Browsing by Subject "Work disability"

Sort by: Order: Results:

Now showing items 1-10 of 10
  • Mattila-Holappa, Pauliina; Kausto, Johanna; Aalto, Ville; Kaila-Kangas, Leena; Kivimäki, Mika; Oksanen, Tuula; Ervasti, Jenni (2021)
    PurposeAlternative duty work is a procedure that enables an employee with a short-term disability to perform modified duties as an alternative to sickness absence. We examined whether the implementation of an alternative duty policy was associated with reduced sickness absence in the Finnish public sector.MethodsTwo city administrations (A and D) that implemented an alternative duty work policy to their employees (n=5341 and n=7538) served as our intervention cities, and two city administrations (B and C) that did not implement the policy represented the reference cities (n=6976 and n=6720). The outcomes were the number of annual days, all episodes, and short-term (
  • Lahti, Jouni; Holstila, Ansku; Mänty, Minna; Lahelma, Eero; Rahkonen, Ossi (2016)
    Background: Disability retirement is an economic, public health and work life issue causing costs for employees, workplaces and society. Adopting physical activity at middle-age has been associated with reduced risk of sickness absence and mortality. The aim of this study was to examine how changes over time in leisure time physical activity are associated with subsequent disability retirement among midlife employees. Methods: The Helsinki Health Study cohort baseline (phase 1) mail questionnaire survey data were collected in 2000, 2001 and 2002 among 40-60-year-old employees of the City of Helsinki, Finland. A phase 2 survey was conducted in 2007 (N = 3943). Respondents were classified into three groups: 1. low-active ( = 14 MET-hours/week in moderate-intensity physical activity) and 3. vigorously active (> = 14 MET-hours/week including vigorous physical activity) at both phases. This yielded nine groups for describing stability and change of leisure time physical activity. Disability retirement data were derived from the registry of the Finnish Centre for Pensions until the end of 2013. A Cox regression analysis was used to calculate hazard ratios (HR) and their 95 % confidence intervals (CI) adjusting for covariates. Results: During the follow-up, 264 (6.7 %) participants retired due to disability. Compared with those who were persistently low-active, those who increased their physical activity from low to vigorous had a lower risk of subsequent disability retirement (HR = 0.38, 95 % CI = 0.15-0.97) when adjusting for age, gender, occupational social class, strenuousness of work, smoking and binge drinking. Similarly, compared with those who were persistently moderately active, those increasing from moderate to vigorous (HR = 0.50, 95 % CI = 0.28-0.86) had a reduced risk. In contrast, those decreasing their physical activity from vigorous to low (HR = 2.42, 95 % CI = 1. 32-4.41) or moderate (HR = 1.70, 95 % CI = 1.03-2.82) had an increased risk, compared with those who were persistently vigorously active. Adjusting for BMI, limiting longstanding illness and prior sickness absence somewhat attenuated the associations. Conclusions: Adopting vigorous physical activity was associated with a reduced risk of disability retirement. Promoting vigorous physical activity among midlife employees may help prevent disability retirement.
  • Sumanen, Hilla; Lahelma, Eero; Lahti, Jouni; Pietiläinen, Olli; Rahkonen, Ossi (2016)
    Objective Socioeconomic differences in sickness absence (SA) are well established among older employees but poorly understood among the young. Our aim was to examine 12-year trends in educational differences in SA among young female and male employees, and to assess the magnitude of the differences. Design We examined annual SA spells. The data were obtained from the employer's registers and linked to Statistics Finland's register data on completed education and qualifications. Education was classified into four hierarchical groups. Joinpoint regression models were used to identify turning points in SA trends. The magnitude of the relative educational differences was estimated in accordance with the relative index of inequality for 2002, 2008 and 2013. Setting Employees of the City of Helsinki, Finland, in 2002-2013. Participants The analyses covered female and male employees aged 25-34years: employees aged 35-54years were used as a reference group. Outcome SA spells. Results An educational gradient emerged among younger and older women and men. SA spells increased in the early 2000s, and downward turning points were located in 2007-2010 in all educational groups among women and in most groups among men. The magnitude of the differences remained broadly stable among younger women from 2002 to 2013, and decreased slightly among older women and more strongly among younger and older men. The educational differences were greater among men than women in the early 2000s, but similar among both at the end of the study period. Conclusions The changes in SA spells may reflect the economic downturn started in 2008 and resulting job insecurity. Early preventive measures aimed at reducing educational differences in SA should be focused at an early stage on those with low levels of education in particular.
  • Harkko, Jaakko; Nordquist, Hilla; Pietiläinen, Olli; Piha, Kustaa; Mänty, Minna; Lallukka, Tea; Rahkonen, Ossi; Kouvonen, Anne (2021)
    Objectives We examined whether frequent short-term sickness absence (FSTSA) and primary care use in occupational health service (OHS) were associated with medically-certified long-term sickness absence (LTSA) due to mental disorders among young employees. Methods We used record-linkage data covering the young employees (< 35 years) of the City of Helsinki, Finland (n = 8,282) from 2010 to 2014. The outcome was LTSA due to mental disorders. Cox regression models were fitted. Results FSTSAs were associated with subsequent LTSA. Also OHS use predicted LTSA due to mental disorders; however, this association was not found for those with prior FSTSA. Conclusions Both FSTSA and primary care use indicate subsequent LTSA independently, and together these indicators identify a larger proportion of individuals at risk of LTSA due to mental disorders.
  • Elfving, Pia; Puolakka, Kari; Rantalaiho, Vappu; Kautiainen, Hannu; Virta, Lauri J.; Kaipiainen-Seppänen, Oili (2018)
    Objectives of this study were to examine work disability (WD) and its leading causes in incident SLE patients. Data were derived from the Finnish nationwide registries to identify all non-retired, 18 to 64-year-old incident SLE patients between 2000 and 2007. Sick benefits and WD pensions and the causes for them were monitored until the end of 2008. A total of 446 working-aged, incident SLE patients available for work force (mean age 42 +/- 13 years, 89% females) were found. During the follow-up (median 5.3 years), WD pension was granted to 27 patients. The most common cause was SLE itself (14 patients, 52%), with cumulative incidence of 3.4% (95% CI 1.9 to 5.8) in 5 years and 5.0% (95% CI 3.0 to 8.5) in 8 years, followed by musculoskeletal and psychiatric causes. The age- and sex- adjusted incidence ratio for WD pension in SLE patients due to any cause was 5.4 (95% CI 3.7 to 7.9) compared to the Finnish population. The mean number of WD days was 32 (95% CI 28 to 35) per patient-year among all SLE patients during the follow-up. The study concludes that SLE patients have an increased risk for WD already in early course of the disease.
  • Sumanen, Hilla; Pietilainen, Olli; Lahti, Jouni; Lahelma, Eero; Rahkonen, Ossi (2015)
    Background: A low socioeconomic position (SEP) is consistently associated with ill health, sickness absence (SA) and permanent disability, but studies among young employees are lacking. We examined the interrelationships between education, occupational class and income as determinants of SA among 25-34-year-old employees. We also examined, whether the association between SEP and SA varied over time in 2002-2007 and 2008-2013. Methods: The analyses covered young, 25-34-year-old women and men employed by the City of Helsinki over the time periods 2002-2007 and 2008-2013. Four-level education and occupational class classifications were used, as well as income quartiles. The outcome measure was the number of annual SA days. Results: Education had the strongest and most consistent independent association with SA among women and men in both periods under study. Occupational class had weaker independent and less consistent association with SA. Income had an independent association with SA, which strengthened over time among the men. The interrelationships between the SEP indicators and SA were partly explained by prior or mediated through subsequent SEP indicators. Socioeconomic differences followed only partially a gradient for occupational class and also for income among men. Conclusions: Preventive measures to reduce the risk of SA should be considered, especially among young employees with a basic or lower-secondary education.
  • Sirén, Maria; Viikari-Juntura, Eira; Arokoski, Jari; Solovieva, Svetlana (2020)
    Objective To identify occupations with a high risk of disability retirement due to a shoulder lesion and to examine the effect of physical and psychosocial work-related factors on occupational differences in disability retirement. Methods We followed Finnish wage earners aged 30-59 years (n = 1,135,654) from 2005 to 2014 for full disability retirement due to a shoulder lesion. The work-related exposures were assessed with job exposure matrices. We calculated age-adjusted incidence rates and hazard ratios to test for the association between occupation and disability retirement due to a shoulder lesion. We also examined the contribution of work-related exposures to the excess risk of disability retirement. Results As compared to professionals, the age-adjusted risk of disability retirement was increased among men in all occupational groups except managers and customer service clerks and among women in several occupational groups. Adjustment for education attenuated the occupational differences considerably, particularly among women. The physical work-related factors fully explained the excess risk of disability retirement due to a shoulder lesion among male finance and sales associate professionals and administrative secretaries as well as among agricultural and fishery workers. In women, the physical work-related factors fully explained the excess risk among construction workers, electricians and plumbers. For both genders, the contribution of psychosocial factors to excess risk of disability retirement was modest and seen for monotonous work only. Conclusions A reduction of the level of physical work load factors as well as monotonousness of work has a potential to prevent work disability due to a shoulder lesion.
  • Pihlajamäki, Minna; Uitti, Jukka; Arola, Heikki; Korhonen, Mikko; Nummi, Tapio; Taimela, Simo (2020)
    Purpose Work disability (WD) as a medico-legal concept refers to disability benefits (DB) that are granted due to diseases that permanently reduce work ability. We studied whether an occupational healthcare instrument for the prediction of sickness absence (SA) risk-a health risk appraisal (HRA)-also predicts permanent WD. Methods HRA results were combined with registry data on DB of 22,023 employees from different industry sectors. We analysed how the HRA risk categories predict DB and considered occupational group, gender, age, and prior SA as confounding variables. Cumulative incidence function illustrates the difference between the HRA risk categories, and the Fine-Gray model estimates the predictors of WD during 6-year follow-up. Results The most common primary reasons for permanent WD were musculoskeletal (39%) and mental disorders (21%). Self-reported health problems in the HRA, labelled as "WD risk factors", predicted DB when controlling for age and prior SA. Hazard ratios were 10.9 or over with the lower limit of the 95% confidence interval 3.3 or over among those with two simultaneous WD risk factors. 14% of the females and 17% of the males with three or more simultaneous WD risk factors had received a DB, whereas the respective figures among those without findings were 1.9% and 0.3%. Conclusions Self-reported health problems in the HRA, especially multiple simultaneous WD risk factors, predict permanent WD among both genders across occupational groups. Screening WD risk with a self-administered questionnaire is a potential means for identifying high-risk employees for targeting occupational healthcare actions.
  • Roos, Eira; Lallukka, Tea; Lahelma, Eero; Rahkonen, Ossi (2017)
    Background: Both smoking and obesity are separately associated with sickness absence. Unhealthy lifestyle habits and health conditions may occur concurrently yet studies focusing on their joint association are few. This study examined the joint associations of smoking and obesity with sickness absence (SA). Methods: A mail survey among employees of the City of Helsinki, Finland, during 2000-2002 included data on obesity, smoking and covariates (N = 8960, response rate 67%, 80% women). These data were prospectively linked with register data on self-(1-3 days) and medically certified (4 days or longer) SA among those consenting to the linkage (n = 6986). Pregnant, underweight and those with missing data on key variables were excluded (n = 138). The total number of participants included in the analyses was 6847. The follow-up time was 5 years. Poisson regression was used to calculate rate ratios (RR). Results: Among women and men smoking and obesity were associated with self-certified SA. Among women there was a joint association with self-certified SA (obese smokers RR 1.81, 95% CI 1.59-2.07). Among women and men smoking and obesity were jointly associated with medically certified SA (for obese smoking women RR 2.23, 95% CI 1.93-2.57, for obese smoking men RR 2.69, 95% CI 2.03-3.55). Associations remained after adjustments for socioeconomic position, working conditions, health behaviours and self-rated health. Conclusion: Both smoking and obesity are jointly associated with all lengths of sickness absence. Support measures for smoking cessation and prevention of obesity could likely to reduce SA.
  • Roos, Eira; Lallukka, Tea; Lahelma, Eero; Rahkonen, Ossi (BioMed Central, 2017)
    Abstract Background Both smoking and obesity are separately associated with sickness absence. Unhealthy lifestyle habits and health conditions may occur concurrently yet studies focusing on their joint association are few. This study examined the joint associations of smoking and obesity with sickness absence (SA). Methods A mail survey among employees of the City of Helsinki, Finland, during 2000–2002 included data on obesity, smoking and covariates (N = 8960, response rate 67%, 80% women). These data were prospectively linked with register data on self- (1–3 days) and medically certified (4 days or longer) SA among those consenting to the linkage (n = 6986). Pregnant, underweight and those with missing data on key variables were excluded (n = 138). The total number of participants included in the analyses was 6847. The follow-up time was 5 years. Poisson regression was used to calculate rate ratios (RR). Results Among women and men smoking and obesity were associated with self-certified SA. Among women there was a joint association with self-certified SA (obese smokers RR 1.81, 95% CI 1.59–2.07). Among women and men smoking and obesity were jointly associated with medically certified SA (for obese smoking women RR 2.23, 95% CI 1.93–2.57, for obese smoking men RR 2.69, 95% CI 2.03–3.55). Associations remained after adjustments for socioeconomic position, working conditions, health behaviours and self-rated health. Conclusion Both smoking and obesity are jointly associated with all lengths of sickness absence. Support measures for smoking cessation and prevention of obesity could likely to reduce SA.