Browsing by Subject "Wet strength"

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  • Mertaniemi, Henrikki; Escobedo-Lucea, Carmen; Sanz-Garcia, Andres; Gandía, Carolina; Mäkitie, Antti; Partanen, Jouni; Ikkala, Olli; Yliperttula, Marjo (2016)
    Abstract Upon surgery, local inflammatory reactions and postoperative infections cause complications, morbidity, and mortality. Delivery of human adipose mesenchymal stem cells (hASC) into the wounds is an efficient and safe means to reduce inflammation and promote wound healing. However, administration of stem cells by injection often results in low cell retention, and the cells deposit in other organs, reducing the efficiency of the therapy. Thus, it is essential to improve cell delivery to the target area using carriers to which the cells have a high affinity. Moreover, the application of hASC in surgery has typically relied on animal-origin components, which may induce immune reactions or even transmit infections due to pathogens. To solve these issues, we first show that native cellulose nanofibers (nanofibrillated cellulose, NFC) extracted from plants allow preparation of glutaraldehyde cross-linked threads (NFC-X) with high mechanical strength even under the wet cell culture or surgery conditions, characteristically challenging for cellulosic materials. Secondly, using a xenogeneic free protocol for isolation and maintenance of hASC, we demonstrate that cells adhere, migrate and proliferate on the NFC-X, even without surface modifiers. Cross-linked threads were not found to induce toxicity on the cells and, importantly, hASC attached on NFC-X maintained their undifferentiated state and preserved their bioactivity. After intradermal suturing with the hASC decorated NFC-X threads in an ex vivo experiment, cells remained attached to the multifilament sutures without displaying morphological changes or reducing their metabolic activity. Finally, as NFC-X optionally allows facile surface tailoring if needed, we anticipate that stem-cell-decorated NFC-X opens a versatile generic platform as a surgical bionanomaterial for fighting postoperative inflammation and chronic wound healing problems.
  • Lucenius, Jessica; Valle-Delgado, Juan José; Parikka, Kirsti; Österberg, Monika (2019)
    Plant-based polysaccharides (cellulose and hemicellulose) are a very interesting option for the preparation of sustainable composite materials to replace fossil plastics, but the optimum bonding mechanism between the hard and soft components is still not well known. In this work, composite films made of cellulose nanofibrils (CNF) and various modified and unmodified polysaccharides (galactoglucomannan, GGM; hydrolyzed and oxidized guar gum, GGhydHox; and guar gum grafted with polyethylene glycol, GG-g-PEG) were characterized from the nano- to macroscopic level to better understand how the interactions between the composite components at nano/microscale affect macroscopic mechanical properties, like toughness and strength. All the polysaccharides studied adsorbed well on CNF, although with different adsorption rates, as measured by quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation monitoring (QCM-D). Direct surface and friction force experiments using the colloidal probe technique revealed that the adsorbed polysaccharides provided repulsive forces–well described by a polyelectrolyte brush model – and a moderate reduction in friction between cellulose surfaces, which may prevent CNF aggregates during composite formation and, consequently, enhance the strength of dry films. High affinity for cellulose and moderate hydration were found to be important requirements for polysaccharides to improve the mechanical properties of CNF-based composites in wet conditions. The results of this work provide fundamental information on hemicellulose-cellulose interactions and can support the development of polysaccharide-based materials for different packaging and medical applications.