subject "Weight gain"

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  • Salmela, Jatta Helena; Mauramo, Elina; Lallukka, Tea; Rahkonen, Ossi; Kanerva, Noora (2019)
    Objective: Childhood disadvantage is associated with a higher risk of adult obesity, but little is known about its associations with body mass index (BMI) trajectories during adulthood. This study aimed first to identify adulthood BMI trajectories, and second to investigate how childhood disadvantage is associated with trajectory group membership. Methods: Data from the Helsinki Health Study, a longitudinal cohort study of initially 40- to 60-year-old employees of the City of Helsinki in Finland, were used. The baseline survey was conducted in 2000–2002, and similar follow-up surveys in 2007, 2012, and 2017. Based on self-reported BMI, participants’ (n =5,266; 83% women) BMI trajectories, including their retrospectively reported BMI at the age of 25 years, were examined. Data on childhood disadvantage, including parental education and 7 types of childhood adversity (their own serious illness; parental divorce, death, mental disorder, or alcohol problems; economic difficulties at home; and peer group bullying) before the age of 16 years, were obtained from the baseline survey. Group-based trajectory modeling was used to identify BMI trajectories, and multinomial logistic regression to analyze the odds for trajectory group membership for the disadvantage variables. Results: Four ascending BMI trajectories in women and men were found: persistent normal weight (trajectory 1; women 35% and men 25%), normal weight to overweight (trajectory 2; women 41% and men 48%), normal weight to class I obesity (trajectory 3; women 19% and men 23%) and overweight to class II obesity (trajectory 4; women 5% and men 4%). Compared to trajectory 1, women with multiple adversities and repetitive peer bullying in childhood had greater odds of belonging to trajectories 3 and 4, whereas men with parental alcohol problems had greater odds of belonging to trajectory 4. For women and men, a low level of parental education was associated with a higher-level BMI trajectory. Conclusions: Low parental education for both genders, multiple adversities and repetitive peer bullying in childhood among women, and parental alcohol problems among men increased the odds of developing obesity during adulthood. Further studies are needed to clarify how gender differences modify the effects of childhood disadvantage on adult BMI trajectories.
  • Mustelin, Linda; Kaprio, Jaakko; Keski-Rahkonen, Anna (2018)
    Objective: Binge eating disorder (BED) is a clinical eating disorder that is strongly and bidirectionally related to overweight and obesity. Little is known about how subclinical features of BED relate to weight development in adolescence and young adulthood. Method: Women (n=2825) and men (n=2423) from the community-based longitudinal FinnTwin16 cohort participated. Seven eating-related cognitions and behaviors similar to the defining features of BED were extracted from the Eating Disorder Inventory-2 and were assessed at a mean age of 24. We used linear mixed models to assess the association of features of BED with BMI trajectories across four waves of data collection (mean ages 16, 17, 18, and 24). Results: The number of features of BED at wave 4 (age 24) was significantly associated with BMI from age 16 years onwards. Those reporting more features of BED had gained more weight throughout adolescence and into their twenties. Conclusions: Features of BED in young adulthood were preceded by steeper BMI trajectories in adolescence. A higher number of features were consistently associated with higher BMI and more weight gain.
  • McManus, Bettina; Korpela, Riitta; O'Connor, Paula; Schellekens, Harriet; Cryan, John F.; Cotter, Paul D.; Nilaweera, Kanishka N. (2015)
    Background: Several studies in both humans and rodents have examined the use of lactoferrin as a dietary solution to weight gain and visceral fat accretion and have shown promising results in the short term (up to 7 weeks). This study examined the effects of giving lactoferrin over a longer period of time. Methods: For 13 weeks, male C57/BL6J mice were given a diet containing 10 % kJ fat and 20 % kJ casein (LFD) or a diet with 45 % kJ fat and either 20 % kJ casein (HFD) or 20 % kJ lactoferrin (HFD + Lac). Physiological, metabolic, and biochemical parameters were investigated. Gene expression was investigated by Real-Time PCR and microarray. All data was assessed using t-test, ANOVA or ANCOVA. Gene Set Enrichment Analysis was used to interpret microarray data and assess the impact on gene sets with common biological roles. Results: By the end of the trial, HFD + Lac fed mice did not alter energy balance, body composition, bodyweight, or weight gain when compared to the HFD group. Notably, there were no changes in subcutaneous or epididymal adipose leptin mRNA levels between high fat diet groups, however plasma leptin was significantly reduced in the HFD + Lac compared to HFD group (P <0.05) suggesting reduced leptin secretion. Global microarray analysis of the hypothalamus indicate an overall reduction in gene sets associated with feeding behaviour (P <0.01) and an upregulation of gene sets associated with retinol metabolism in the HFD + Lac group compared to the HFD group (P <0.01). Genes in the latter catergory have been shown to impact on the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis. Notably, plasma corticosterone levels in the HFD + Lac group were reduced compared to the HFD fed mice (P <0.05). Conclusions: The data suggests that prolonged feeding of full-length dietary lactoferrin, as part of a high fat diet, does not have a beneficial impact on weight gain when compared to casein. However, its impact on leptin secretion and accompanying changes in hypothalamic gene expression may underlie how this dietary protein alters plasma corticosterone. The lactoferrin fed mouse model could be used to identify leptin and corticosterone regulated genes in the hypothalamus without the confounding effects of body weight change.
  • Konttinen, Hanna; van Strien, Tatjana; Männistö, Satu; Jousilahti, Pekka; Haukkala, Ari (2019)
    Background: Emotional eating (i.e. eating in response to negative emotions) has been suggested to be one mechanism linking depression and subsequent development of obesity. However, studies have rarely examined this mediation effect in a prospective setting and its dependence on other factors linked to stress and its management. We used a population-based prospective cohort of adults and aimed to examine 1) whether emotional eating mediated the associations between depression and 7-year change in body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC), and 2) whether gender, age, night sleep duration or physical activity moderated these associations. Methods: Participants were Finnish 25- to 74-year-olds who attended the DILGOM study at baseline in 2007 and follow-up in 2014. At baseline (n = 5024), height, weight and WC were measured in a health examination. At follow-up (n = 3735), height, weight and WC were based on measured or self-reported information. Depression (Center for Epidemiological Studies - Depression Scale), emotional eating (Three-Factor Eating Questionnaire-R18), physical activity and night sleep duration were self-reported. Age- and gender-adjusted structural equation models with full information maximum likelihood estimator were used in the analyses. Results: Depression and emotional eating were positively associated and they both predicted higher 7-year increase in BMI (R-2 = 0.048) and WC (R-2 = 0.045). The effects of depression on change in BMI and WC were mediated by emotional eating. Night sleep duration moderated the associations of emotional eating, while age moderated the associations of depression. More specifically, emotional eating predicted higher BMI (P = 0.007 for the interaction) and WC (P = 0.026, respectively) gain in shorter sleepers (7 h or less), but not in longer sleepers (9 h or more). Depression predicted higher BMI (P <0.001 for the interaction) and WC (P = 0.065, respectively) increase in younger participants, but not in older participants. Conclusions: Our findings offer support for the hypothesis that emotional eating is one behavioural mechanism between depression and development of obesity and abdominal obesity. Moreover, adults with a combination of shorter night sleep duration and higher emotional eating may be particularly vulnerable to weight gain. Future research should examine the clinical significance of our observations by tailoring weight management programs according to these characteristics.
  • Konttinen, Hanna; van Strien, Tatjana; Männistö, Satu; Jousilahti, Pekka; Haukkala, Ari (BioMed Central, 2019)
    Abstract Background Emotional eating (i.e. eating in response to negative emotions) has been suggested to be one mechanism linking depression and subsequent development of obesity. However, studies have rarely examined this mediation effect in a prospective setting and its dependence on other factors linked to stress and its management. We used a population-based prospective cohort of adults and aimed to examine 1) whether emotional eating mediated the associations between depression and 7-year change in body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC), and 2) whether gender, age, night sleep duration or physical activity moderated these associations. Methods Participants were Finnish 25- to 74-year-olds who attended the DILGOM study at baseline in 2007 and follow-up in 2014. At baseline (n = 5024), height, weight and WC were measured in a health examination. At follow-up (n = 3735), height, weight and WC were based on measured or self-reported information. Depression (Center for Epidemiological Studies - Depression Scale), emotional eating (Three-Factor Eating Questionnaire-R18), physical activity and night sleep duration were self-reported. Age- and gender-adjusted structural equation models with full information maximum likelihood estimator were used in the analyses. Results Depression and emotional eating were positively associated and they both predicted higher 7-year increase in BMI (R2 = 0.048) and WC (R2 = 0.045). The effects of depression on change in BMI and WC were mediated by emotional eating. Night sleep duration moderated the associations of emotional eating, while age moderated the associations of depression. More specifically, emotional eating predicted higher BMI (P = 0.007 for the interaction) and WC (P = 0.026, respectively) gain in shorter sleepers (7 h or less), but not in longer sleepers (9 h or more). Depression predicted higher BMI (P < 0.001 for the interaction) and WC (P = 0.065, respectively) increase in younger participants, but not in older participants. Conclusions Our findings offer support for the hypothesis that emotional eating is one behavioural mechanism between depression and development of obesity and abdominal obesity. Moreover, adults with a combination of shorter night sleep duration and higher emotional eating may be particularly vulnerable to weight gain. Future research should examine the clinical significance of our observations by tailoring weight management programs according to these characteristics.
  • Konttinen, Hanna (2020)
    Stress and other negative emotions, such as depression and anxiety, can lead to both decreased and increased food intake. The term 'emotional eating' has been widely used to refer to the latter response: a tendency to eat in response to negative emotions with the chosen foods being primarily energy-dense and palatable ones. Emotional eating can be caused by various mechanisms, such as using eating to cope with negative emotions or confusing internal states of hunger and satiety with physiological changes related to emotions. An increasing number of prospective studies have shown that emotional eating predicts subsequent weight gain in adults. This review discusses particularly three lines of research on emotional eating and obesity in adults. First, studies implying that emotional eating may be one behavioural mechanism linking depression and development of obesity. Secondly, studies highlighting the relevance of night sleep duration by showing that adults with a combination of shorter sleep and higher emotional eating may be especially vulnerable to weight gain. Thirdly, an emerging literature suggesting that genes may influence body weight partly through emotional eating and other eating behaviour dimensions. The review concludes by discussing what kind of implications these three avenues of research offer for obesity prevention and treatment interventions.
  • Santos, Susana; Eekhout, Iris; Voerman, Ellis; Gaillard, Romy; Barros, Henrique; Charles, Marie-Aline; Chatzi, Leda; Chevrier, Cécile; Chrousos, George P; Corpeleijn, Eva; Costet, Nathalie; Crozier, Sarah; Doyon, Myriam; Eggesbø, Merete; Fantini, Maria P; Farchi, Sara; Forastiere, Francesco; Gagliardi, Luigi; Georgiu, Vagelis; Godfrey, Keith M; Gori, Davide; Grote, Veit; Hanke, Wojciech; Hertz-Picciotto, Irva; Heude, Barbara; Hivert, Marie-France; Hryhorczuk, Daniel; Huang, Rae-Chi; Inskip, Hazel; Jusko, Todd A; Karvonen, Anne M; Koletzko, Berthold; Küpers, Leanne K; Lagström, Hanna; Lawlor, Debbie A; Lehmann, Irina; Lopez-Espinosa, Maria-Jose; Magnus, Per; Majewska, Renata; Mäkelä, Johanna; Manios, Yannis; McDonald, Sheila W; Mommers, Monique; Morgen, Camilla S; Moschonis, George; Murínová, Ľubica; Newnham, John; Nohr, Ellen A; Andersen, Anne-Marie N; Oken, Emily; Oostvogels, Adriëtte J J M; Pac, Agnieszka; Papadopoulou, Eleni; Pekkanen, Juha; Pizzi, Costanza; Polanska, Kinga; Porta, Daniela; Richiardi, Lorenzo; Rifas-Shiman, Sheryl L; Roeleveld, Nel; Santa-Marina, Loreto; Santos, Ana C; Smit, Henriette A; Sørensen, Thorkild I A; Standl, Marie; Stanislawski, Maggie; Stoltenberg, Camilla; Thiering, Elisabeth; Thijs, Carel; Torrent, Maties; Tough, Suzanne C; Trnovec, Tomas; van Gelder, Marleen M H J; van Rossem, Lenie; von Berg, Andrea; Vrijheid, Martine; Vrijkotte, Tanja G M; Zvinchuk, Oleksandr; van Buuren, Stef; Jaddoe, Vincent W V (BioMed Central, 2018)
    Abstract Background Gestational weight gain differs according to pre-pregnancy body mass index and is related to the risks of adverse maternal and child health outcomes. Gestational weight gain charts for women in different pre-pregnancy body mass index groups enable identification of women and offspring at risk for adverse health outcomes. We aimed to construct gestational weight gain reference charts for underweight, normal weight, overweight, and grades 1, 2 and 3 obese women and to compare these charts with those obtained in women with uncomplicated term pregnancies. Methods We used individual participant data from 218,216 pregnant women participating in 33 cohorts from Europe, North America, and Oceania. Of these women, 9065 (4.2%), 148,697 (68.1%), 42,678 (19.6%), 13,084 (6.0%), 3597 (1.6%), and 1095 (0.5%) were underweight, normal weight, overweight, and grades 1, 2, and 3 obese women, respectively. A total of 138, 517 women from 26 cohorts had pregnancies with no hypertensive or diabetic disorders and with term deliveries of appropriate for gestational age at birth infants. Gestational weight gain charts for underweight, normal weight, overweight, and grade 1, 2, and 3 obese women were derived by the Box-Cox t method using the generalized additive model for location, scale, and shape. Results We observed that gestational weight gain strongly differed per maternal pre-pregnancy body mass index group. The median (interquartile range) gestational weight gain at 40 weeks was 14.2 kg (11.4–17.4) for underweight women, 14.5 kg (11.5–17.7) for normal weight women, 13.9 kg (10.1–17.9) for overweight women, and 11.2 kg (7.0–15.7), 8.7 kg (4.3–13.4) and 6.3 kg (1.9–11.1) for grades 1, 2, and 3 obese women, respectively. The rate of weight gain was lower in the first half than in the second half of pregnancy. No differences in the patterns of weight gain were observed between cohorts or countries. Similar weight gain patterns were observed in mothers without pregnancy complications. Conclusions Gestational weight gain patterns are strongly related to pre-pregnancy body mass index. The derived charts can be used to assess gestational weight gain in etiological research and as a monitoring tool for weight gain during pregnancy in clinical practice.
  • Santos, Susana; Eekhout, Iris; Voerman, Ellis; Gaillard, Romy; Barros, Henrique; Charles, Marie-Aline; Chatzi, Leda; Chevrier, Cecile; Chrousos, George P.; Corpeleijn, Eva; Costet, Nathalie; Crozier, Sarah; Doyon, Myriam; Eggesbo, Merete; Fantini, Maria Pia; Farchi, Sara; Forastiere, Francesco; Gagliardi, Luigi; Georgiu, Vagelis; Godfrey, Keith M.; Gori, Davide; Grote, Veit; Hanke, Wojciech; Hertz-Picciotto, Irva; Heude, Barbara; Hivert, Marie-France; Hryhorczuk, Daniel; Huang, Rae-Chi; Inskip, Hazel; Jusko, Todd A.; Karvonen, Anne M.; Koletzko, Berthold; Kupers, Leanne K.; Lagstrom, Hanna; Lawlor, Debbie A.; Lehmann, Irina; Lopez-Espinosa, Maria-Jose; Magnus, Per; Majewska, Renata; Mäkelä, Johanna; Manios, Yannis; McDonald, Sheila W.; Mommers, Monique; Morgen, Camilla S.; Moschonis, George; Murinova, Lubica; Newnham, John; Nohr, Ellen A.; Andersen, Anne-Marie Nybo; Oken, Emily; Oostvogels, Adriette J. J. M.; Pac, Agnieszka; Papadopoulou, Eleni; Pekkanen, Juha; Pizzi, Costanza; Polanska, Kinga; Porta, Daniela; Richiardi, Lorenzo; Rifas-Shiman, Sheryl L.; Roeleveld, Nel; Santa-Marina, Loreto; Santos, Ana C.; Smit, Henriette A.; Sorensen, Thorkild I. A.; Standl, Marie; Stanislawski, Maggie; Stoltenberg, Camilla; Thiering, Elisabeth; Thijs, Carel; Torrent, Maties; Tough, Suzanne C.; Trnovec, Tomas; van Gelder, Marleen M. H. J.; van Rossem, Lenie; von Berg, Andrea; Vrijheid, Martine; Vrijkotte, Tanja G. M.; Zvinchuk, Oleksandr; van Buuren, Stef; Jaddoe, Vincent W. V. (2018)
    BackgroundGestational weight gain differs according to pre-pregnancy body mass index and is related to the risks of adverse maternal and child health outcomes. Gestational weight gain charts for women in different pre-pregnancy body mass index groups enable identification of women and offspring at risk for adverse health outcomes. We aimed to construct gestational weight gain reference charts for underweight, normal weight, overweight, and grades 1, 2 and 3 obese women and to compare these charts with those obtained in women with uncomplicated term pregnancies.MethodsWe used individual participant data from 218,216 pregnant women participating in 33 cohorts from Europe, North America, and Oceania. Of these women, 9065 (4.2%), 148,697 (68.1%), 42,678 (19.6%), 13,084 (6.0%), 3597 (1.6%), and 1095 (0.5%) were underweight, normal weight, overweight, and grades 1, 2, and 3 obese women, respectively. A total of 138, 517 women from 26 cohorts had pregnancies with no hypertensive or diabetic disorders and with term deliveries of appropriate for gestational age at birth infants. Gestational weight gain charts for underweight, normal weight, overweight, and grade 1, 2, and 3 obese women were derived by the Box-Cox t method using the generalized additive model for location, scale, and shape.ResultsWe observed that gestational weight gain strongly differed per maternal pre-pregnancy body mass index group. The median (interquartile range) gestational weight gain at 40weeks was 14.2kg (11.4-17.4) for underweight women, 14.5kg (11.5-17.7) for normal weight women, 13.9kg (10.1-17.9) for overweight women, and 11.2kg (7.0-15.7), 8.7kg (4.3-13.4) and 6.3kg (1.9-11.1) for grades 1, 2, and 3 obese women, respectively. The rate of weight gain was lower in the first half than in the second half of pregnancy. No differences in the patterns of weight gain were observed between cohorts or countries. Similar weight gain patterns were observed in mothers without pregnancy complications.ConclusionsGestational weight gain patterns are strongly related to pre-pregnancy body mass index. The derived charts can be used to assess gestational weight gain in etiological research and as a monitoring tool for weight gain during pregnancy in clinical practice.
  • Keinänen, Jaakko; Suvisaari, Jaana; Reinikainen, Jaakko; Kieseppä, Tuula; Lindgren, Maija; Mantyla, Teemu; Rikandi, Eva; Sundvall, Jouko; Torniainen-Holm, Minna; Mantere, Outi (2018)
    Psychosis is associated with low-grade inflammation as measured by high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), a risk factor for cardiovascular events and mortality in the general population. We investigated the relationship between hs-CRP and anthropometric and metabolic changes in first-episode psychosis (FEP) during the first treatment year. We recruited 95 FEP patients and 62 controls, and measured longitudinal changes in hs-CRP, weight, waist circumference, insulin resistance, and lipids. We used linear mixed models to analyze the longitudinal relationship between hs-CRP and clinical, anthropometric and metabolic measures. At baseline, patients with FEP had higher levels of insulin resistance, total and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, apolipoprotein B, and triglycerides. Baseline weight, waist circumference, hs-CRP, fasting glucose, and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol were similar between patients and controls. Marked increases in anthropometric measures and hs-CRP were observed in FEP during the 12-month follow-up. However, glucose and lipid parameters did not change significantly. In the mixed models, waist circumference and female sex were significant predictors of hs-CRP levels in FEP. Prevention of the early development of abdominal obesity in FEP is crucial, as abdominal obesity is accompanied by chronic low-grade inflammation, which increases further the cardiovascular risk in this vulnerable population.
  • Loman, Tina; Lallukka, Tea; Laaksonen, Mikko; Rahkonen, Ossi; Lahelma, Eero (2013)
  • Svard, Anna; Lahti, Jouni; Roos, Eira; Rahkonen, Ossi; Lahelma, Eero; Lallukka, Tea; Manty, Minna (2017)
    Background: Studies suggest an association between weight change and subsequent poor physical health functioning, whereas the association with mental health functioning is inconsistent. We aimed to examine whether obesity and change of body mass index among normal weight, overweight and obese women and men associate with changes in physical and mental health functioning. Methods: The Helsinki Health Study cohort includes Finnish municipal employees aged 40 to 60 in 2000-02 (phase 1, response rate 67%). Phase 2 mail survey (response rate 82%) took place in 2007 and phase 3 in 2012 (response rate 76%). This study included 5668 participants (82% women). Seven weight change categories were formed based on body mass index (BMI) (phase 1) and weight change (BMI change >= 5%) (phase 1-2). The Short Form 36 Health Survey (SF-36) measured physical and mental health functioning. The change in health functioning (phase 1-3) score was examined with repeated measures analyses. Covariates were age, sociodemographic factors, health behaviours, and somatic ill-health. Results: Weight gain was common among women (34%) and men (25%). Weight-gaining normal weight (-1.3 points), overweight (-1.3 points) and obese (-3.6 points) women showed a greater decline in physical component summary scores than weight-maintaining normal weight women. Among weight-maintainers, only obese (-1.8 points) women showed a greater decline than weight-maintaining normal weight women. The associations were similar, but statistically non-significant for obese men. No statistically significant differences in the change in mental health functioning occurred. Conclusion: Preventing weight gain likely helps maintaining good physical health functioning and work ability.
  • Svärd, Anna; Lahti, Jouni; Roos, Eira; Rahkonen, Ossi; Lahelma, Eero; Lallukka, Tea; Mänty, Minna (BioMed Central, 2017)
    Abstract Background Studies suggest an association between weight change and subsequent poor physical health functioning, whereas the association with mental health functioning is inconsistent. We aimed to examine whether obesity and change of body mass index among normal weight, overweight and obese women and men associate with changes in physical and mental health functioning. Methods The Helsinki Health Study cohort includes Finnish municipal employees aged 40 to 60 in 2000–02 (phase 1, response rate 67%). Phase 2 mail survey (response rate 82%) took place in 2007 and phase 3 in 2012 (response rate 76%). This study included 5668 participants (82% women). Seven weight change categories were formed based on body mass index (BMI) (phase 1) and weight change (BMI change ≥5%) (phase 1–2). The Short Form 36 Health Survey (SF-36) measured physical and mental health functioning. The change in health functioning (phase 1–3) score was examined with repeated measures analyses. Covariates were age, sociodemographic factors, health behaviours, and somatic ill-health. Results Weight gain was common among women (34%) and men (25%). Weight-gaining normal weight (−1.3 points), overweight (−1.3 points) and obese (−3.6 points) women showed a greater decline in physical component summary scores than weight-maintaining normal weight women. Among weight-maintainers, only obese (−1.8 points) women showed a greater decline than weight-maintaining normal weight women. The associations were similar, but statistically non-significant for obese men. No statistically significant differences in the change in mental health functioning occurred. Conclusion Preventing weight gain likely helps maintaining good physical health functioning and work ability.
  • Mustelin, Linda; Bulik, Cynthia M.; Kaprio, Jaakko; Keski-Rahkonen, Anna (2017)
    Binge eating disorder (BED) is associated with high levels of obesity and psychological suffering, but little is known about 1) the distribution of features of BED in the general population and 2) their consequences for weight development and psychological distress in young adulthood. We investigated the prevalence of features of BED and their association with body mass index (BMI) and psychological distress among men (n = 2423) and women (n = 2825) from the longitudinal community-based FinnTwin16 cohort (born 1975-1979). Seven eating-related cognitions and behaviors similar to the defining features of BED were extracted from the Eating Disorder Inventory-2 and were assessed at a mean age of 24. BMI and psychological distress, measured with the General Health Questionnaire, were assessed at ages 24 and 34. We assessed prevalence of the features and their association with BMI and psychological distress cross-sectionally and prospectively. More than half of our participants reported at least one feature of BED; clustering of several features in one individual was less common, particularly among men. The most frequently reported feature was 'stuffing oneself with food', whereas the least common was 'eating or drinking in secrecy'. All individual features of BED and their clustering particularly were associated with higher BMI and more psychological distress cross-sectionally. Prospectively, the clustering of features of BED predicted increase in psychological distress but not additional weight gain when baseline BMI was accounted for. In summary, although some features of BED were common, the clustering of several features in one individual was not. The features were cumulatively associated with BMI and psychological distress and predicted further increase in psychological distress over ten years of follow-up. (C) 2016 Published by Elsevier Ltd.
  • Tuomisto, K.; Jousilahti, P.; Havulinna, A.S.; Borodulin, K.; Männistö, S.; Salomaa, V. (2019)
    BACKGROUND AND AIMS There is a growing body of literature confirming the association between inflammation and obesity. Recent research suggests that inflammation may play a role in weight gain. The aim of the study was to analyse whether serum inflammatory markers predict weight gain or development of obesity in a prospective study design. METHODS AND RESULTS The baseline study (DILGOM 2007) consists of a population-based sample of 5024 Finnish men and women aged 25-75 years, of whom 3735 participated in the follow-up study in 2014. Baseline data collection included a questionnaire on health behaviour, physical examinations and blood samples including serum high-sensitivity C-Reactive Protein (hs-CRP), Interleukin-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1Ra), Interleukin-6 (IL-6), Tumor Necrosis Factor Alpha (TNF-alpha) and high molecular weight adiponectin (HMW adiponectin). Indicators of obesity were weight, body mass index (BMI), waist circumference and body fat percentage (% body fat). At baseline hs-CRP, IL-1Ra, IL-6, TNF-alpha and HMW adiponectin associated strongly (p
  • Kärkkäinen, Ulla; Mustelin, Linda; Raevuori, Anu; Kaprio, Jaakko; Keski-Rahkonen, Anna (2018)
    Objectives: To assess factors associated with successful weight maintenance over ten years in a prospective general population sample of young adults. Material and methods: Our study comprised 2452 women and 2227 men born in 1975-1979 (mean age at baseline 24 years, attrition 27.1%). Weight maintenance was defined as weight maintained within +/- 5% of baseline body mass index (BMI). We examined the role of various sociodemographic and lifestyle factors in successful weight maintenance. Results: Relatively few young adults were able to maintain their weight over ten years (28.6% of women vs. 23.0% of men); net weight loss was uncommon (7.5% and 3.8%). Most participants gained weight (mean annual weight gain was 0.9 kg in women and 1.0 kg in men). Among women, exercise was associated with successful weight maintenance, but having two or more children, frequent use of sweet drinks, irregular eating, history of dieting (intentional weight loss) and low life satisfaction were associated with weight gain. Among men, higher baseline BMI and higher education were associated with successful weight maintenance, whereas irregular eating, history of dieting and smoking were associated with weight gain. Conclusions: Only about a quarter of young adults were able to resist weight gain. Regular eating and having no history of dieting were associated with successful weight maintenance in young women and men.