Browsing by Subject "Wireless fidelity"

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  • Järvinen, K.; Leppäkoski, H.; Lohan, E.; Richter, P.; Schneider, T.; Tkachenko, O.; Yang, Z. (IEEE, 2019)
    In the last decade, we observed a constantly growing number of Location-Based Services (LBSs) used in indoor environments, such as for targeted advertising in shopping malls or finding nearby friends. Although privacy-preserving LBSs were addressed in the literature, there was a lack of attention to the problem of enhancing privacy of indoor localization, i.e., the process of obtaining the users' locations indoors and, thus, a prerequisite for any indoor LBS. In this work we present PILOT, the first practically efficient solution for Privacy-Preserving Indoor Localization (PPIL) that was obtained by a synergy of the research areas indoor localization and applied cryptography. We design, implement, and evaluate protocols for Wi-Fi fingerprint-based PPIL that rely on 4 different distance metrics. To save energy and network bandwidth for the mobile end devices in PPIL, we securely outsource the computations to two non-colluding semi-honest parties. Our solution mixes different secure two-party computation protocols and we design size-and depth-optimized circuits for PPIL. We construct efficient circuit building blocks that are of independent interest: Single Instruction Multiple Data (SIMD) capable oblivious access to an array with low circuit depth and selection of the k-Nearest Neighbors with small circuit size. Additionally, we reduce Received Signal Strength (RSS) values from 8 bits to 4 bits without any significant accuracy reduction. Our most efficient PPIL protocol is 553x faster than that of Li et al. (INFOCOM'14) and 500× faster than that of Ziegeldorf et al. (WiSec'14). Our implementation on commodity hardware has practical run-times of less than 1 second even for the most accurate distance metrics that we consider, and it can process more than half a million PPIL queries per day.
  • Nieminen, Raine; Järvinen, Kimmo (2021)
    We present a privacy-preserving indoor localization scheme based on received signal strength measurements, e.g., from WiFi access points. Our scheme preserves the privacy of both the client's location and the service provider's database by using secure two-party computation instantiated with known cryptographic primitives, namely, Paillier encryption and garbled circuits. We describe a number of optimizations that reduce the computation and communication overheads of the scheme and provide theoretical evaluations of these overheads. We also demonstrate the feasibility of the scheme by developing a proof-of-concept implementation for Android smartphones and commodity servers. This implementation allows us to validate the practical performance of our scheme and to show that it is feasible for practical use in certain types of indoor localization applications.
  • Li, Tong; Zhang, Mingyang; Li, Yong; Lagerspetz, Eemil; Tarkoma, Sasu; Hui, Pan (2021)
    The outbreak of Covid-19 changed the world as well as human behavior. In this article, we study the impact of Covid-19 on smartphone usage. We gather smartphone usage records from a global data collection platform called Carat, including the usage of mobile users in North America from November 2019 to April 2020. We then conduct the first study on the differences in smartphone usage across the outbreak of Covid-19. We discover that Covid-19 leads to a decrease in users' smartphone engagement and network switches, but an increase in WiFi usage. Also, its outbreak causes new typical diurnal patterns of both memory usage and WiFi usage. Additionally, we investigate the correlations between smartphone usage and daily confirmed cases of Covid-19. The results reveal that memory usage, WiFi usage, and network switches of smartphones have significant correlations, whose absolute values of Pearson coefficients are greater than 0.8. Moreover, smartphone usage behavior has the strongest correlation with the Covid-19 cases occurring after it, which exhibits the potential of inferring outbreak status. By conducting extensive experiments, we demonstrate that for the inference of outbreak stages, both Macro-F1 and Micro-F1 can achieve over 0.8. Our findings explore the values of smartphone usage data for fighting against the epidemic.