Browsing by Subject "Work"

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  • Saló i Nevado, Laia; Pehkonen, Leila (2018)
    This study explored what kind of mathematics is needed in cabinetmakers' everyday work and how problem solving is intertwined in it. The informants of the study were four Finnish cabinetmakers and the data consisted of workshop observations, interviews, photos, pictures and sketches made by the participants during the interviews. The data was analysed using different qualitative techniques. Even though the participants identified many areas of mathematics that could be used in their daily work, they used mathematics only if they were able to. The cabinetmakers' different mathematical skills and knowledge were utilized to their skill limit. Cabinetmakers were found to constantly face problem solving situations along with the creative processes. Being able to use more advanced mathematics helped them to solve those problems more efficiently, without wasting time and materials. Based on the findings, the paper discusses the similarities and differences between problem solving and creative processes. It is suggested that the combination of craftsmanship, creativity, and efficient problem solving skills together with more than basic mathematical knowledge will help cabinetmakers in adapting and surviving in future unstable labour markets.
  • Jyrkinen, Marjut; Väkiparta, Maria; Lämsä, Anna-Maija (2020)
    Purpose This paper focuses on how gendered processes of working life are (re)constructed and are also challenged discursively in paid and volunteer care and work in reception centers. The purpose of this paper is to show how caring work with asylum seekers can both enhance the traditional gender order and challenge it through enabling men to have opportunities to care. Design/methodology/approach The data were produced through qualitative interviews among paid workers and volunteers in reception centers, and analyzed through a discourse analysis approach. Findings Three discourses of care and work were identified: a discourse on solidarity and care; a discourse on control and order; and a discourse on caring men. The findings show that traditional attitudes toward gender are easily discerned in other cultures, but not as easily recognized in the everyday processes near at hand. Gender order is retained through traditional roles, which also reflects conventional attitudes in a society often seen as a model country for equality. However, change is possible, and one core issue is the need to involve men in care work and caring in general. Social implications - The findings can be applicable to the deconstruction of traditional gender order in working life; to the disclosure of gendered xenophobia in work with asylum seekers, in particular through dialogue with "Others"; and to the enabling of care by men. Originality/value Little previous research has been done on care in reception centers and care as a gendered activity with value. In the future many countries are likely to encounter increases in asylum seekers, and therefore, intersections of gender and ethnicity are of importance in societies as regards migration, work and care.
  • Louhivuori, Anna Eveliina (2010)
    According to Ulrich Beck's theory of reflexive modernisation people today suffer from insecurity and constant risks in all aspects of their life. A major factor dictating their individual biographies is their work. Work in today's world has become an essential ingredient in defining personal identities and relationships. For Beck as a consequence of the modern work environment new insecurities and inequalities in comparison to the industrial epoch have emerged; a development of risk biographies. This thesis examines how international professionals in the Greater Helsinki Region construct and negotiate the meaning of their work and the organisation of their work. Specifically, through the critical discourse analytic method of Norman Fairclough the focus of the research is on the impact of power and ideology of new capitalism on individual discourses. This is studied by exploring whether a shift emerges in the participants' discourses of their work during interviews pertaining to the new financial crises of the late 2000s as well as the impact of the effects of the information age. The data is supported by the method of reflexive social processes of participant observation. The analysis of the interviews shows that the individuals, in contrast to the theory of reflexive modernity, did not present themselves as insecure nor facing constant risk in their individual discourse of work; even during discussions of the new financial crisis. Instead, it was discovered that the participants constructed themselves as in control of their biographies, both disciplined and self-managed, in contrast to the volatility of the market forces. The observed feelings of self-management are in accordance with Fairclough's original thesis and demonstrate that the participants have internalised new capitalism's ideology of neo-liberalism, further propelling the cause of the capitalist market forces in their work places. By internalising this ideology the participants were found to be experiencing alienation, predicted by Karl Marx, struggling with the loss of meaning towards their work, as described by Max Weber and at risk of anomie discussed by Emile Durkheim.
  • Taponen, Saara; Lehtimaki, Lauri; Karvala, Kirsi; Luukkonen, Ritva; Uitti, Jukka (2017)
    Background: This study aims to elucidate factors that among adults with asthma are associated with working full-time. Methods: This cross-sectional survey of 2613 working-age adults with asthma included questions on asthma history, symptoms and use of asthma medication, socioeconomic factors and health behavior. Full-time workers were compared to groups according to employment status: unemployed, work disability and retired due to age. Results: Adults with asthma working full time were younger and more often nonmanual workers, experienced less asthma symptoms, used less asthma medication and smoked less than subjects with work disability. After adjusting for age, gender, smoking and professional status, having frequent symptoms of asthma during last month was associated with an increase in the risk of unemployment (OR 2.3, 95% CI 1.3-4.2) and with an increase in the risk of work disability (OR 4.4, 95% CI 2.3-8.2). Conclusions: Among adults with asthma, full-time work was associated with younger age, less symptomatic asthma despite of less medication, nonmanual work and less smoking. Having more severe symptoms of asthma was associated with undesirable employment status such as unemployment or work disability. Possibilities to change from manual to nonmanual work may be important in preventing work disability and early exit from work.
  • Oksanen, Atte; Oksa, Reetta; Savela, Nina; Kaakinen, Markus; Ellonen, Noora (2020)
    Cyberbullying at work takes many forms, from aggressive and threatening behavior to social ostracism. It can also have adverse consequences on general well-being that might be even more severe for people whose identities are centrally based on social media ties. We examined this type of identity-driven social media use via the concept of social media identity bubbles. We first analyzed the risk and protective factors associated with cyberbullying victimization at work and then investigated its impacts on well-being. We expected that workers strongly involved in social media identity bubbles would be in the worst position when faced with cyberbullying. Data include a sample of workers from five Finnish expert organizations (N = 563) and a representative sample of Finnish workers (N = 1817). We investigated cyberbullying at work with 10 questions adapted from the Cyberbullying Behavior Questionnaire. Other measures included scales for private and professional social media usage, social media identity bubbles (six-item Identity Bubble Reinforcement Scale), well-being at work, sociodemographic factors, and job-related information. Prevalence of monthly cyberbullying victimization at work was 13% in expert organizations and 17% in the Finnish working population. Victims were young, active users of professional social media and they were strongly involved in social media identity bubbles. Victims who were in social media identity bubbles reported higher psychological distress, exhaustion, and technostress than other victims. Cyberbullying at work is a prevalent phenomenon and has negative outcomes on well-being at work. Negative consequences are more severe among those with highly identity-driven social media use.
  • Niemistö, Charlotta; Hearn, Jeff; Karjalainen, Mira; Tuori, Annamari (2020)
    Abstract Purpose Privilege is often silent, invisible and not made explicit, and silence is a key question for theorizing on organizations. This paper examines interrelations between privilege and silence for relatively privileged professionals in high-intensity knowledge businesses (KIBs). Design/methodology/approach This paper draws on 112 interviews in two rounds of interviews using the collaborative interactive action research method. The analysis focuses on processes of recruitment, careers and negotiation of boundaries between work and nonwork in these KIBs. The authors study how relative privilege within social inequalities connects with silences in multiple ways, and how the invisibility of privilege operates at different levels: individual identities and interpersonal actions of privilege (micro), as organizational level phenomena (meso) or as societally constructed (macro). Findings At each level, privilege is reproduced in part through silence. The authors also examine how processes connecting silence, privilege and social inequalities operate differently in relation to both disadvantage and the disadvantaged, and privilege and the privileged. Originality/value This study is relevant for organization studies, especially in the kinds of “multi-privileged” contexts where inequalities, disadvantages and subordination may remain hidden and silenced, and, thus, are continuously reproduced.
  • Moisala-Julkunen, Lotta; Elovainio, Marko; Halila, Hannu; Vänskä, Jukka; Gluschkoff, Kia (2020)
    Lähtökohdat : Tarkastelimme suomalaislääkärien työkuormituksen (työn suuret vaatimukset mutta vähäiset mahdollisuudet vaikuttaa työhön) ja sairausläsnäolon yhteyttä sekä työyksikön myönteisen ilmapiirin sairausläsnäololta suojaavaa vaikutusta. Menetelmät : Poikkileikkaustutkimuksen aineisto (N = 2 337) perustui Lääkärin työolot ja terveys 2015 -kyselyyn. Tulokset : Vastaajista 62 % oli työskennellyt sairaana kuluneen vuoden aikana. Suuri työkuormitus oli yhteydessä suurempaan sairausläsnäolon riskiin (kerroinsuhde OR 1,23–1,99 mallinnustavasta riippuen). Työyksikön hyvä ilmapiiri pienensi hyvin kuormittavaan työhön liittyvää sairausläsnäolon riskiä. Päätelmät : Lääkärien työskentelyä sairaana voi auttaa vähentämään se, että työn vaatimuksia vähennetään, lääkärien mahdollisuuksia vaikuttaa työhön lisätään ja työyksikön ilmapiiriä kehitetään.
  • Vesikansa, Aino; Jokelainen, Jari; Mehtälä, Juha; Mutanen, Katja; Lundqvist, Annamari; Laatikainen, Tiina; Yli-Saukko-oja; Saukkonen, Tero; Pietiläinen, Kirsi H. (2020)
    Lähtökohdat : Tämän poikkileikkaustutkimuksen tavoitteena oli selvittää lihavuuden yhteyksiä elämänlaatuun ja työkykyyn suomalaisessa aikuisväestössä. Menetelmät : Aineistoon kuului 4 956 FinTerveys 2017 -tutkimuksen terveystarkastukseen satunnaisesti valittua täysi-ikäistä henkilöä. Elämänlaatua eri painoindeksiryhmissä selvitettiin EUROHIS-QOL 8 -¬elämänlaatumittarilla. Koettua psyykkistä ja fyysistä työkykyä sekä työstä poissaolojen määrää kartoitettiin kyselylomakkeella. Tulokset : Ylipainoisten ja lihavien elämänlaatu oli merkitsevästi heikompi kuin normaalipainoisten. Lihavat kokivat fyysisen ja psyykkisen työkykynsä heikommaksi kuin normaalipainoiset ja heillä oli enemmän itse raportoituja poissaoloja työstä. Päätelmät : Lihavuus on yhteydessä yksilön kokemukseen terveydestä sekä hyvinvoinnista ja heikentää työkykyä. Lihavuuden tehokkaalla hoidolla voidaan liitännäissairauksien ehkäisyn lisäksi parantaa väestön työ- ja toimintakykyä sekä elämänlaatua.
  • Strandberg, Timo; Kivimäki, Mika (2021)
    • Loman tarkoitus on palauttaa työntekijän voimavarat. Lomaan liittyy pääsääntöisesti terveyshyötyjä, ¬mutta myös mahdollisia haittoja. • Loman terveysvaikutukset ovat yksilöllisiä ja myös työn laatu voi vaikuttaa niihin. • Lyhytkin loma hyödyttää, mutta sen vaikutus jää usein lyhytaikaiseksi. Sitä voi pyrkiä pidentämään loman sisällöllä. • Terveyshyötyjen kannalta usea lyhyt lomajakso vuoden mittaan voi olla parempi kuin yksi pitkä, mutta tutkimusta tästä on vasta vähän.
  • Siponen, Elina; Kolho, Kaija-Leena (2020)
    Lääketieteen 5. vuoden opiskelijat raportoivat monipuolisia havaintoja potilaiden kohtaamisesta ja ratkaisumalleja haastaviin vuorovaikutustilanteisiin. Tulevan työpaikan valinnassa opiskelijat arvostavat erityisesti työyhteisön hyvää ilmapiiriä, kollegiaalisuutta ja vaivatonta konsultaatiomahdollisuutta.
  • Pentinmikko, Ada; Lämsä, Riikka (2019)
    Lähtökohdat Julkisen terveyspalvelujärjestelmän murros on haastanut lääkäreiden ammatillisen identiteetin. Suomessa on tehty lääkäreiden yhteiskuntasuhteesta vain vähän profession omia puhetapoja tarkastelevaa laadullista tutkimusta. Menetelmät Aineistona on 263 Lääkärilehden pääkirjoitusta, jotka on poimittu joka toiselta vuodelta ajanjaksolla 1980–2014. Ammattijärjestölehden ajatellaan heijastelevan ammattikunnan sisäistä keskustelua. Aineisto analysoitiin sisällön- ja diskurssianalyysin avulla. Tulokset Lääkäriprofession yhteiskuntasuhteesta puhutaan työtehtävien, työn ideologioiden ja työskentely¬olosuhteiden kautta. Työskentelyolosuhteisiin liittyvä puhe yleistyy ajanjakson 1980–2014 loppupuolella. Samalla työtehtäviä korostavat puhetavat vähenevät. Päätelmät Lääkärikunta näyttäisi omaksuneen työskentelyolosuhteita koskevan argumentaation osaksi ammatillisen yhteiskuntaroolin määrittelyä. Tämä heijastelee erityisesti perusterveydenhuollon haasteita lääkäreiden sitouttamisessa.
  • Elovainio, Marko; Virtanen, Marianna; Oksanen, Tuula (2017)
  • Häkkänen-Nyholm, Helinä; Lyytinen, Nina; Heinimaa, Markus; Heiskala, Mikko; Varis, Atte (2020)
    • Koronakriisissä työskentelevien terveydenhuollon ammattilaisten psyykkisen stressin ja sairastavuuden riski on huomattava. • Ulkomaisten tutkimusten mukaan psyykkiseen sairastavuuteen ovat voimakkaimmin yhteydessä huoli ja pelko tartunnasta, ns. etulinjassa työskenteleminen, epidemian alkuvaiheessa työskenteleminen ja kokemuksen puute. • Moraalisen vamman kokemus ja sen vaikutus psyykkiseen sairastavuuteen on huomioitava ongelmien ehkäisyssä. • Etänä toteutettavat psykoterapiat ja työnohjaukset mahdollistavat nopean avun saamisen psyykkisiin oireisiin.
  • Mattila-Holappa, Pauliina; Joensuu, Matti; Ahola, Kirsi; Koskinen, Aki; Tuisku, Katinka; Ervasti, Jenni; Virtanen, Marianna (2016)
    Background: We examined the extent to which psychotherapeutic and work-oriented interventions were included in a medical treatment and rehabilitation plan and whether they predicted future employment among young adults with work disability due to a mental disorder. Methods: Data were obtained from the treatment and rehabilitation plans of 1163 young adults aged 18. 34 years, who in 2008 were granted fixed-term work disability compensation due to a mental disorder and were followed for 5 years. Results: Forty-six percent had no proposal for psychotherapy or a work-oriented intervention in their treatment and rehabilitation plan, 22 % had a plan for only a psychotherapeutic intervention, 23 % had a plan for only a work-oriented intervention, and 10 % had both types of interventions planned. Having a planned psychotherapeutic intervention (HR = 1.35, 95 % CI 1.07-1.69) and of the work-oriented interventions, planned rehabilitative courses and training (HR = 1.34, 95 % CI 1.03-1.70) predicted quicker entry into competitive employment. Having a plan for both a psychotherapeutic and work-oriented intervention was associated with being employed at the end of the follow-up (OR = 1.77, 95 % CI 1.07-2.95). Conclusions: Young adults with a long-term psychiatric work disability episode rarely have a recorded plan for rehabilitation in their treatment and rehabilitation plan although psychotherapeutic interventions and a combination of a psychotherapeutic and work-oriented intervention might help them gain employment.
  • Karhula, Kati; Ervasti, Jenni; Hakola, Tarja; Isoviita, Veli-Matti; Kivimäki, Ilkka; Kivimäki, Mika; Koskinen, Aki; Oksanen, Tuula; Puttonen, Sampsa; Härmä, Mikko (2022)
    Lähtökohdat : Kansainvälisiäkään rekisteritutkimuksia lääkärien työajoista ei tiettävästi ole. Kyselytutkimusten mukaan lääkärien työajat ovat varsin pitkiä. Menetelmät : Tutkimme sairaalalääkärien toteutuneiden työaikojen vuositason muutoksia suhteessa kokoaikaisuuteen, ikään ja sukupuoleen. Aineistona oli 12 sairaanhoitopiirin työaikatiedot vuosilta 2014–2018 (n =13 543, 58 % naisia). Tulokset : Kokoaikaisiksi luokiteltujen lääkärien viikkotyöaika oli keskimäärin 43 tuntia. Yli neljäsosalla kokonaistyöaika vuodessa oli yli 2 000 tuntia. Selkeimpiä vuositason muutoksia työajoissa olivat alle 13 tunnin päivystysvuorojen osuuden kasvu yli 10 prosenttiyksiköllä 41 %:iin ja päivystys- ¬vuorojen määrän kasvu 4–5 vuorolla. Muutokset olivat samansuuntaisia naisilla ja miehillä, mutta miesten kokonaistyöaika oli keskimäärin noin 70 tuntia vuodessa pidempi kuin naisten. Päivystyksiä oli pääosin enemmän alle 35-vuotiailla, mutta vähintään viikon työvuorojaksoja ja vapaamuotoista päivystystä oli enemmän vanhemmilla lääkäreillä. Päätelmät : Sairaalalääkärien vuosina 2014–2018 toteutuneissa työajoissa näkyi varsin pitkä kokonaistyöaika ja alle 13 tunnin päivystysvuorojen osuuden kasvu. Lisää tutkimusta tarvitaan erikoisaloittain sekä uusien työaikasäännösten ja COVID-19-pandemian vaikutuksista työaikaan.
  • Toivonen, Asta; Peura, Anni; Helin-Salmivaara, Arja; Kaila, Minna (2018)
    Kouluttajalääkärien mukaan erikoistuvien lääkärien osaamisen ongelmat ovat harvinaisia. Sen sijaan ajankäytön hallinnassa ja yhteistyötaidoissa puutteita ilmenee useammin. Mahdolliset ongelmatilanteet on hyvä ottaa aktiivisesti puheeksi erikoistujan kanssa.
  • Louhiala, Pekka (2018)
  • Kauppi, M.; Virtanen, M.; Pentti, J.; Aalto, V.; Kivimäki, M.; Vahtera, J.; Stenholm, S. (2021)
    Social networks are associated with individual's health and well-being. Working life offers opportunities to create and maintain social networks, while retirement may change these networks. This study examined how the number of ties in social network changes across the retirement transition. The study population consisted of 2319 participants (84% women, mean age 63.2 years) from the Finnish Retirement and Aging study. Information about social network ties, including the number of ties in the inner, middle and outer circles of the social convoy model, was gathered using annual postal surveys before and after retirement. Three repeat surveys per participant covered the retirement transition and the post-retirement periods. Mean number of network ties was 21.6 before retirement, of which 5.6 were situated in the inner, 6.9 in the middle and 9.1 in the outer circle. The number of ties in the outer circle decreased by 0.67 (95% CI - 0.92, - 0.42) during the retirement transition period, but not during the post-retirement period (0.11, 95% CI - 0.33, 0.12) (interaction period * time, p = 0.006). The pattern of change in these ties did not differ by gender, occupational status, marital status, number of chronic diseases and mental health during the retirement transition period. The number of ties in the inner and middle circles overall did not decrease during these periods. The number of peripheral relationships decreased during the retirement transition but not after that, suggesting that the observed reduction is more likely to be associated with retirement rather than aging.