Browsing by Subject "Well-being"

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  • Henttonen *, Pentti; Määttänen *, Ilmari; Makkonen, Emilia; Honka, Anita; Seppälä, Vilja; Närväinen, Johanna; García-Velázquez, Regina; Airaksinen, Jaakko; Jokela, Markus; Lahti, Emilia Elisabet (2022)
    Sisu is a Finnish cultural concept that denotes determination and resoluteness in the face of adversity. We propose that sisu will supplement the English-language based research on mental fortitude traits. Sisu has not been the focus of systematic research until very recently. We created a new questionnaire measuring sisu (the Sisu Scale), sought to validate the sisu construct and its sub-factor structure as postulated in a recent qualitative study. We investigated associations of sisu with other measures of mental fortitude and well-being. More generally we aimed to enrichen the cross-cultural understanding of human experience of overcoming adversity across life's challenges. We describe and validate a questionnaire that effectively measures both beneficial and harmful sisu, each comprising three sub-factors. Beneficial sisu was associated with other measures of fortitude, but less with personality dimensions. We also confirmed the existence of an independent harmful sisu factor. Beneficial sisu was associated with higher well-being and lower depressive symptoms, and harmful sisu with lower well-being and higher levels of general stress, work stress and depressive symptoms. Together the two factors were superior compared to pre-existing measures when predicting well-being-related variables. Results suggest that the new Sisu Scale we developed may provide a valuable addition to research on mental fortitude, resilience and their consequences for well-being.
  • Niemivirta, Markku; Pulkka, Antti-Tuomas; Tapola, Anna; Tuominen, Heta (Cambridge University Press, 2019)
    Cambridge Handbooks in Psychology
    In this chapter, we describe the principles of a person-oriented approach to studying individual differences (and similarities), and how it can be applied to the study of students’ achievement goal orientations. First, we briefly illustrate the approach, which provides a way of looking at the relative emphasis of different achievement goal orientations, thereby explicitly addressing the issue of multiple goals and their associations with important outcomes. Second, we give a comprehensive review of studies that have applied such an approach to investigating students’ achievement goals. The diversity in conceptualizations, methods, and study samples in the studies complicates the interpretation of the findings, but some generalizations can nevertheless be made. Based on the review, we conclude that students with qualitatively different achievement goal orientation profiles can clearly be identified, and that the extracted profiles are rather similar across studies. Further, it seems that such profiles are relatively stable over time and meaningfully associated with learning and various educational outcomes (e.g., academic achievement, self-perceptions, well-being, task-related motivation, and performance). The review also contributes to the debate concerning the advantages of endorsing different goals. Finally, we raise some methodological concerns, discuss implications for learning, and provide suggestions for future research.
  • Prakash, K. C.; Virtanen, Marianna; Törmälehto, Soili; Myllyntausta, Saana; Pentti, Jaana; Vahtera, Jussi; Stenholm, Sari (2022)
  • Repo, Saara; Elovainio, Marko; Pyörälä, Eeva; Iriarte-Lûttjohann, Monica; Tuominen, Tiina Annika; Härkönen, Tiina Karita; Gluschkoff, Kia; Paunio, Tiina (2022)
    We investigated the short- and long-term effects of two different evidence-based mindfulness training on students’ stress and well-being. A randomised controlled trial with three measurement points (baseline, post-intervention, and 4 months post-intervention) was conducted among undergraduate students of medicine, dentistry, psychology, and logopaedics at the University of Helsinki. The participants were randomly assigned into three groups: (1) face-to-face mindfulness training based on the Mindfulness Skills for Students course (n = 40), (2) a web-based Student Compass program using Mindfulness and Acceptance and Commitment therapy (n = 22), and (3) a control group that received mental health support as usual (n = 40). The primary outcome was psychological distress measured using the Clinical Outcomes in Routine Evaluation Outcome Measure (CORE-OM). Secondary outcomes included hair cortisol concentrations and a wide range of well-being indicators. Psychological distress increased in all the groups from baseline to post-intervention, but significantly less so in the intervention groups than in the control group. At 4-month follow-up, were found no differences between the primary outcomes of the control and intervention groups, but the participants who continued practising mindfulness at least twice a week were less stressed than the others. Our results suggest that participating in a mindfulness course may mitigate health care students’ psychological distress during the academic year, but only if the participants continue practising mindfulness at least twice a week.
  • Oksanen, Atte; Oksa, Reetta; Savela, Nina; Kaakinen, Markus; Ellonen, Noora (2020)
    Cyberbullying at work takes many forms, from aggressive and threatening behavior to social ostracism. It can also have adverse consequences on general well-being that might be even more severe for people whose identities are centrally based on social media ties. We examined this type of identity-driven social media use via the concept of social media identity bubbles. We first analyzed the risk and protective factors associated with cyberbullying victimization at work and then investigated its impacts on well-being. We expected that workers strongly involved in social media identity bubbles would be in the worst position when faced with cyberbullying. Data include a sample of workers from five Finnish expert organizations (N = 563) and a representative sample of Finnish workers (N = 1817). We investigated cyberbullying at work with 10 questions adapted from the Cyberbullying Behavior Questionnaire. Other measures included scales for private and professional social media usage, social media identity bubbles (six-item Identity Bubble Reinforcement Scale), well-being at work, sociodemographic factors, and job-related information. Prevalence of monthly cyberbullying victimization at work was 13% in expert organizations and 17% in the Finnish working population. Victims were young, active users of professional social media and they were strongly involved in social media identity bubbles. Victims who were in social media identity bubbles reported higher psychological distress, exhaustion, and technostress than other victims. Cyberbullying at work is a prevalent phenomenon and has negative outcomes on well-being at work. Negative consequences are more severe among those with highly identity-driven social media use.
  • Wikström, Miia; Anttila, Heidi; Savinainen, Minna; Kouvonen, Anne; Joensuu, Matti (BioMed Central, 2020)
    Abstract Background The unemployed have lower work ability and poorer health than the employed. This situation deteriorates when unemployment continues. The long-term unemployed often have co-morbidities and face many other challenges. This increases the need for a multidimensional assessment of work ability and functioning in different service settings. In this study, we describe the development and analyse the content validity of the Abilitator, a self-report questionnaire on work ability and functioning for those in a weak labour market position. Methods The Abilitator was developed in 2014–2017. Its construct was assessed by members of academic expert panels (n = 30), practical expert panels of professionals (n = 700) and target group clients (n = 28). The structure and the content of the questionnaire was co-developed in 29 workshops and adjusted twice based on the expert panels’ feedback. The Abilitator was also implemented among target group clients (n = 3360) in different services and projects. During its development the Abilitator was linked to the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF). The content validation process followed the guidelines recommended by the Consensus-based Standards for the selection of health Measurement Instruments (COSMIN) panel. Results The construct of the Abilitator combines the multidimensional and biopsychosocial models of work ability and functioning. It also includes aspects of social inclusion and employability. It evaluates social, psychological, cognitive and physical functioning, and the ability to cope with everyday life. The content of these concepts was validated by the academic and practical expert panels. The Abilitator’s 79 ICF codes covered 57% of the Generic, 77% of the Brief Vocational Rehabilitation, and 8% of the Minimal Environmental ICF Core Sets. When compared with the Work Ability Index (WAI) and the World Health Organization Disability Assessment Schedule (WHODAS 2.0), the direct equivalences of the ICF codes were 36 and 44%, respectively. Conclusion The Abilitator sufficiently comprehensively covers the relevant aspects to enable the assessment of the overall work ability and functioning of the population in a weak labour market position.
  • Wikstrom, Miia; Anttila, Heidi; Savinainen, Minna; Kouvonen, Anne; Joensuu, Matti (2020)
    BackgroundThe unemployed have lower work ability and poorer health than the employed. This situation deteriorates when unemployment continues. The long-term unemployed often have co-morbidities and face many other challenges. This increases the need for a multidimensional assessment of work ability and functioning in different service settings. In this study, we describe the development and analyse the content validity of the Abilitator, a self-report questionnaire on work ability and functioning for those in a weak labour market position.MethodsThe Abilitator was developed in 2014-2017. Its construct was assessed by members of academic expert panels (n=30), practical expert panels of professionals (n=700) and target group clients (n=28). The structure and the content of the questionnaire was co-developed in 29 workshops and adjusted twice based on the expert panels' feedback. The Abilitator was also implemented among target group clients (n=3360) in different services and projects. During its development the Abilitator was linked to the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF). The content validation process followed the guidelines recommended by the Consensus-based Standards for the selection of health Measurement Instruments (COSMIN) panel.ResultsThe construct of the Abilitator combines the multidimensional and biopsychosocial models of work ability and functioning. It also includes aspects of social inclusion and employability. It evaluates social, psychological, cognitive and physical functioning, and the ability to cope with everyday life. The content of these concepts was validated by the academic and practical expert panels. The Abilitator's 79 ICF codes covered 57% of the Generic, 77% of the Brief Vocational Rehabilitation, and 8% of the Minimal Environmental ICF Core Sets. When compared with the Work Ability Index (WAI) and the World Health Organization Disability Assessment Schedule (WHODAS 2.0), the direct equivalences of the ICF codes were 36 and 44%, respectively.ConclusionThe Abilitator sufficiently comprehensively covers the relevant aspects to enable the assessment of the overall work ability and functioning of the population in a weak labour market position.
  • Kopponen, Aleksi; Hahto, Antti; Kettunen, Petri; Mikkonen, Tommi; Mäkitalo, Niko; Nurmi, Jarkko; Rossi, Matti (2022)
    The exponentially growing amount of digital information and data analysis increase the ability to perceive the holistic situation of people. This article applies the digital twin paradigm to strengthen a person's ability to utilize information about themselves by creating a digital representation of their situation to support their well-being. More specifically, we propose a blueprint to empower individuals by improving their self-determination regarding their personal data. The blueprint will help service and data providers, both public and private, to develop a common understanding of the role and possibilities of a citizen's controlled personal digital twin of themselves-a citizen digital twin (CDT)-for creating people-centric solutions. The blueprint also provides a rational framework for service development based on CDTs and serves as a basis for strategic guidance of service development. We demonstrate this with a case study of confirmation class students.
  • Kuutila, Miikka; Mantyla, Mika; Claes, Maelick; Elovainio, Marko; Adams, Bram (2021)
    Reports of poor work well-being and fluctuating productivity in software engineering have been reported in both academic and popular sources. Understanding and predicting these issues through repository analysis might help manage software developers' well-being. Our objective is to link data from software repositories, that is commit activity, communication, expressed sentiments, and job events, with measures of well-being obtained with a daily experience sampling questionnaire. To achieve our objective, we studied a single software project team for eight months in the software industry. Additionally, we performed semi-structured interviews to explain our results. The acquired quantitative data are analyzed with generalized linear mixed-effects models with autocorrelation structure. We find that individual variance accounts for most of the R-2 values in models predicting developers' experienced well-being and productivity. In other words, using software repository variables to predict developers' well-being or productivity is challenging due to individual differences. Prediction models developed for each developer individually work better, with fixed effects R-2 value of up to 0.24. The semi-structured interviews give insights into the well-being of software developers and the benefits of chat interaction. Our study suggests that individualized prediction models are needed for well-being and productivity prediction in software development.
  • Holopainen, Marianne (Helsingin yliopisto, 2019)
    Objective: Mindfulness-based programs are increasingly used with adolescents in school environment. Many preliminary studies have shown that training mindfulness can be helpful for enhancing students’ mental health and psychological well-being. The current evidence base on the effectiveness, however, is still quite narrow and most studies have been limited due to methodological weaknesses. The aim of this study was to investigate how mindfulness training impacts on adolescents’ psychological well-being in secondary school. Methods: The study is a cluster randomized controlled trial, and a part of the Finnish school-based mindfulness research project Healthy Learning Mind (N=3519). Adolescents (age: 12-15 years) either participated in a 9-week mindfulness program, a standardized relaxation program, or followed usual school curriculum. Students’ emotional and behavioural problems, and prosocial behaviour were measured at baseline, post-intervention, and after six-month follow-up, using self- and parent-rated Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ). Linear mixed effects modelling (LMM) was used to compare differences between groups in the change from baseline to post-intervention and follow-up in the SDQ-scales. Results: There weren’t any statistically significant differences in change in any SDQ -outcome variables between the three groups at post-intervention or follow-up. However, during mindfulness program, students’ self-rated emotional symptoms and hyperactivity problems decreased and prosocial behaviour increased. Findings in the parent-rated results paralleled these results, and students’ conduct and emotional problems and hyperactivity were significantly decreased. Conclusions: Despite positive changes in the psychological well-being of the adolescents in the mindfulness group, no differences between the groups were found. Further research is still required to identify psychological well-being benefits of mindfulness training in school environment, using multiple measurement methods and longitudinal designs.
  • Obschonka, Martin; Pavez, Ignacio; Kautonen, Teemu; Kibler, Ewald; Salmela-Aro, Katariina; Wincent, Joakim (2023)
    What is the real value of entrepreneurship? We propose a framework of psychological utility by integrating Job Demands-Resources (JD-R) theory with a recovery approach from a personal agency perspective. We hypothesize that personal agency together with the positive JD-R pattern of entrepreneurship generates outstanding psychological utility, which maintains and rewards a healthy, strong work engagement that spills over to off-work time. This benefits entrepreneurs, but also their businesses reliant on strong work engagement that avoids burnout. We validate our framework by means of panel data comprising four waves (348 entrepreneurs and 1002 em-ployees), where we also analyze different types of entrepreneurs.
  • Habibi, Assal; Kreutz, Gunter; Russo, Frank; Tervaniemi, Mari (2022)
    Empirical research of community-based music interventions has advanced to investigate the individual, social, and educational implications of arts-for-wellbeing practices. Here, we present the motivations, aims, hypotheses, and implications of this complex field of inquiry. We describe examples of recent large-scale investigations to reflect on the major methodological challenges. Community-based music interventions strike a balance between the empirical rigor of clinical trials and the demands of ecological validity. We argue that this balance should be viewed as an asset rather than a mere pragmatic compromise. We also offer some perspectives on best-practice models for effectively engaging in this type of work.
  • Raymond, Ivan J.; Raymond, Christopher M. (2019)
    Despite the increasing interest in the intersections among values, well-being and environmental outcomes in sustainability science, few studies have considered these relationships by drawing on well-established theories and methods from positive psychology. The aim of this paper is to review three approaches conceptually related to positive psychology (self-determination theory, SDT; character strengths and virtues, CSV; acceptancy and commitment therapy, ACT) and compare these to sustainability approaches to well-being and values. First, we critically compare how values are understood, constructed and operationalised within the positive psychology and environmental values literatures. We offer a summary table to detail key concepts (and articles) which sustainability scientists may draw upon in their work against the dimensions of (1) elicitation process, (2) value provider (3) value concept and (4) value indicators. Second, we critically compare how the positive psychology and environmental values literature have considered the intersections between values and well-being. We identify the positive psychology pathways of 'value activation' and 'healthy-values' as alternative methods for sustainability scientists to consider. Third, we offer future options for the integration of positive psychology and environmental values literatures to deliver interventions which may lead to well-being and sustainability outcomes. We suggest that mindfulness could be applied as a method to clarify and activate values within a nature exposure context, which harnesses the qualities of both disciplines. To demonstrate integrative possibilities, a case example is offered which brings focus to well-being and sustainability outcomes, the intersection of value pathways, and intervention components drawn from both disciplines.
  • Lappalainen, Raimo; Sairanen, Essi; Jarvela, Elina; Rantala, Sanni; Korpela, Riitta; Puttonen, Sampsa; Kujala, Urho M.; Myllymaki, Tero; Peuhkuri, Katri; Mattila, Elina; Kaipainen, Kirsikka; Ahtinen, Aino; Karhunen, Leila; Pihlajamaki, Jussi; Jarnefelt, Heli; Laitinen, Jaana; Kutinlahti, Eija; Saarelma, Osmo; Ermes, Miikka; Kolehmainen, Marjukka (2014)
  • Huggel , Christian; Bouwer, Laurens M; Juhola, Sirkku; Mechler , Reinhard; Muccione, Veruska; Orlove, Ben; Wallimann-Helmer , Ivo (2022)
    Climate change is widely recognized as a major risk to societies and natural ecosystems but the high end of the risk, i.e., where risks become existential, is poorly framed, defined, and analyzed in the scientific literature. This gap is at odds with the fundamental relevance of existential risks for humanity, and it also limits the ability of scientific communities to engage with emerging debates and narratives about the existential dimension of climate change that have recently gained considerable traction. This paper intends to address this gap by scoping and defining existential risks related to climate change. We first review the context of existential risks and climate change, drawing on research in fields on global catastrophic risks, and on key risks and the so-called Reasons for Concern in the reports of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. We also consider how existential risks are framed in the civil society climate movement as well as what can be learned in this respect from the COVID-19 crisis. To better frame existential risks in the context of climate change, we propose to define them as those risks that threaten the existence of a subject, where this subject can be an individual person, a community, or nation state or humanity. The threat to their existence is defined by two levels of severity: conditions that threaten (1) survival and (2) basic human needs. A third level, well-being, is commonly not part of the space of existential risks. Our definition covers a range of different scales, which leads us into further defining six analytical dimensions: physical and social processes involved, systems affected, magnitude, spatial scale, timing, and probability of occurrence. In conclusion, we suggest that a clearer and more precise definition and framing of existential risks of climate change such as we offer here facilitates scientific analysis as well societal and political discourse and action.
  • Puhakka, Riikka; Pitkänen, Kati; Siikamäki, Pirkko (2017)
    Following the growth of nature-based tourism, national parks and other protected areas have become important tourist attractions and tools for regional development. Meanwhile, research on the impact of nature on human health and well-being is increasing and taken into account in park management. This study examines health and well-being benefits perceived by visitors to Finland's protected areas. It is based on survey data from five national parks and one strict nature reserve in 2013–2015: an on-site visitor survey (N = 3152) and an Internet-based health and well-being survey (N = 1054). The study indicates that visitors’ perceived benefits to their well-being were highly positive. Visits to protected areas promoted psychological, physical, and social benefits. In particular, park visits were found to provide strong and multi-faceted, long-lasting, embodied and sensory well-being experiences as well as escape from everyday life and work. Overnight visitors reported more well-being benefits than day visitors, and different types of park had different well-being benefits. The study suggests that the potential benefits of protected areas for public health are significant, emphasizing the need to integrate health and well-being arguments into the neoliberalist politics assessing the economic benefits of protected areas and their role in regional development.
  • Korsunova-Tsaruk, Angelina; Horn, Susanna; Vainio, Annukka (2021)
    It is generally accepted that governments, municipalities, businesses and citizens alike have a role to play in transitioning towards a circular economy (CE). Yet most academic and policy discussions of CE revolve around technological solutions and business models. Although CE also means significant changes to ways of living, these aspects of CE are barely addressed. The citizen role is traditionally assumed to be that of a consumer or user of the newly developed solutions, while also following the guidelines for sorting and recycling. Little is known about how citizens envision being part of the CE, and what skills and competences are relevant for CE. Our study addresses this gap by exploring the perceptions of young adults in Finland on how CE reflects into their everyday lives. Our dataset consists of 249 responses from high school students in Finland to open-ended questions regarding CE. The results highlight that young adults in Finland strongly associate CE with recycling, waste sorting and re-selling/buying second-hand, which is in line with the conventional roles of efficient recyclers and consumers. Although CE harbors wider potential for more active citizen roles related to repair, maintenance and upcycling, these aspects are often overlooked in favor of more familiar lifestyles. Building on the 5R framework for CE and emerging themes from student responses, we bring forward the new roles of upcycler, thrifter, expert/learner, giver/benefactor and conservationist. Supporting these emerging roles is an opportunity for cooperation between young adults, other citizen groups, cities, policy makers and businesses, and a key for jointly advancing the transition to CE. (c) 2021 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. on behalf of Institution of Chemical Engineers. This is an open access article under the CC BY license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/)
  • Puhakka, Riikka (2021)
    It is increasingly recognized that interacting with nature promotes well-being and health for both adults and children. Less is known about the role of nature in people's everyday lives during emerging adulthood which means the shift from adolescence to young adulthood. This study examines university students' participation in outdoor recreation and the perceived well-being effects of nature. The qualitative data consists of thematic writings (N = 47) produced by environmental students at the University of Helsinki, Finland, in 2020. The findings show that most students have negotiated time and other constraints and maintained active participation in outdoor recreation. The findings highlight that nature can have an important role in students' well-being during a life stage loaded with stress factors, and especially in times of the COVID-19 pandemic. Nature provides opportunities not only for physical activity but also for emotional and cognitive renewal, strengthening social relationships, and relieving the negative physiological effects of various stressors. Nature helps students in reflecting on their lives and even gaining a stronger sense of self. Natural settings provide a venue for students' socially shared experiences but also support retreat behaviors by enabling 'being away' and providing freedom from the pressures of student life. To prevent decline in connection with nature, special efforts should be made to support young adults' interaction with nature and gaining well-being benefits. Encouraging outdoor recreation at all life stages is needed to foster a lifelong nature connection and well-being experiences. Management implications: The study highlights the importance of hearing young adults' voices in decision-making and land-use planning to provide diverse opportunities for outdoor recreation and nature-based tourism. The findings stress the value of urban green spaces in supporting students' well-being in their everyday lives. To provide a sense of extent and 'being away' from daily routines and requirements within the city, it is important to preserve slightly managed natural settings that generate opportunities to explore nature and receive multisensory and embodied experiences. Emphasis on multisensory experiences, such as hearing bird song and breathing fresh air, also stresses the importance of taking natural elements into account in all urban planning. Promoting easy access to both urban green spaces and more distant natural settings is important for young adults. Organizing outdoor activities may also help students in familiarizing themselves with green spaces and socializing with peers.