Browsing by Subject "Women"

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  • Myllylä, Anna-Leena (Helsingfors universitet, 2016)
    Pro gradu -tutkielmani tarkastelee Itä-Afrikasta Suomeen muuttaneiden naisten käsityksiä seksuaalisuudesta. Kehitysyhteistyön ja suomalaisen valtavirtafeminismin viitekehyksissä afrikkalaisten naisten seksuaalisuus näyttäytyy ongelmakeskeisenä ja suomalainen tasa-arvo voimauttavana. Tutkielmani keskittyy selvittämään sitä, kuinka Suomessa asuvien itäafrikkalaisten naisten käyttämät diskurssit tukevat tai haastavat näitä hallitsevia diskursseja ja pohtimaan, kuinka naisten käsitykset seksuaalisuudesta suhteutuvat voimaantumisen käsitteeseen. Tutkielma sijoittuu jälkistrukturalistisen tutkimusperinteen kenttään. Seksuaalisuus teorisoidaan sosiaalisesti rakentuneeksi ja valtasuhteiden muokkaamaksi. Eri diskursseja asetetaan kontekstiin jälkikolonialistista feminististä teoriaa hyödyntäen. Tutkielman aineisto koostuu neljästä puolistrukturoidusta haastattelusta, joihin osallistui yhteensä yhdeksän Tansaniasta, Keniasta tai Ugandasta Suomeen aikuisiällä muuttanutta naista. Lisäksi työssä on hyödynnetty haastatteluprosessin aikana tehtyjä muistiinpanoja. Haastattelumateriaalin analyysissä käytettiin Norman Faircloughin kehittämää kriittistä diskurssianalyysiä, jonka mukaisesti keskusteluja tarkasteltiin tekstin tasolla, tekstin tuottamista määrittävien diskurssikäytäntöjen tasolla ja osana laajempaa sosiokulttuurista kontekstia. Naisten keskusteluissa seksuaalisuus rakentuu moninaiseksi. Haastattelumateriaali osoittaa kuinka naiset vastustavat patriarkaalisia rakenteita. Tätä tehdään kyseenalaistamalla patriarkaalisia moraalikäytäntöjä, rakentamalla erilaisin keinoin kuvaa aktiivisesta feminiinisestä seksuaalisuudesta sekä vastustamalla kuvaa naisesta, jonka velvollisuus on pyyteettömästi palvella miestään. Keskusteluissa rakentuu myös kuva suomalaisista, jotka eksotisoivat afrikkalaisia naisia. Tutkimuksen tekemisen aikana kävi ilmi, että useat afrikkalaiset maahanmuuttajat tunnistavat afrikkalaisiin seksuaalisuuksiin liittyviä negatiivisia ja rasistisia stereotypioita. Materiaali osoittaa, että ei voida puhua yhdestä itäafrikkalaisesta lähestymistavasta seksuaalisuuteen ja itäafrikkalaisilla naisilla on resursseja vastustaa patriarkaalisia rakenteita ja käytäntöjä tavoilla, jotka haastavat Suomessa hallitsevassa asemassa olevia diskursseja. Naisten keskusteluissa esiintyvä vastarinta eroaa monelta osin suomalaisen valtavirtafeminismin ja kehitysyhteistyön puitteissa rakentuvasta vastarinnankäsityksestä. Näin ollen keskustelu osoittaa myös näihin hallitseviin diskursseihin piiloutuvan kolonialismin perinnön ja moralismin. Naisten diskurssit haastavat kuvaa ’maahanmuuttajanaisesta’ ja osoittavat erilaisia vastarinnan ja voimaantumisen mahdollisuuksia naisten omista lähtökohdista käsin.
  • Donner, Iikki; Katainen, Riku; Sipilä, Lauri J.; Aavikko, Mervi; Pukkala, Eero; Aaltonen, Lauri A. (2018)
    Objectives: Although the primary cause of lung cancer is smoking, a considerable proportion of all lung cancers occur in never smokers. Gender influences the risk and characteristics of lung cancer and women are over-represented among never smokers with the disease. Young age at onset and lack of established environmental risk factors suggest genetic predisposition. In this study, we used population-based sampling of young patients to discover candidate predisposition variants for lung adenocarcinoma in never-smoking women. Materials and methods: We employed archival normal tissue material from 21 never-smoker women who had been diagnosed with lung adenocarcinoma before the age of 45, and exome sequenced their germline DNA. Results and conclusion: Potentially pathogenic variants were found in eight Cancer Gene Census germline genes: BRCAI, BRCA2, ERCC4, EXT1, HNF1 A, PTCH1, SMARCB1 and TP53. The variants in TP53, BRCAI, and BRCA2 are likely to have contributed to the early onset lung cancer in the respective patients (3/21 or 14%). This supports the notion that lung adenocarcinoma can be a component of certain cancer predisposition syndromes. Fifteen genes displayed potentially pathogenic mutations in at least two patients: ABCC10, ATP7B, CACNA1S, CFTR, CLIP4, COL6A1, COL6A6, GCN1, GJB6, RYR1, SCN7A, SEC24A, SP100, TEN and USH2A. Four patients showed a mutation in COL6A1, three in CLIP4 and two in the rest of the genes. Some of these candidate genes may explain a subset of female lung adenocarcinoma.
  • Svärd, Saana (Servicio de Publicaciones de la Universidad de Alcalá, 2018)
    Translation of my 2016 article "Neo-Assyrian Elite Women"
  • Fazel, Abdolreza; Hasanpour-Heidari, Susan; Salamat, Fatemeh; Rajaie, Siamak; Kazeminezhad, Vahideh; Naeimi-Tabiei, Mohammad; Jahangirrad, Ataollah; Sedaghat, SeyedMehdi; Hosseinpoor, Reza; Ghasemi-Kebria, Fatemeh; Roshandel, Gholamreza; Weiderpass, Elisabete (2019)
    Introduction: Breast cancer is the most frequent cancer among women worldwide. Breast cancer incidence in young women is a health issue of concern, especially in middle-income countries such as Iran. The aim of this study is to report the breast cancer incidence variations in Golestan province, Iran, over a 10-year period (2004-2013). Methods: We analyzed data from the Golestan Population-based Cancer Registry (GPCR), which is a high-quality cancer registry collecting data on primary cancers based on standard protocols throughout the Golestan province. Age-standardized incidence rates (ASRs) and age-specific incidence rates per 100,000 person-years were calculated. Time trends in ASRs and age-specific rates were evaluated using Joinpoint regressions. The average annual percentage change (AAPC) with correspondence 95% confidence intervals (95%CIs) were calculated. Results: A total of 2106 new breast cancer cases were diagnosed during the study period. Most cases occurred in women living in urban areas: 1449 cases (68%) versus 657 cases (31%) in rural areas. Statistically significant increasing trends were observed over the 10-year study period amongst women of all ages (AAPC = 4.4; 95%CI: 1.2-7.8) as well as amongst women in the age groups 20-29 years (AAPC = 10.0; 95%CI: 1.7-19.0) and 30-39 years (AAPC = 5.1; 95%CI: 1.4-9.0). Conclusion: The incidence of breast cancer increased between 2004 and 2013 in Golestan province amongst all age groups, and in particular amongst women aged 20-39 years. Breast cancer should be considered a high priority for health policy making in our community.
  • Simoila, Laura; Isometsä, Erkki; Gissler, Mika; Suvisaari, Jaana; Sailas, Ella; Halmesmäki, Erja; Lindberg, Nina (2019)
    Schizophrenia may affect a mother's ability to parent. We investigated out-of-home placements among children with a biological mother having schizophrenia, and their relation to maternal characteristics and adverse perinatal health outcomes of the offspring. For each Finnish woman born between 1 JAN 1965 - 31 DEC 1980 and diagnosed with schizophrenia before 31 DEC 2013 (n = 5214), five matched controls were randomly selected from the Finnish Central Population Register. Children born to these women were identified and followed till 31 DEC 2013. The Child Welfare Register, the Medical Birth Register and the Register of Congenital Malformations were used to gather information. Altogether 35.1% of children with an affected mother and 3.2% of control children were placed out of home during the follow-up. The incidence rate ratio (IRR) of out-of-home placement among children with an affected mother was 12.6 (95% confidence interval (CI) 10.80-13.46) when children with a non-affected mother served as a reference. Single motherhood (IRR 2.2, 95% CI 1.88-2.60) and maternal smoking (IRR 1.9, 95% CL 1.68-2.16), but not an adverse perinatal outcome of the offspring, increased the risk of out-of-home placement. To conclude, maternal schizophrenia is a strong risk factor for placement of children in out-of-home care.
  • Toffol, Elena; Kalleinen, Nea; Himanen, Sari-Leena; Partonen, Timo; Haukka, Jari; Polo-Kantola, Paivi (2021)
    Background: Sleep quality typically decreases after menopause, but the underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. Concentrations of melatonin are lower and its secretion profiles different before and after menopause. However, whether and how melatonin and sleep architecture are associated in women of different reproductive states have not been examined to date. Methods: Overnight serum melatonin samples were taken from 17 perimenopausal and 18 postmenopausal healthy women. Sleep quality was measured with all-night polysomnography recordings. Results: Melatonin concentrations tended to be the lowest during NREM sleep, and were associated with higher odds of transitions from wake to NREM sleep. The curves of predicted overnight melatonin values from linear mixed models varied according to sleep phases (NREM, REM, Wake) in perimenopausal, but not in postmenopausal women. In perimenopause higher melatonin area under curve (AUC) correlated with higher slow-wave activity (p = 0.043), and higher minimum concentrations with shorter slow-wave sleep (SWS) latency (p = 0.029). In postmenopause higher mean and maximum melatonin concentrations and AUC correlated with lower SWS percentage (p = 0.044, p = 0.029, p = 0.032), and higher mean (p = 0.032), maximum (p = 0.032) and minimum (p = 0.037) concentrations with more awakenings from REM sleep. In the age- and BMI-adjusted regression models, the association between higher maximum (p = 0.046) melatonin concentration and lower SWS percentage remained. Conclusions: The relationship between melatonin and sleep architecture differed in perimenopausal and postmenopausal women. After menopause, high melatonin concentrations were associated with worse sleep. Whether these different patterns are related to aging of the reproductive system, and to decrease in menopausal sleep quality, remains to be elucidated. (c) 2021 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. This is an open access article under the CC BY license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).
  • Lahelma, Eero; Pietiläinen, Olli; Chandola, Tarani; Hyde, Martin; Rahkonen, Ossi; Lallukka, Tea (BioMed Central, 2019)
    Abstract Background Prior analyses of class differences in health trajectories among employees have often omitted women and transitions to retirement. We examined social class trajectories in physical functioning among Finnish female employees from midlife to retirement age, and whether transitions to retirement modified these trajectories. Methods Data were derived from mail surveys at Phases 1–3 (2000–2012) among employees of the City of Helsinki, Finland, aged 40–60 at baseline (n = 8960, 80% women, response rates 69–83%). We included respondents to any of the Phases 1–3 aged 40–72 (n = 6976). We distinguished higher and lower social classes, and employment statuses, i.e. employed, mandatorily retired and disability-retired. Short Form 36 physical component summary was used to measure physical functioning. Mixed-effect growth curve models were used to assess the association of social class and employment status with functioning over age. Results For employed women, physical functioning deteriorated faster in the lower than in the higher class, with class trajectories widening in ages 40–65. After mandatory retirement, functioning deteriorated in both classes, whereas after disability retirement, functioning improved. Across employment statuses, functioning converged at older ages, and the disability-retired caught up with the better functioning of the employed and mandatorily retired. Employment status modified the trajectories, as among the continuously employed and mandatorily retired women functioning deteriorated, but among the disability-retired, trajectories improved and reached a similar level with employed and mandatorily retired women. Social class inequalities remained in all employment status groups. Conclusions Overall, our results suggest evidence for the cumulative disadvantage model, with accumulating work exposures among lower classes potentially contributing to their trajectories of ill health.
  • Lahelma, Eero; Pietiläinen, Olli; Chandola, Tarani; Hyde, Martin; Rahkonen, Ossi; Lallukka, Tea (2019)
    Background Prior analyses of class differences in health trajectories among employees have often omitted women and transitions to retirement. We examined social class trajectories in physical functioning among Finnish female employees from midlife to retirement age, and whether transitions to retirement modified these trajectories. Methods Data were derived from mail surveys at Phases 1-3 (2000-2012) among employees of the City of Helsinki, Finland, aged 40-60 at baseline (n = 8960, 80% women, response rates 69-83%). We included respondents to any of the Phases 1-3 aged 40-72 (n = 6976). We distinguished higher and lower social classes, and employment statuses, i.e. employed, mandatorily retired and disability-retired. Short Form 36 physical component summary was used to measure physical functioning. Mixed-effect growth curve models were used to assess the association of social class and employment status with functioning over age. Results For employed women, physical functioning deteriorated faster in the lower than in the higher class, with class trajectories widening in ages 40-65. After mandatory retirement, functioning deteriorated in both classes, whereas after disability retirement, functioning improved. Across employment statuses, functioning converged at older ages, and the disability-retired caught up with the better functioning of the employed and mandatorily retired. Employment status modified the trajectories, as among the continuously employed and mandatorily retired women functioning deteriorated, but among the disability-retired, trajectories improved and reached a similar level with employed and mandatorily retired women. Social class inequalities remained in all employment status groups. Conclusions Overall, our results suggest evidence for the cumulative disadvantage model, with accumulating work exposures among lower classes potentially contributing to their trajectories of ill health.
  • Haukioja, Anna; Tervahartiala, Taina; Sorsa, Timo; Syrjanen, Stina (2017)
    Background: A persistent human papillomavirus (HPV) infection is a prerequisite for a HPV related cancer to develop. Asymptomatic, persistent HPV infections are not only found in genital tract, but also on oral mucosa. Oral HPV persistence may be associated with behavioural factors, but data on the role of innate immunity in oral HPV infections are still limited. Objectives: Salivary concentrations of matrix metalloproteinases MMP-8 and MMP-9, tissue inhibitor of MMPs (TIMP-1), myeloperoxidase, and serum concentrations of MMP-8 were analysed in women with a persistent oral HPV infection and, as a control, in women who remained HPV DNA-negative during a 6-year follow-up. The effects of smoking, lactation and alcohol use on the salivary and serum parameters were assessed, too. Study design: A nested case-control setting was used to select a subgroup of 57 women with a persistent oral HPV infection and 102 controls from the Finnish Family HPV Study. Results: The salivary MMP-8/TIMP-1 molar ratio was lower in HPV DNA-positive women than in controls (p = 0.036). The difference was more pronounced in non-smoking women, in this group also the salivary MMP-8 levels differed (p = 0.047). There was a correlation between the salivary concentrations of myeloperoxidase and MMP-8 (r = 0.567, p <0.001) or MMP-9 (r = 0.234, p = 003), but no correlation between salivary and serum MMP-8 levels. The MMP-9 concentration and the MMP-9/TIMP-1 molar ratio were significantly lower in smokers than in non-smokers (p = 0.020 and p = 0.003, respectively). Conclusions: Persistent oral HPV infection was associated with a low salivary MMP-8 concentration indicating eventually a failure in oral anti-inflammatory defence.
  • Atkinson, Charlotte; Ray, Roberta M.; Li, Wenjin; Lin, Ming-Gang; Gao, Dao Li; Shannon, Jackilen; Stalsberg, Helge; Porter, Peggy L.; Frankenfeld, Cara L.; Wahala, Kristiina; Thomas, David B.; Lampe, Johanna W. (2016)
    Equol (a bacterial metabolite of the soy isoflavone daidzein) is produced by 30% to 50% of humans and may be associated with health outcomes. We hypothesized that plasma equol would be inversely associated with risks of fibrocystic breast conditions (FBC) and breast cancer (BC). Plasma from women in a breast self-examination trial in Shanghai with BC (n = 269) or FBC (n = 443), and age-matched controls (n = 1027) was analyzed for isoflavones. Equol was grouped into categories (= 45 nmol/L) and, among women with daidzein >= 20 nmol/L, the log(10) equol:daidzein ratio was grouped into tertiles. Where available, non-cancerous tissue (NCT) adjacent to the carcinomas from women with BC were classified as non-proliferative or proliferative (n = 130 and 172, respectively). The lesions from women with FBC were similarly classified (n = 99 and 92, respectively). Odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated across equol categories and tertiles of log(10) equol:daidzein ratio. Equol categories were not associated with FBC or BC >.05). For log(10) equol:daidzein, compared to controls there were positive associations in the mid tertile for proliferative FBC (OR 2.06, 95% CI 1.08-3.93), BC with proliferative NCT (OR 2.95, 95% CI 1.37-6.35), and all BC regardless of histology (OR 2.37, 95% CI 1.43-3.95). However, trends in ORs with increasing plasma equol values or equol:daidzein ratios were not observed (P >.05). The results of this study do not provide evidence that equol plays a role in the etiology of these breast conditions. However, further work is needed to confirm or refute this conclusion. (C) 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
  • Borch, Kristin Benjaminsen; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Braaten, Tonje; Hansen, Merethe Selnes; Licaj, Idlir (2019)
    We aimed to investigate physical activity (PA) and risk of different histological subtypes of lung cancer according to smoking status and body mass index using repeated measurements in a large cohort of women in Norway. The study sample for the multiple imputation analyses consisted of 86,499 and for the complete-case analysis 80,802 women. Repeated measurements of PA level, smoking habits, weight, and height were available for 54,691 women (63.2%), who were included in repeated measurement analyses combined with multiple imputation to address attrition. Cox proportional hazards regression models were used to calculate hazard ratios with 95% confidence intervals. During a median follow-up of 12.9years, 866 cases of primary lung cancer were identified. We found an inverse association between PA and lung cancer overall. The results were consistent from multiple imputed data analysis to complete-case analysis of PA and possible confounders. We observed a similar trend for adenocarcinoma, but not for squamous cell or small cell carcinomas. Our findings suggest a more pronounced association between lung cancer overall and PA levels in current and former smokers, and in normal-weight and overweight participants with increasing PA levels. The potential of a modifiable lifestyle factor as PA to reduce the risk of lung cancer independently of smoking status is important in public health.
  • Simoila, Laura; Isometsä, Erkki; Gissler, Mika; Suvisaari, Jaana; Sailas, Eila; Halmesmäki, Erja; Lindberg, Nina (2018)
    Background: The objectives of this study were to investigate, in women with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder, the number and incidence of induced abortions (= pregnancy terminations performed by a physician), their demographic characteristics, use of contraceptives, plus indications of and complications related to pregnancy termination. Methods: Using the Care Register for Health Care, we identified Finnish women born between the years 19651980 who were diagnosed with either schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder during the follow-up period ending 31.122013. For each case, five age- and place-of-birth- matched controls were obtained from the Population Register of Finland. Information about births and induced abortions were obtained from the Medical Birth Register and the Induced Abortion Register. Results: The number and incidence of induced abortions per 1000 follow-up years did not differ between cases and their controls. However, due to fewer pregnancies, cases exhibited an over 2-fold increased risk of pregnancy termination (RR 228; 95% CI 2.20-2.36). Cases were younger, were more often without a partner at the time of induced abortion, and their pregnancies resulted more often from a lack of contraception. Among cases, the indication for pregnancy termination was more often mother-to-be's medical condition. Induced abortions after 12 weeks gestation were more common among cases. However, cases had no more complications related to termination. Conclusions: The incidence of induced abortions among Finnish women with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder is similar to the general population, but their risk per pregnancy over two-fold. They need effective, affordable family planning services and long-term premeditated contraception. (C) 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
  • Dubikaytis, Tatiana; Härkänen, Tommi; Regushevskaya, Elena; Hemminki, Elina; Haavio-Mannila, Elina; Laanpere, Made; Kuznetsova, Olga; Koskinen, Seppo (2014)
  • Venäläinen, Satu; Virkki, Tuija (2019)
    The article examines online discussions in Finland that focus on violence committed by Finnish women, on one hand, and non-white migrant men, on the other. Drawing on the perspective of sociology of value, the article illustrates how these discussions function as sites of struggles over moral worth in a contemporary context characterised by crises of both male and white hegemony. The authors suggest that, through the discussions, these current crises are projected on migrant men and certain groups of women, who thereby become construed as morally reprehensible. The analysis sheds light on processes of (re-)legitimating the moral virtue historically attached to both masculinity and whiteness, and thereby shows how gendered and racialised hierarchies are reproduced in the context of meaning-making around the issue of violence. Also discussed is how these dynamics and the process of reproduction via discourse draw upon historically recurring meanings and evaluations while simultaneously tailored to contemporary circumstances. The tailoring is performed via explicit reference to the value of gender equality, which serves a dual function: re-inscribing moral value in white masculinity while excluding from the circuits of value both racialised masculinities and Finnish women portrayed as doing gender and whiteness in the 'wrong' way. These processes give the discussants room for justifying hate and violent exclusion of such women and migrant men while also muting any dissenting voices attempting to resist circulation of the derogatory meanings.
  • Harper, Diane M.; Nieminen, Pekka; Donders, Gilbert; Einstein, Mark H.; Garcia, Francisco; Huh, Warner K.; Stoler, Mark H.; Glavini, Katerina; Attley, Gemma; Limacher, Jean-Marc; Bastien, Berangere; Calleja, Elizabeth (2019)
    Background. While prophylactic human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination exists, women are still developing cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) grade 2 or 3 for which an immunotherapeutic, non-surgical, approach may be effective. The primary aim was to assess the efficacy of tipapkinogen sovacivec (TS) vaccine in achieving histologic resolution of CIN2/3 associated with high risk (HR) HPV types. Methods. Women 18 years and older who had confirmed CIN2/3 were enrolled in a randomized, double blind, placebo-controlled phase II trial and assigned to drug in a 2:1 ratio (vaccine:placebo). The primary endpoint occurred at month 6 when the excisional therapy was performed; cytology and HR HPV typing were performed at months 3, 6 and every six months through month 30. The safety population included all patients who received at least one dose of study drug. Results. Of the 129 women randomized to vaccine and 63 to placebo, complete resolution was significantly higher in the vaccine group than placebo for CIN 2/3 regardless of the 13 HR HPV types assayed (24% vs. 10%, p <0.05); as well as for only CIN 3 also regardless of HR HPV type (21% vs. 0%, p <0.01). Irrespective of baseline HPV infection, viral DNA clearance was higher in the vaccine group compared to placebo (p <0.01). The vaccine was well tolerated with the most common adverse events being injection site reactions. Conclusions. The TS vaccine provides histologic clearance of CIN 2/3 irrespective of HR HPV type in one third of subjects and is generally safe through 30 months. (C) 2019 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc.
  • Obatnin, Georgii (Helsingin yliopisto, 2018)
    In a history written by men, women are typically assigned minimal agency, hardly indicative of their real roles in the society. Traditionally, scholarship on women under Islam has been reliant on medieval Islamic historical, literary and legal works. These works were often written long after the events they depict and when it comes to depicting women, tend to be prescriptive, rather than descriptive. When it comes to Arabic documents written on papyrus, parchment and paper, these biases are largely nonexistent, as we are provided with a contemporaneous window into everyday life—something none of the sources mentioned above can do. In this thesis I am working with documentary sources to explore the roles of women in Egypt under early medieval Islam. Due to the scarcity of prior scholarship, apart from reconstructing some aspects of women’s lives, this thesis has two additional aims. First, it aims to build a frame of reference that can be used to read and understand Arabic documents pertaining to women. Second, it seeks to assess how and in what capacity these sources can be used in the future. Throughout the three main chapters of this thesis, twelve documents are utilized to talk about women owning and operating with real estate, slaves and businesses, as well as women’s position within the family and the society. The investigation covers the period from 750 to 969 CE and deals with all three main ethno-religious communities of Egypt—Muslim, Jewish and Coptic. Eleven out of the twelve documents presented in this work are used for the first time to study women appearing in them, while five of them have seen here their first translation into English. By reading these documents and comparing them to other, more traditional, sources, as well as works of prior scholarship, this thesis builds a more balanced picture of early medieval Egyptian life and women’s role in it. It also surveys the themes and topics present in the documentary record and maps out potential avenues for future research.
  • De Paola, Jennifer; Wagner, Wolfgang; Pirttilä-Backman, Anna-Maija; Lehtonen, Josetta (2021)
    This paper presents results from a study exploring representations of "happiness" and "unhappiness." Word associations with these concepts were produced by 16-18 and 29-34-year-old women from Finland, the country that the United Nation's World Happiness Report has ranked the "happiest" in the world. Correspondence Analysis (CA) and Hierarchical Cluster Analysis show that participants in both age groups share three clusters of words associated with "happiness": Tangible happiness, Affective happiness and Serene happiness. We noted more differences in the associations with "unhappiness," for which the two groups share only two clusters: Loss and Everyday problems. A distinct third cluster, Affective unhappiness, emerged for the younger women, whereas older women's associations are further differentiated into a more complex structure, including two more clusters: Dejection and Apprehension. Additionally, CA shows that in both age groups, self-reported happiness levels do not discriminate which words are associated with happiness and unhappiness. Finally, qualitative content analysis of a questionnaire item investigating how to reach complete happiness suggested that there are three recurring answer types: happiness can be improved through external changes, internal changes, or not at all because complete/permanent happiness does not exist. The study provides a methodological design which, unlike most happiness studies, allows participants the freedom to bring up the meaning of happiness and unhappiness. Thus, the study constitutes a contribution to a more nuanced understanding of happiness.
  • Majaluoma, Susa; Seppälä, Tellervo; Kautiainen, Hannu; Korhonen, Päivi (BioMed Central, 2020)
    Abstract Background Type D personality is a combination of high negative affectivity (NA) and high social inhibition (SI). This personality trait is suspected to impair cardiovascular patients’ recovery. The 2016 European Guidelines on cardiovascular disease prevention in clinical practice recommend screening of psychosocial risk factors as Type D personality. The aim of this study was to assess the relationship between Type D personality and Metabolic syndrome (MetS) in working-age female population. Methods Six hundred thirty-four female employees with mean age of 48 ± 10 years were evaluated. Type D personality and its components (NA) and (SI) were screened with DS14 questionnaire. The definition of MetS was based on measurements done by trained medical staff. We investigated the relationship between Mets and Type D personality, NA and SI using the logistic regression models adjusting for age, education years, leisure-time physical activity, smoking, alcohol use and depressive symptoms. Results The prevalence of Type D personality was 10.6% (n = 67) [95% CI: 8.3 to 13.2] and MetS 34.7% (n = 220). Type D personality or its subcomponents were not associated with MetS. Women with Type D personality had significantly worse quality of sleep and lower LTPA. They were also more often unsatisfied with their economic situation, they had more often depressive symptoms and psychiatric disorders than non-D type persons. There were no differences in risk factors for cardiovascular diseases. Conclusion Screening for Type D personality among working- age, reasonably healthy female population seems not to be practical method for finding persons with risk for cardiovascular disease.